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HAO Yan-ling CHEN Ming-hui LI Liang-jun XU Bo
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2008(No. 2): 0
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There are many filtering methods that can be used for the initial alignment of an integrated inertial navigation system.This paper discussed the use of GPS,but focused on two kinds of filters for the initial alignment of an integrated strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS).One method is based on the Kalman filter (KF),and the other is based on the robust filter.Simulation results showed that the filter provides a quick transient response and a little more accurate estimate than KF,given substantial process noise or unknown noise statistics.So the robust filter is an effective and useful method for initial alignment of SINS.This research should make the use of SINS more popular,and is also a step for further research.

QIN Ting-rong CHEN Wei-jiong ZENG Xiang-kun
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2008(No. 4): 0
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Quantified risk assessment (QRA) needs mathematicization of risk theory. However,attention has been paid almost exclusively to applications of assessment methods,which has led to neglect of research into fundamental theories,such as the relationships among risk,safety,danger,and so on. In order to solve this problem,as a first step,fundamental theoretical relationships about risk and risk management were analyzed for this paper in the light of mathematics,and then illustrated with some charts. Second,man-machine-environment-management (MMEM) theory was introduced into risk theory to analyze some properties of risk. On the basis of this,a three-dimensional model of risk management was established that includes: a goal dimension;a management dimension;an operation dimension. This goal management operation (GMO) model was explained and then emphasis was laid on the discussion of the risk flowchart (operation dimension),which lays the groundwork for further study of risk management and qualitative and quantitative assessment. Next,the relationship between Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) and Risk Management was researched. This revealed that the FSA method,which the international maritime organization (IMO) is actively spreading,comes from Risk Management theory. Finally,conclusion were made about how to apply this risk management method to concrete fields efficiently and conveniently,as well as areas where further research is required.

Javad Mohammadbagheri1, Fouad Salimi2, Maryam Rahbani3
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(3): 314-324
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Using a discretized finite difference method, a numerical model was developed to study the interaction of regular waves with a perforated breakwater. Considering a non-viscous, non-rotational fluid, the governing equations of Laplacian velocity potential were developed, and specific conditions for every single boundary were defined. The final developed model was evaluated based on an existing experimental result. The evaluated model was used to simulate the condition for various wave periods from 0.6 to 2 s. The reflection coefficient and transmission coefficient of waves were examined with different breakwater porosities, wave steepnesses, and angular frequencies. The results show that the developed model can suitably present the effect of the structural and hydraulic parameters on the reflection and transmission coefficients. It was also found that with the increase in wave steepness, the reflection coefficient increased logarithmically, while the transmission coefficient decreased logarithmically.

Duanfeng Han1, Ting Cui1, Yingfei Zan1, Lihao Yuan1, Song Ding2, Zhigang Li3
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(3): 247-259
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The probability distributions of wave characteristics from three groups of sampled ocean data with different significant wave heights have been analyzed using two transformation functions estimated by non-parametric and parametric methods. The marginal wave characteristic distribution and the joint density of wave properties have been calculated using the two transformations, with the results and accuracy of both transformations presented here. The two transformations deviate slightly between each other for the calculation of the crest and trough height marginal wave distributions, as well as the joint densities of wave amplitude with other wave properties. The transformation methods for the calculation of the wave crest and trough height distributions are shown to provide good agreement with real ocean data. Our work will help in the determination of the most appropriate transformation procedure for the prediction of extreme values.

Xiukun Li1,2,3, Yushuang Wu1,2,3
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(3): 380-386
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Elastic acoustic scattering is important for buried target detection and identification. For elastic spherical objects, studies have shown that a series of narrowband energetic arrivals follow the first specular one. However, in practice, the elastic echo is rather weak because of the acoustic absorption, propagation loss, and reverberation, which makes it difficult to extract elastic scattering features, especially for buried targets. To remove the interference and enhance the elastic scattering, the de-chirping method was adopted here to address the target scattering echo when a linear frequency modulation (LFM) signal is transmitted. The parameters of the incident signal were known. With the de-chirping operation, a target echo was transformed into a cluster of narrowband signals, and the elastic components could be extracted with a band-pass filter and then recovered by remodulation. The simulation results indicate the feasibility of the elastic scattering extraction and recovery. The experimental result demonstrates that the interference was removed and the elastic scattering was visibly enhanced after de-chirping, which facilitates the subsequent resonance feature extraction for target classification and recognition.

Runlong Miao, Shuo Pang, Dapeng Jiang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(3): 343-352
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Swarm robotics in maritime engineering is a promising approach characterized by large numbers of relatively small and inexpensive autonomous aquatic crafts (AACs) to monitor marine environments. Compared with a single, large aquatic manned or unmanned surface vehicle, a highly distributed aquatic swarm system with several AACs features advantages in numerous real-world maritime missions, and its natural potential is qualified for new classes of tasks that uniformly feature low cost and high efficiency through time. This article develops an inexpensive AAC based on an embedded-system companion computer and open-source autopilot, providing a verification platform for education and research on swarm algorithm on water surfaces. A topology communication network, including an inner communication network to exchange information among AACs and an external communication network for monitoring the state of the AAC Swarm System (AACSS), was designed based on the topology built into the Xbee units for the AACSS. In the emergence control network, the transmitter and receiver were coupled to distribute or recover the AAC. The swarm motion behaviors in AAC were resolved into the capabilities of go-to-waypoint and path following, which can be accomplished by two uncoupled controllers:speed controller and heading controller. The good performance of velocity and heading controllers in go-to-waypoint was proven in a series of simulations. Path following was achieved by tracking a set of ordered waypoints in the go-to-waypoint. Finally, a sea trial conducted at the China National Deep Sea Center successfully demonstrated the motion capability of the AAC. The sea trial results showed that the AAC is suited to carry out environmental monitoring tasks by efficiently covering the desired path, allowing for redundancy in the data collection process and tolerating the individual AACs’ path-following offset caused by winds and waves.

Bo Hu1, Zhiwen Wang1,2, Hongwang Du1, Rupp Carriveau2, David S. K. Ting2, Wei Xiong1, Zuwen Wang1
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(3): 353-365
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With the rapid development of marine renewable energy technologies, the demand to mitigate the fluctuation of variable generators with energy storage technologies continues to increase. Offshore compressed air energy storage (OCAES) is a novel flexible-scale energy storage technology that is suitable for marine renewable energy storage in coastal cities, islands, offshore platforms, and offshore renewable energy farms. For deep-water applications, a marine riser is necessary for connecting floating platforms and subsea systems. Thus, the response characteristics of marine risers are of great importance for the stability and safety of the entire OCAES system. In this study, numerical models of two kinds of flexible risers, namely, catenary riser and lazy wave riser, are established in OrcaFlex software. The static and dynamic characteristics of the catenary and the lazy wave risers are analyzed under different environment conditions and internal pressure levels. A sensitivity analysis of the main parameters affecting the lazy wave riser is also conducted. Results show that the structure of the lazy wave riser is more complex than the catenary riser; nevertheless, the former presents better response performance.

Benamar Derrar1, Benameur Hamoudi1, Mohammed El-Amine Dris2, Fethi Saidi1
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(3): 282-294
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This article presents a numerical study of the forces induced by hydrodynamic impact, that is, the impact of a part of the bottom of the hull on the water surface. The prediction of these efforts is often based on numerical simulations to determine the shock intensity of a structure on the surface of a weakly compressible fluid (for example, water). The short duration of the impact is also investigated in this work. This phenomenon occurs especially when a ship encounters a harsh and difficult sea conditions. Under such conditions, it is important to know how to predict the hydrodynamic forces applied to the structure to correctly optimize the ship elements during its design stage or to prevent possible damage. Indeed, various factors such as speed of the ship and height of the swell can cause the hull to partially emerge and then fall violently onto the water surface, which is referred to by naval personnel as tossing or slamming causing vibrations, stresses, and fatigue to the structural elements of the ship. In this work, we present an example of phenomenon modeling and then a numerical study of the different geometries (dihedron) that play a role in different sections of the bow. Then, we compare our present results with the theoretical and experimental results of other researchers in the field. The average interval impact time for a dihedral model corresponding to the section of the chosen ship and other experimental and theoretical data is in good agreement with the experimental and theoretical measurements.

Hafizul Islam1, Mashiur Rahaman2, M. Rafiqul Islam2, Hiromichi Akimoto3
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(3): 271-281
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Resistance prediction of ships using computational fluid dynamics has gained popularity over the years because of its high accuracy and low cost. This paper conducts numerical estimations of the ship resistance and motion of a Japan bulk carrier model using SHIP_Motion, a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RaNS)-based solver, and HydroSTAR, a commercial potential flow (PF)-based solver. The RaNS solver uses an overset-structured mesh and discretizes the flow field using the finite volume method, while the PF-based solver applies the three-dimensional panel method. In the calm water test, the total drag coefficient, sinkage, and trim were predicted using the RaNS solver following mesh dependency analysis, and the results were compared with the available experimental data. Next, calm water resistance was investigated for a range of Froude numbers. The added resistance in short-wave cases was simulated using both RaNS and PF solvers, and the results were compared. The PF solver showed better agreement with the RaNS solver for predicting motion responses than for predicting added resistance. While the added resistance results could not be directly validated because of the absence of experimental data, considering the previous accuracy of the RaNS solver in added resistance prediction and general added resistance profile of similar hull forms (bulk carriers), the prediction results could be concluded to be reliable.

E. L. Amromin
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(3): 260-270
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Ventilated cavitation has been successfully employed as ship drag reduction technology and potentially can mitigate flowinduced vibration. The obtained successes were based on solutions of design problems considered in the framework of ideal fluid theory with their following validation by towing tank tests. However, various aspects of the interaction of ventilated cavities with the viscous flows around the ship hulls remain unclear, whereas there is usually no possibility to simultaneously keep the full-scale Froude number and cavitation number in the test facilities. So, the further progress of the application of ventilated cavitation substantially depends on the ability of computational tools to predict this interaction. This paper briefly describes the state-of-the-art computation of ventilated cavitation and points out the most challenging unsolved problems that appeared in the model tests (prediction of air demand by cavities, ventilation effect on ship drag, on hydrofoil lift, and on the propagation of shock waves in cavities).

Renwei Ji1,2, Qihu Sheng1,2, Shuqi Wang3, Yuquan Zhang4, Xuewei Zhang1,2, Liang Zhang1,2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(3): 325-333
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As the energy supply problem worsens, the development and utilization of marine renewable energy have become a research hotspot. The development of wave energy is moving from the near shore to the distant sea. The power-generation efficiency of a single two-floating-body wave-energy converter is relatively low. To fully utilize wave energy and improve the wave-energy capture rate of a fixed sea area, arranging a two-floating-body wave-energy converter array is necessary. This paper first introduces the basic theory of multi-floating flow field, time-domain calculation method, and influence factor of the waveenergy converter array. Then, the development of AQWA software in Fortran language considers the effect of power takeoff. A calculation method based on ANSYS-AQWA is proposed to simulate the motion of the oscillating-buoy two-floating-body wave-energy converter. The results are compared with the experimental results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Finally, the ANSYS-AQWA method is used to study the power characteristics of simple and complex arrays of wave-energy converters. The average power generation of simple arrays is largest at 0°, and the average power generation of complex arrays does not change with the wave direction. Optimal layout spacing exists for the simple and complex arrays. These findings can serve as a valuable reference for the large-scale array layout of wave-energy converters in the future.

Pengyun Chen1, Pengfei Zhang1, Jianlong Chang1, Peng Shen2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(3): 334-342
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Terrain matching accuracy and real-time performance are affected by local underwater terrain features and structure of matching surface. To solve the extraction problem of local terrain features for underwater terrain-aided navigation (UTAN), real-time data model and selection method of beams are proposed. Then, an improved structure of terrain storage is constructed, and a fast interpolation strategy based on index is proposed, which can greatly improve the terrain interpolation-reconstruction speed. Finally, for the influences of tide, an elimination method of reference depth deviation is proposed, which can reduce the reference depth errors caused by tidal changes. As the simulation test shows, the proposed method can meet the requirements of real-time performance and effectiveness. Furthermore, the extraction time is considerably reduced, which makes the method suitable for the extraction of local terrain features for UTAN.

Xing Zheng and Wen-yang Duan
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 1): 34-41
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Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is a Lagrangian meshless particle method. It is one of the best method for simulating violent free surface flows in fluids and solving large fluid deformations. Dam breaking is a typical example of these problems. The basis of SPH was reviewed, including some techniques for governing equation resolution, such as the stepping method and the boundary handling method. Then numerical results of a dam breaking simulation were discussed, and the benefits of concepts like artificial viscosity and position correction were analyzed in detail. When compared with dam breaking simulated by the volume of fluid (VOF) method, the wave profile generated by SPH had good agreement, but the pressure had only reasonable agreement. Improving pressure results is clearly an important next step for research.

K. M. Praveen1, D. Karmakar1, C. Guedes Soares2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(3): 295-313
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The hydroelastic response of very large floating structures (VLFS) under the action of ocean waves is analysed considering the small amplitude wave theory. The very large floating structure is modelled as a floating thick elastic plate based on TimoshenkoMindlin plate theory, and the analysis for the hydroelastic response is performed considering different edge boundary conditions. The numerical study is performed to analyse the wave reflection and transmission characteristics of the floating plate under the influence of different support conditions using eigenfunction expansion method along with the orthogonal mode-coupling relation in the case of finite water depth. Further, the analysis is extended for shallow water depth, and the continuity of energy and mass flux is applied along the edges of the plate to obtain the solution for the problem. The hydroelastic behaviour in terms of reflection and transmission coefficients, plate deflection, strain, bending moment and shear force of the floating thick elastic plate with support conditions is analysed and compared for finite and shallow water depth. The study reveals an interesting aspect in the analysis of thick floating elastic plate with support condition due to the presence of the rotary inertia and transverse shear deformation. The present study will be helpful for the design and analysis of the VLFS in the case of finite and shallow water depth.

Sunaryo1, Aldy Syahrihaddin2, Pradhana Shadu Imfianto2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(3): 366-371
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In order to introduce clean environment and sustainable energy to traditional coastal fishing community, the objective of this study is to encourage the Indonesian traditional coastal fishing community to use green and renewable energy in their fishing activities. Introducing solar power as the main source of energy for fish-attracting lights and boat propulsion can reduce the use of fossil fuels, and sustain clean and healthy environment. As the world’s largest archipelago, Indonesia accounts for a high percentage of traditional fishing communities spread out along its islands. This fishing communities use various traditional fishing boats, and platforms. The fishing platforms are usually made of bamboo and placed on top of supporting structures on the seabed. Diesel electric generators are used to obtain electricity needed for lighting to attract the fish at night, and as the source of power for lifting the fishing net. The structure and fuel used are neither environmentally friendly nor clean; thus, an innovation is introduced. Traditional fishing practices using a fishing platform were studied, including the common size of the platform and the power needed for the fishing light. Based on the gathered information, this study proposes a catamaran vessel with a special top structure designed for fish lifting outfitting, and equipped with photovoltaic solar cells as the energy source for the fishing lights and vessel propulsion. Through this innovative break through, the vessel can be moved to the shore and will not be a threat to ship navigation and the environment. Furthemore, powered by clean and sustainable energy, the vessel can be directed to the best fishing ground.

Abdolrahim Taheri, Ehsan Shahsavari
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(3): 372-379
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API RP2AWSD is a design code in practice for design of jacket platforms in the Persian Gulf but is based on the Gulf of Mexico environmental condition. So for the sake of using this code for the Persian Gulf, it is better to perform a calibration based on this specific region. Analysis and design of jacket platforms based on API code are performed in a static manner and dynamic analysis is not recommended for such structures. Regarding the fact that the real behavior of the offshore jacket platforms is a dynamic behavior, so in this research, dynamic analysis for an offshore jacket platform in the Persian Gulf under extreme environmental condition is performed using random time domain method. Therefore, a new constructed offshore jacket platform in the Persian Gulf is selected and analyzed. Fifteen, 1-h storm, simulations for the water surface elevation is produced to capture the statistical properties of extreme sea condition. Time series of base shear and overturning moment are derived from both dynamic and static responses. By calculating the maximum dynamic amplification factor (DAF) from each simulation and fitting the collected data to Weibull distribution, the most probable maximum extreme (MPME) value for the DAF is achieved. Results show that a realistic value for DAF for this specific platform is 1.06, which is a notable value and is recommended to take into practice in design of fixed jacket platform in the Persian Gulf.

So Gu Kim
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 4): 422-433
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On March 26, 2010 an underwater explosion (UWE) led to the sinking of the ROKS Cheonan. The official Multinational Civilian-Military Joint Investigation Group (MCMJIG) report concluded that the cause of the underwater explosion was a 250 kg net explosive weight (NEW) detonation at a depth of 6?9 m from a DPRK “CHT-02D” torpedo. Kim and Gitterman (2012a) determined the NEW and seismic magnitude as 136 kg at a depth of approximately 8m and 2.04, respectively using basic hydrodynamics based on theoretical and experimental methods as well as spectral analysis and seismic methods. The purpose of this study was to clarify the cause of the UWE via more detailed methods using bubble dynamics and simulation of propellers as well as forensic seismology. Regarding the observed bubble pulse period of 0.990 s, 0.976 s and 1.030 s were found in case of a 136 NEW at a detonation depth of 8 m using the boundary element method (BEM) and 3D bubble shape simulations derived for a 136 kg NEW detonation at a depth of 8 m approximately 5 m portside from the hull centerline. Here we show through analytical equations, models and 3D bubble shape simulations that the most probable cause of this underwater explosion was a 136 kg NEW detonation at a depth of 8m attributable to a ROK littoral “land control” mine (LCM).

Xueqian Zhou, Serge Sutulo and C. Guedes Soares
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 3): 265-275
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A computer code based on the double-body potential flow model and the classic source panel method has been developed to study various problems of hydrodynamic interaction between ships and other objects with solid boundaries including the seabed. A peculiarity of the proposed implementation is the application of the so-called “moving-patch” method for simulating steady boundaries of large extensions. The method is based on an assumption that at any moment just the part of the boundary (“moving patch”) which lies close to the interacting ship is significant for the near-field interaction. For a specific case of the flat bottom, comparative computations were performed to determine optimal dimensions of the patch and of the constituting panels based on the trade-off between acceptable accuracy and reasonable efficiency. The method was applied to estimate the sway force on a ship hull moving obliquely across a dredged channel. The method was validated for a case of ship-to-ship interaction when tank data were available. This study also contains a description of a newly developed spline approximation algorithm necessary for creating consistent discretizations of ship hulls with various degrees of refinement.

Antonio C. FERNANDES1* and Allan C. OLIVEIRA2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2009(No. 2): 144-150
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The methodology to obtain the non-linear roll damping from decay tests is very old. It has been proposed by Froude in the 19th century and used from then on. Behind it there is a quadratic model for the damping and a subsequent equivalent linearization. Probably all model basin in the world follows this approach to assess the damping from a decay test. This is well documented and so is the methods to get the p1-p2 coefficients. This is very general in the sense that in principle, it could be applied to any kind of hull. However, it has become clear that for hull with a flat bottom such as a very large crude carrier (VLCC), this approach may lead to confusing results such as negative p2. Faced with this, the work presents a completely new idea. Avoiding the polynomial approximation, the basic attitude is to devise two regions from the decaying test response. The first, called the large amplitude response region yields a larger damping, probably due to the large bilge keel vortices that are attracted to the hull flat bottom. The second is the small amplitude response region where the vortices are not attracted to the bottom but travels approximately 45? sidewise. These observations has led to a new approach called the bi-linear approach as discussed in the work after analyzing several (many) model test results. In fact, a new modified bi-linear approach is ultimately proposed after the understanding of a transition region instead of a transition angle.

Hao Yu, Xiaoyu Li and Shuguang Yang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 1): 111-118
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A jack-up platform, with its particular structure, showed obvious dynamic characteristics under complex environmental loads in extreme conditions. In this paper, taking a simplified 3-D finite element dynamic model in extreme storm conditions as research object, a transient dynamic analysis method was proposed, which was under both regular and irregular wave loads. The steps of dynamic analysis under extreme conditions were illustrated with an applied case, and the dynamic amplification factor (DAF) was calculated for each response parameter of base shear, overturning moment and hull sway. Finally, the structural response results of dynamic and static were compared and analyzed. The results indicated that the static strength analysis of the Jack-up Platforms was not enough under the dynamic loads including wave and current, further dynamic response analysis considering both computational efficiency and accuracy was necessary.

Xi-zeng Zhao and Zhao-chen Sun
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 1): 8-13
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The influence of wave breaking on wave statistics for finite-depth random wave trains is investigated experimentally. This paper is to investigate the influence of wave breaking and water depth on the wave statistics for random waves on water of finite depth. Greater attention is paid to changes in wave statistics due to wave breaking in random wave trains. The results show skewness of surface elevations is independent of wave breaking and kurtosis is suppressed by wave breaking. Finally, the exceedance probabilities for wave heights are also investigated.

Rui Deng*, De-bo Huang, Jia Li, Xuan-kai Cheng, and Lei Yu
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 2): 187-191
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In order to get some useful parameters for grid generation of catamaran, the CFD software FLUENT is used to investigate the main effects of grid generation on flow field calculation. The influences of some elements are investigated with a series of calculations in the present paper, and some alteratives are proposed. The proposed alteratives based on the analysis of the effects are used for a catamaran resistance calculation, comparisons of the calculated results with experimental data show good agreement. It shows that the research result of this paper is useful for the numerical calculation of catamaran.

He Zhang*, Yu-ru Xu and Hao-peng Cai
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 2): 149-155
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Applications of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) to the maritime industry continue to grow with the increasing development of computers. Numerical approaches have evolved to a level of accuracy which allows them to be applied for hydrodynamic computations in industry areas. Hydrodynamic tests, especially planar-motion-mechanism (PMM) tests are simulated by CFD software –FLUENT, and all of the corresponding hydrodynamic coefficients are obtained, which satisfy the need of establishing the simulation system to evaluate maneuverability of vehicles during the autonomous underwater vehicle scheme design stage. The established simulation system performed well in tests.

Binbin Li, Kun Liu, Gongwei Yan and Jinping Ou
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 3): 306-314
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The South China Sea contains tremendous oil and gas resources in deepwater areas. However, one of the keys for deepwater exploration, the investigation of deepwater floating platforms, is very inadequate. In this paper, the authors studied and compared the hydrodynamics and global motion behaviors of typical deepwater platforms in the South China Sea environment. The hydrodynamic models of three main types of floating platforms, e.g. the Semi-submersible, tension leg platform (TLP), and Truss Spar, which could potentially be utilized in the South China Sea, were established by using the 3-D potential theory. Additionally, some important considerations which significantly influence the hydrodynamics were given. The RAOs in frequency domains as well as global motions in time domains under time-varying wind, random waves, and current in 100-y, 10-y, and 1-y return period environment conditions were predicted, compared, and analyzed. The results indicate that the heave and especially the pitch motion of the TLP are favorable. The heave response of the Truss Spar is perfect and comparable with that of the TLP when the peak period of random waves is low. However, the pitch motion of Truss Spar is extraordinarily larger than that of Semi-submersible and TLP.

Hamid Ahmadi, Mohammad Ali Lotfollahi-Yaghin and Mohammad H. Aminfar
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 1): 83-97
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A set of parametric stress analyses was carried out for two-planar tubular DKT-joints under different axial loading conditions. The analysis results were used to present general remarks on the effects of the geometrical parameters on stress concentration factors (SCFs) at the inner saddle, outer saddle, and crown positions on the central brace. Based on results of finite element (FE) analysis and through nonlinear regression analysis, a new set of SCF parametric equations was established for fatigue design purposes. An assessment study of equations was conducted against the experimental data and original SCF database. The satisfaction of acceptance criteria proposed by the UK Department of Energy (UK DoE) was also checked. Results of parametric study showed that highly remarkable differences exist between the SCF values in a multi-planar DKT-joint and the corresponding SCFs in an equivalent uni-planar KT-joint having the same geometrical properties. It can be clearly concluded from this observation that using the equations proposed for uni-planar KT-connections to compute the SCFs in multi-planar DKT-joints will lead to either considerably under-predicting or over-predicting results. Hence, it is necessary to develop SCF formulae specially designed for multi-planar DKT-joints. Good results of equation assessment according to UK DoE acceptance criteria, high values of correlation coefficients, and the satisfactory agreement between the predictions of the proposed equations and the experimental data guarantee the accuracy of the equations. Therefore, the developed equations can be reliably used for fatigue design of offshore structures.

Pankaj Biswas, Nisith Ranjan Mandal and Om Prakash Sha
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 1): 14-21
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Line heating process is a very complex phenomenon as a variety of factors affects the amount of residual deformations. Numerical thermal and mechanical analysis of line heating for prediction of residual deformation is time consuming. In the present work dimensional analysis has been presented to obtain a new relationship between input parameters and resulting residual deformations during line heating process. The temperature distribution and residual deformations for 6 mm, 8 mm, 10 mm and 12 mm thick steel plates were numerically estimated and compared with experimental and published results. Extensive data generated through a validated FE model were used to find co-relationship between the input parameters and the resulting residual deformation by multiple regression analysis. The results obtained from the deformation equations developed in this work compared well with those of the FE analysis with a drop in the computation time in the order of 100 (computational time required for FE analysis is around 7 200 second to 9 000 seconds and where the time required for getting the residual deformation by developed equations is only 60 to 90 seconds). Keywords: dimensional analysis; 3-D finite element analysis; elasto-plastic analysis; residual deformations; multiple regression analysis; oxy-acetylene gas flame

Shi-e Yang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 1): 22-26
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The channel effect of bottom reverberation had been investigated by many authors (Bucker and Morris, 1968; Holland, 2006; Mackenzie, 1962; Zhou and Zhang, 1977), but in most of these researches, bottom reverberation had been described as the sound field formed by distributed secondary sources on boundary, and results obtained in such way sometimes will contradict with principle of reciprocity in bi-static cases (Wang and Shang, 1981). It is desirable to give a method for computation of reverberation, which directly using the scattering effect of stochastic characteristics of water channel, and can give results obeying the principle of reciprocity in any case. In this paper, the method of coupled mode is used for evaluation of bottom reverberation field caused by roughness of bottom interface, and multi-pole method is introduced for consideration of directional source.

Qiang Wang, Li-ping Sun and Shan Ma
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 2): 200-207
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Problems experienced during Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) tandem offloading operations were investigated. The aim of this research was to improve the reliability of such systems, and it needed a means to assess them. Time-domain simulation and analysis of offloading systems was performed using the multi-body mooring software ARIANE 7.0. Hydrodynamic interaction between the vessels was considered. The responses of the offloading system in different loading cases, different parameters of offloading hawsers and the effects of challenging environmental conditions were calculated. There was a focus on the problems of relative motion between the two bodies and its effects on the intensity of hawser forces. Minimum relative distance, maximum relative headings and maximum tension in the hawsers of offloading systems were obtained by time-domain analysis. The time-domain analysis was effective and comparative study can be used to optimize parameters of the system and extend operating limits.

Shuijin Li1, Masoud Hayatdavoodi1,2, R. Cengiz Ertekin2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2020(3): 317-338
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Structural integrity has remained a challenge for design and analysis of wave energy devices. A difficulty in assessment of the structural integrity is often laid in the accurate determination of the wave-induced loads on the wave energy devices and the repones of the structure. Decoupled hydroelastic response of a submerged, oscillating wave energy device to extreme nonlinear wave loads is studied here. The submerged wave energy device consists of an oscillating horizontal disc attached to a direct-drive power take-off system. The structural frame of the wave energy device is fixed on the seafloor in shallow water. Several extreme wave conditions are considered in this study. The nonlinear wave loads on members of the submerged structure are obtained by use of the level I Green-Naghdi equations and Morison’s equation for cylindrical members. Distribution of Von Mises stresses and the elastic response of the structure to the extreme wave loads are determined by use of a finite element method. The decoupled hydroelastic analysis of the structure is carried out for devices built by four different materials, namely stainless steel, concrete, aluminium alloy, and titanium alloy. The elastic response of these devices is studied and results are compared with each other. Points of maximum stress and deformations are determined and the structural integrity under the extreme conditions is assessed. It is shown that the proposed approaches provide invaluable information about the structural integrity of wave energy devices.

Hassan Ghasseni and Parviz Ghadimi
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 3): 289-299
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A numerical analysis based on the boundary element method (BEM) was presented for the hydrodynamic performance of a high skew propeller (HSP) which is employed by an underwater vehicle (UV). Since UVs operate at two different working conditions (surface and submerged conditions), the design of such a propeller is a cumbersome task. This is primarily due to the fact that the resistance forces as well as the vessel efficiency under these conditions are significantly different. Therefore, some factors are necessary for the design of the optimum propeller to utilize the power at the mentioned conditions. The design objectives of the optimum propeller are to obtain the highest possible thrust, minimum torque, and efficiency. In the current study, a 5-bladed HSP was chosen for running the UV. This propeller operated at the stern of the UV hull where the inflow velocity to the propeller was non-uniform. Some parameters of the propeller were predicted based on the UV geometrical hull and operating conditions. The computed results include the pressure distribution and the hydrodynamic characteristics of the HSP in open water conditions, and comparison of these results with those of the experimental data indicates good agreement. The propeller efficiency for both submerged and surface conditions was found to be 67% and 64%, respectively, which compared to conventional propellers is a significantly higher efficiency.

Yu Cao; Bao-jun Yu and Jian-fang Wang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 3): 292
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The seakeeping performance of a luxury cruise ship was evaluated during the concept design phase. By comparing numerical predictions based on 3-D linear potential flow theory in the frequency domain with the results of model tests, it was shown that the 3-D method predicted the seakeeping performance of the luxury cruise ship well. Based on the model, the seakeeping features of the luxury cruise ship were analyzed, and then the influence was seen of changes to the primary design parameters (center of gravity, inertial radius, etc.). Based on the results, suggestions were proposed to improve the choice of parameters for luxury cruise ships during the concept design phase. They should improve seakeeping performance.

Wenyang Duan and Chuanqing Li
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 1): 1-12
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Under the background of the energy saving and emission reduction, more and more attention has been placed on investigating the energy efficiency of ships. The added resistance has been noted for being crucial in predicting the decrease of speed on a ship operating at sea. Furthermore, it is also significant to investigate the added resistance for a ship functioning in short waves of large modern ships. The researcher presents an estimation formula for the calculation of an added resistance study in short waves derived from the reflection law. An improved method has been proposed to calculate the added resistance due to ship motions, which applies the radiated energy theory along with the strip method. This procedure is based on an extended integral equation (EIE) method, which was used for solving the hydrodynamic coefficients without effects of the irregular frequency. Next, a combined method was recommended for the estimation of added resistance for a ship in the whole wave length range. The comparison data with other experiments indicate the method presented in the paper provides satisfactory results for large blunt ship.

Peng Chen1, Jiahao Chen2, Zhiqiang Hu1,3
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2020(3): 339-361
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Due to the dissimilar scaling issues, the conventional experimental method of FOWTs can hardly be used directly to validate the full-scale global dynamic responses accurately. Therefore, it is of absolute necessity to find a more accurate, economic and efficient approach, which can be utilized to predict the full-scale global dynamic responses of FOWTs. In this paper, a literature review of experimental-numerical methodologies and challenges for FOWTs is made. Several key challenges in the conventional basin experiment issues are discussed, including scaling issues; coupling effects between aero-hydro and structural dynamic responses; blade pitch control strategies; experimental facilities and calibration methods. Several basin experiments, industrial projects and numerical codes are summarized to demonstrate the progress of hybrid experimental methods. Besides, time delay in hardware-in-the-loop challenges is concluded to emphasize their significant role in real-time hybrid approaches. It is of great use to comprehend these methodologies and challenges, which can help some future researchers to make a footstone for proposing a more efficient and functional hybrid basin experimental and numerical method.

Wei Wang, Yuwei Wang, Dagang Zhao, Yongjie Pang, Chunyu Guo, Yifan Wang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2020(3): 388-397
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The hydrodynamic performance of a three-dimensional finite-length rotating cylinder is studied by means of a physical tank and numerical simulation. First, according to the identified influencing factors, a hydrodynamic performance test of the rotating cylinder was carried out in a circulating water tank. In order to explore the changing law of hydrodynamic performance with these factors, a particle image velocimetry device was used to monitor the flow field. Subsequently, a computational field dynamics numerical simulation method was used to simulate the flow field, followed by an analysis of the effects of speed ratio, Reynolds number, and aspect ratio on the flow field. The results show that the lift coefficient and drag coefficient of the cylinder increase first and then decrease with the increase of the rotational speed ratio. The trend of numerical simulation and experimental results is similar.

hiqiang Yan, Q. W. Ma, Jinghua Wang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2020(3): 362-380
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In the Lagrangian meshless (particle) methods, such as the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method and meshless local Petrov-Galerkin method based on Rankine source solution (MLPG_R), the Laplacian discretisation is often required in order to solve the governing equations and/or estimate physical quantities (such as the viscous stresses). In some meshless applications, the Laplacians are also needed as stabilisation operators to enhance the pressure calculation. The particles in the Lagrangian methods move following the material velocity, yielding a disordered (random) particle distribution even though they may be distributed uniformly in the initial state. Different schemes have been developed for a direct estimation of second derivatives using finite difference, kernel integrations and weighted/moving least square method. Some of the schemes suffer from a poor convergent rate. Some have a better convergent rate but require inversions of high order matrices, yielding high computational costs. This paper presents a quadric semi-analytical finite-difference interpolation (QSFDI) scheme, which can achieve the same degree of the convergent rate as the best schemes available to date but requires the inversion of significant lower-order matrices, i.e. 3×3 for 3D cases, compared with 6×6 or 10×10 in the schemes with the best convergent rate. Systematic patch tests have been carried out for either estimating the Laplacian of given functions or solving Poisson’s equations. The convergence, accuracy and robustness of the present schemes are compared with the existing schemes. It will show that the present scheme requires considerably less computational time to achieve the same accuracy as the best schemes available in literatures, particularly for estimating the Laplacian of given functions.

Mohammad Kazem Tahmasebi1, Rahim Shamsoddini1, Bahador Abolpour2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2020(3): 381-387
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Liquid sloshing is a common phenomenon in the transportation of liquid-cargo tanks. Liquid waves lead to fluctuating forces on the tank walls. If these fluctuations are not predicted or controlled, for example, by using baffles, they can lead to large forces and momentums. The volume of fluid (VOF) two-phase numerical model in OpenFOAM open-source software has been widely used to model the liquid sloshing. However, a big challenge for modeling the sloshing phenomenon is selecting a suitable turbulence model. Therefore, in the present study, different turbulence models were studied to determine their sloshing phenomenon prediction accuracies. The predictions of these models were validated using experimental data. The turbulence models were ranked by their mean error in predicting the free surface behaviors. The renormalization group (RNG) k-ε and the standard k-ω models were found to be the best and worst turbulence models for modeling the sloshing phenomena, respectively; moreover, the SST k-ω model and v2-f k-ε results were very close to the RNG k-ε model result.

Hakan Demirel
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2020(3): 485-493
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In power production, gas turbines are commonly used components that generate high amount of energy depending on size and weight. They function as integral parts of helicopters, aircrafts, trains, ships, electrical generators, and tanks. Notably, many researchers are focusing on the design, operation, and maintenance of gas turbines. The focal point of this paper is a DEMATEL approach based on fuzzy sets, with the attempt to use these fuzzy sets explicitly. Using this approach, the cause-effect diagram of gas turbine failures expressed in the literature is generated and aimed to create a perspective for operators. The results of the study show that, "connecting shaft has been broken between turbine and gear box" selected the most important cause factor and "sufficient pressure fuel does not come for fuel pump" is selected the most important effect factor, according to the experts.

Wenyang Duan and Binbin Zhao
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 4): 364-398
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An innovative hydrodynamic theory and numerical model were developed to help improve the efficiency, accuracy, and convergence of the numerical prediction of wave drift forces on two side-by-side deepwater floating bodies. The wave drift forces were expressed by the double integration of source strength and the corresponding Green function on the body surface, which is consistent with the far field formula based on momentum conservation and sharing the advantage of near field calculations providing the drift force on each body. Numerical results were validated through comparing the general far field model and pressure integral model, as well as the middle field model developed using the software HydroStar.

Sheng Huang, Miao He, Chao Wang and Xin Chang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 1): 63-68
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In order to predict the effects of cavitation on a hydrofoil, the state equations of the cavitation model were combined with a linear viscous turbulent method for mixed fluids in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software FLUENT to simulate steady cavitating flow. At a fixed attack angle, pressure distributions and volume fractions of vapor at different cavitation numbers were simulated, and the results on foil sections agreed well with experimental data. In addition, at the various cavitation numbers, the vapor fractions at different attack angles were also predicted. The vapor region moved towards the front of the airfoil and the length of the cavity grew with increased attack angle. The results show that this method of applying FLUENT to simulate cavitation is reliable.

Ying Xiong, Zhanzhi Wang and Wanjiang Qi
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 1): 13-20
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Numerical simulation is investigated to disclose how propeller boss cap fins (PBCF) operate utilizing Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) method. In addition, exploration of the influencing mechanism of PBCF on the open water efficiency of one controllable-pitch propeller is analyzed through the open water characteristic curves, blade surface pressure distribution and hub streamline distribution. On this basis, the influence of parameters including airfoil profile, diameter, axial position of installation and circumferential installation angle on the open water efficiency of the controllable-pitch propeller is investigated. Numerical results show: for the controllable-pitch propeller, the thrust generated is at the optimum when the radius of boss cap fins is 1.5 times of propeller hub with an optimal installation position in the axial direction, and its optimal circumferential installation position is the midpoint of the extension line of the front and back ends of two adjacent propeller roots in the front of fin root. Under these optimal parameters, the gain of open water efficiency of the controllable-pitch propeller with different advance velocity coefficients is greater than 0.01, which accounts for approximately an increase of 1%-5% of open water efficiency.

Changhui Song1, Weicheng Cui1,2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2020(3): 415-429
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This paper presents a comprehensive review and analysis of ship hull cleaning technologies. Various cleaning methods and devices applied to dry-dock cleaning and underwater cleaning are introduced in detail, including rotary brushes, high-pressure and cavitation water jet technology, ultrasonic technology, and laser cleaning technology. The application of underwater robot technology in ship cleaning not only frees divers from engaging in heavy work but also creates safe and efficient industrial products. Damage to the underlying coating of the ship caused by the underwater cleaning operation can be minimized by optimizing the working process of the underwater cleaning robot. With regard to the adhesion technology mainly used in underwater robots, an overview of recent developments in permanent magnet and electromagnetic adhesion, negative pressure force adhesion, thrust force adhesion, and biologically inspired adhesion is provided. Through the analysis and comparison of current underwater robot products, this paper predicts that major changes in the application of artificial intelligence and multirobot cooperation, as well as optimization and combination of various technologies in underwater cleaning robots, could be expected to further lead to breakthroughs in developing next-generation robots for underwater cleaning.

Jia-wen Sun, Shu-xiu Liang, Zhao-chen Sunand Xi-zeng Zhao
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 4): 372-378
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A numerical model was established for simulating wave impact on a horizontal deck by an improved incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (ISPH). As a grid-less particle method, the ISPH method has been widely used in the free-surface hydrodynamic flows with good accuracy. The improvement includes the employment of a corrective function for enhancement of angular momentum conservation in a particle-based calculation and a new estimation method to predict the pressure on the horizontal deck. The simulation results show a good agreement with the experiment. The present numerical model can be used to study wave impact load on the horizontal deck.

Hong-wei Wang1*, Yong Luo1, Kai-ye Hu2 and Teng-teng Li3
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 2): 168-174
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To solve the dimensional limitations of physical models in tests, an equivalent water depth truncated design for a classical SPAR working in 913 m water was investigated. The water depth was reduced to 736m and then to 552m. As this was done, the mooring line lengths, EA value, and mass per meter were adjusted. Truncation rules and formulas for parameters and truncation factors were proposed. SPAR static characteristics were made to be consistent with those at full water depth. Then further time-domain coupled analysis was carried out for the SPAR when the mooring system experienced waves. The mooring lines were simulated by quasi-static method. Global responses and mooring line forces were found to agree well with test results for a prototype at that water depth. The truncation method proved to be robust and reliable.

Nahid Nadimi1, Reza Javidan2, Kamran Layeghi1
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2020(3): 494-507
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Acoustic scattering as the perturbation of an incident acoustic field from an arbitrary object is a critical part of the targetrecognition process in synthetic aperture sonar (SAS) systems. The complexity of scattering models strongly depends on the size and structure of the scattered surface. In accurate scattering models including numerical models, the computational cost significantly increases with the object complexity. In this paper, an efficient model is proposed to calculate the acoustic scattering from underwater objects with less computational cost and time compared with numerical models, especially in 3D space. The proposed model, called texture element method (TEM), uses statistical and structural information of the target surface texture by employing non-uniform elements described with local binary pattern (LBP) descriptors by solving the Helmholtz integral equation. The proposed model is compared with two other well-known models, one numerical and other analytical, and the results show excellent agreement between them while the proposed model requires fewer elements. This demonstrates the ability of the proposed model to work with arbitrary targets in different SAS systems with better computational time and cost, enabling the proposed model to be applied in real environment.

Karan Sotoodeh
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2020(3): 465-472
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Subsea development is moving constantly toward simplification, digitalization, and cost-out strategies because the exploration and production of hydrocarbons are moving toward deeper and remote sea water areas. Usage of all-electric subsea technology instead of hydraulic technology is growing and will be the future of subsea systems due to the former’s environmental and functional advantages and reduced costs. The benefits of all-electric subsea systems are health, safety, and environment (HSE) and improved reliability, flexibility, and functionality compared with traditional hydraulic-electrical systems. Existing electrohydraulic technology for a typical subsea system, hydraulic and electric actuators, and subsea manifold valves including valve types and selection philosophy have been reviewed in this paper. Some major worldwide oil companies such as Equinor and Schlumberger have successful experiences with subsea electric actuators. Considering the benefits of all-electric technology especially in terms of cost and HSE, as well as successful experiences of two major oil companies, further research in this area is warranted. One of the gaps in existing reviewed literature is the effect of using all-electric actuators for manifold valves. Thus, three main questions related to electric actuator selection, requirement of safety integrity level (SIL), and effect of using electric actuators on manifold valve selection have been addressed and answered. Forty hydraulic actuated manifold valves from nine past subsea projects in different parts of the world, mainly Africa and Australia, have been selected for the analysis of all-electric actuators. Results show that 93% of the valves require spring-return electric actuators, whereas 7% can be operated with conventional electric actuators without any spring. The manifold valves do not require SIL certification because they are not connected to an emergency shut down system. Introducing the electric actuators to the manifold valve will not change the valve selection philosophy.

Naga Venkata Rakesh Nimmagadda, Lokeswara Rao Polisetty, Anantha Subramanian Vaidyanatha Iyer
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2020(3): 398-414
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High-speed planing crafts have successfully evolved through developments in the last several decades. Classical approaches such as inviscid potential flow-based methods and the empirically based Savitsky method provide general understanding for practical design. However, sometimes such analyses suffer inaccuracies since the air-water interface effects, especially in the transition phase, are not fully accounted for. Hence, understanding the behaviour at the transition speed is of fundamental importance for the designer. The fluid forces in planing hulls are dominated by phenomena such as flow separation at various discontinuities viz., knuckles, chines and transom, with resultant spray generation. In such cases, the application of potential theory at high speeds introduces limitations. This paper investigates the simulation of modelling of the pre-planing behaviour with a view to capturing the air-water interface effects, with validations through experiments to compare the drag, dynamic trim and wetted surface area. The paper also brings out the merits of gridding strategies to obtain reliable results especially with regard to spray generation due to the air-water interface effects. The verification and validation studies serve to authenticate the use of the multi-gridding strategies on the basis of comparisons with simulations using model tests. It emerges from the study that overset/chimera grids give better results compared with single unstructured hexahedral grids. Two overset methods are investigated to obtain reliable estimation of the dynamic trim and drag, and their ability to capture the spray resulting from the air-water interaction. The results demonstrate very close simulation of the actual flow kinematics at steady-speed conditions in terms of spray at the air-water interface, drag at the pre-planing and full planing range and dynamic trim angles.

Ling Hou, Fangcheng Li and Chunliang Wu
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 3): 305-310
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In this research, liquid sloshing behavior in a 2-D rectangular tank was simulated using ANSYS-FLUENT software subject to single or multiple-coupled external excitations (such as sway coupled with roll, and sway and roll coupled with heave). The volume of fluid (VOF) method was used to track the free surface of sloshing. External excitation was imposed through the motion of the tank by using the dynamic mesh technique. The study shows that if the tank is subjected to multiple coupled excitations and resonant excitation frequencies, liquid sloshing will become violent and sloshing loads, including impact on the top wall, will be intensified.

Kai Yu, Peikai Yan, Jian Hu
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2020(3): 436-443
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In this study, a series of numerical calculations are carried out in ANSYS Workbench based on the unidirectional fluid-solid coupling theory. Using the DTMB 4119 propeller as the research object, a numerical simulation is set up to analyze the open water performance of the propeller, and the equivalent stress distribution of the propeller acting in the flow field and the axial strain of the blade are analyzed. The results show that FLUENT calculations can provide accurate and reliable calculations of the hydrodynamic load for the propeller structure. The maximum equivalent stress was observed in the blade near the hub, and the tip position of the blade had the largest stress. With the increase in speed, the stress and deformation showed a decreasing trend.

Rahim Gerami Moghadam, Saeid Shabanlou, Fariborz Yosefvand
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2020(3): 444-452
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In general, submerged pipes passing over the sedimentary bed of seas are installed for transmitting oil and gas to coastal regions. The stability of submerged pipes can be threatened with waves and coastal flows occurring at coastal regions. In this study, for the first time, the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is optimized using the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, and a meta-heuristic artificial intelligence model is developed for simulating the scour pattern around submerged pipes located in sedimentary beds. Afterward, six ANFIS-PSO models are developed by means of parameters affecting the scour depth. Then, the superior model is detected through sensitivity analysis. This model has the function of all input parameters. The calculated correlation coefficient and scatter index for this model are 0.993 and 0.047, respectively. The ratio of the pipe distance from the sedimentary bed to the submerged pipe diameter is introduced as the most effective input parameter. PSO significantly improves the performance of the ANFIS model. Approximately 36% of the scour depths simulated using the ANFIS model have an error less than 5%, whereas the value for ANFIS-PSO is roughly 72%.

Peng Jia, Zhehua Zhang, Xiangyu Wang, Feihong Yun, Honghai Wang, Gang Wang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2020(3): 453-464
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As a core part of subsea production systems, subsea control modules (SCMs) are costly, difficult, and expensive to install and inconvenient to use in underwater maintenance. Therefore, performance and function tests must be carried out before launching SCMs. This study developed a testing device and an SCM test by investigating SCMs and their underwater. The testing device includes four parts:a hydraulic station, an SCM test stand, a signal generating device, and an electronic test unit. First, the basic indices of the testing device were determined from the performance and working parameters of the SCM. Second, the design scheme of the testing device for the SCM was tentatively proposed, and each testing device was designed. Finally, a practical measurement of the SCM, in combination with the hydraulic station, SCM test stand, signal generator, electronic unit, and highpressure water tank, was carried out according to the test requirements. The measurement mainly involved equipment inspection before testing and an experimental test for the SCM. The validity and feasibility of the testing device and method were simultaneously verified through an association test.