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HAO Yan-ling CHEN Ming-hui LI Liang-jun XU Bo
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2008(No. 2): 0
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There are many filtering methods that can be used for the initial alignment of an integrated inertial navigation system.This paper discussed the use of GPS,but focused on two kinds of filters for the initial alignment of an integrated strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS).One method is based on the Kalman filter (KF),and the other is based on the robust filter.Simulation results showed that the filter provides a quick transient response and a little more accurate estimate than KF,given substantial process noise or unknown noise statistics.So the robust filter is an effective and useful method for initial alignment of SINS.This research should make the use of SINS more popular,and is also a step for further research.

QIN Ting-rong CHEN Wei-jiong ZENG Xiang-kun
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2008(No. 4): 0
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Quantified risk assessment (QRA) needs mathematicization of risk theory. However,attention has been paid almost exclusively to applications of assessment methods,which has led to neglect of research into fundamental theories,such as the relationships among risk,safety,danger,and so on. In order to solve this problem,as a first step,fundamental theoretical relationships about risk and risk management were analyzed for this paper in the light of mathematics,and then illustrated with some charts. Second,man-machine-environment-management (MMEM) theory was introduced into risk theory to analyze some properties of risk. On the basis of this,a three-dimensional model of risk management was established that includes: a goal dimension;a management dimension;an operation dimension. This goal management operation (GMO) model was explained and then emphasis was laid on the discussion of the risk flowchart (operation dimension),which lays the groundwork for further study of risk management and qualitative and quantitative assessment. Next,the relationship between Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) and Risk Management was researched. This revealed that the FSA method,which the international maritime organization (IMO) is actively spreading,comes from Risk Management theory. Finally,conclusion were made about how to apply this risk management method to concrete fields efficiently and conveniently,as well as areas where further research is required.

Bo Hu1, Zhiwen Wang1,2, Hongwang Du1, Rupp Carriveau2, David S. K. Ting2, Wei Xiong1, Zuwen Wang1
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(3): 353-365
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With the rapid development of marine renewable energy technologies, the demand to mitigate the fluctuation of variable generators with energy storage technologies continues to increase. Offshore compressed air energy storage (OCAES) is a novel flexible-scale energy storage technology that is suitable for marine renewable energy storage in coastal cities, islands, offshore platforms, and offshore renewable energy farms. For deep-water applications, a marine riser is necessary for connecting floating platforms and subsea systems. Thus, the response characteristics of marine risers are of great importance for the stability and safety of the entire OCAES system. In this study, numerical models of two kinds of flexible risers, namely, catenary riser and lazy wave riser, are established in OrcaFlex software. The static and dynamic characteristics of the catenary and the lazy wave risers are analyzed under different environment conditions and internal pressure levels. A sensitivity analysis of the main parameters affecting the lazy wave riser is also conducted. Results show that the structure of the lazy wave riser is more complex than the catenary riser; nevertheless, the former presents better response performance.

K. M. Praveen1, D. Karmakar1, C. Guedes Soares2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(3): 295-313
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The hydroelastic response of very large floating structures (VLFS) under the action of ocean waves is analysed considering the small amplitude wave theory. The very large floating structure is modelled as a floating thick elastic plate based on TimoshenkoMindlin plate theory, and the analysis for the hydroelastic response is performed considering different edge boundary conditions. The numerical study is performed to analyse the wave reflection and transmission characteristics of the floating plate under the influence of different support conditions using eigenfunction expansion method along with the orthogonal mode-coupling relation in the case of finite water depth. Further, the analysis is extended for shallow water depth, and the continuity of energy and mass flux is applied along the edges of the plate to obtain the solution for the problem. The hydroelastic behaviour in terms of reflection and transmission coefficients, plate deflection, strain, bending moment and shear force of the floating thick elastic plate with support conditions is analysed and compared for finite and shallow water depth. The study reveals an interesting aspect in the analysis of thick floating elastic plate with support condition due to the presence of the rotary inertia and transverse shear deformation. The present study will be helpful for the design and analysis of the VLFS in the case of finite and shallow water depth.

Sunaryo1, Aldy Syahrihaddin2, Pradhana Shadu Imfianto2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(3): 366-371
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In order to introduce clean environment and sustainable energy to traditional coastal fishing community, the objective of this study is to encourage the Indonesian traditional coastal fishing community to use green and renewable energy in their fishing activities. Introducing solar power as the main source of energy for fish-attracting lights and boat propulsion can reduce the use of fossil fuels, and sustain clean and healthy environment. As the world’s largest archipelago, Indonesia accounts for a high percentage of traditional fishing communities spread out along its islands. This fishing communities use various traditional fishing boats, and platforms. The fishing platforms are usually made of bamboo and placed on top of supporting structures on the seabed. Diesel electric generators are used to obtain electricity needed for lighting to attract the fish at night, and as the source of power for lifting the fishing net. The structure and fuel used are neither environmentally friendly nor clean; thus, an innovation is introduced. Traditional fishing practices using a fishing platform were studied, including the common size of the platform and the power needed for the fishing light. Based on the gathered information, this study proposes a catamaran vessel with a special top structure designed for fish lifting outfitting, and equipped with photovoltaic solar cells as the energy source for the fishing lights and vessel propulsion. Through this innovative break through, the vessel can be moved to the shore and will not be a threat to ship navigation and the environment. Furthemore, powered by clean and sustainable energy, the vessel can be directed to the best fishing ground.

Brandon J. Bethel
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2021(3): 558-571
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The exploitation of wind energy is rapidly evolving and is manifested in the ever-expanding global network of offshore wind energy farms. For the Small Island Developing States of the Caribbean Sea (CS), harnessing this mature technology is an important first step in the transition away from fossil fuels. This paper uses buoy and satellite observations of surface wind speed in the CS to estimate wind energy resources over the 2009–2019 11-year period and initiates hour-ahead forecasting using the long short-term memory (LSTM) network. Observations of wind power density (WPD) at the 100-m height showed a mean of approximately 1000 W/m2 in the Colombia Basin, though this value decreases radially to 600–800 W/m2 in the central CS to a minimum of approximately 250 W/m2 at its borders in the Venezuela Basin. The Caribbean Low-Level Jet (CLLJ) is also responsible for the waxing and waning of surface wind speed and as such, resource stability, though stable as estimated through monthly and seasonal coefficients of variation, is naturally governed by CLLJ activity. Using a commercially available offshore wind turbine, wind energy generation at four locations in the CS is estimated. Electricity production is greatest and most stable in the central CS than at either its eastern or western borders. Wind speed forecasts are also found to be more accurate at this location, and though technology currently restricts offshore wind turbines to shallow water, outward migration to and colonization of deeper water is an attractive option for energy exploitation.

Md Daluar Hussain, Osman Md Amin
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2021(3): 426-445
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The wind-assisted propulsion system is becoming one of the most popular and efficient ways to reduce both fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emission from the ships. In this study, several analyses have been carried out on a model of bulk carrier fitted with five rigid sails with a 180° rotating mechanism for maximum usage of wind power and a telescopic reefing mechanism for folding it during berthing. The stability of the ship has been verified through the calculations of initial stability, static stability, and dynamic stability through the fulfillment of the weather criterion using MAXSURF software. The structural analysis of the sail was carried out in ANSYS static structural module. Several flow simulations were carried out in ANSYS fluent module to predict the thrusts produced by the sails at different apparent wind angles, which would in turn reduce the thrust required from the propeller. In this way, the brake horse powers required for different sail arrangements were analyzed to find out a guideline for this wind propulsion system to generate better powering performances. To consider drift and yaw effect on propulsion system, an MMG mathematical model–based simulation was carried out for different drift angles of motion of the ship considering hard sail–based wind loads. Through these analyses, it has been found out that the hard sail–based wind-assisted propulsion system in some cases have produced a reduction of more than 30% brake power in straight ahead motion and around 20% reduction in case of drifting ships compared to the model having no sails.

Peng Chen1, Jiahao Chen2, Zhiqiang Hu1,3
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2020(3): 339-361
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Due to the dissimilar scaling issues, the conventional experimental method of FOWTs can hardly be used directly to validate the full-scale global dynamic responses accurately. Therefore, it is of absolute necessity to find a more accurate, economic and efficient approach, which can be utilized to predict the full-scale global dynamic responses of FOWTs. In this paper, a literature review of experimental-numerical methodologies and challenges for FOWTs is made. Several key challenges in the conventional basin experiment issues are discussed, including scaling issues; coupling effects between aero-hydro and structural dynamic responses; blade pitch control strategies; experimental facilities and calibration methods. Several basin experiments, industrial projects and numerical codes are summarized to demonstrate the progress of hybrid experimental methods. Besides, time delay in hardware-in-the-loop challenges is concluded to emphasize their significant role in real-time hybrid approaches. It is of great use to comprehend these methodologies and challenges, which can help some future researchers to make a footstone for proposing a more efficient and functional hybrid basin experimental and numerical method.

Rujun Li, Yongmei Zhu, Wenjing Fang, Baoji Yin
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2021(3): 491-503
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This study investigates the interaction and influence of surface cracks on the spherical pressure hull of a deep-sea manned submersible. The finite element model of the spherical hull is established, and a semi-elliptical surface crack is inserted in the welding toe of the spherical hull as the main crack. Considering the combined effect of external uniform pressure and welding residual stress at the weld toe, the stress intensity factor (SIF) is obtained based on the M-integral method. Inserting disturbing cracks at different positions on the spherical hull surface, the interaction and influence between multi-cracks are revealed by numerical calculation. The results show that the existence of the disturbing crack has a great influence on the stress intensity factor of the main crack, and the influence is different with the different location of disturbing crack. The study of the interaction of multiple cracks under different interference factors and the influence of disturbing cracks on the main crack can provide some reference for future engineering applications.

Hassan Ghasseni and Parviz Ghadimi
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 3): 289-299
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A numerical analysis based on the boundary element method (BEM) was presented for the hydrodynamic performance of a high skew propeller (HSP) which is employed by an underwater vehicle (UV). Since UVs operate at two different working conditions (surface and submerged conditions), the design of such a propeller is a cumbersome task. This is primarily due to the fact that the resistance forces as well as the vessel efficiency under these conditions are significantly different. Therefore, some factors are necessary for the design of the optimum propeller to utilize the power at the mentioned conditions. The design objectives of the optimum propeller are to obtain the highest possible thrust, minimum torque, and efficiency. In the current study, a 5-bladed HSP was chosen for running the UV. This propeller operated at the stern of the UV hull where the inflow velocity to the propeller was non-uniform. Some parameters of the propeller were predicted based on the UV geometrical hull and operating conditions. The computed results include the pressure distribution and the hydrodynamic characteristics of the HSP in open water conditions, and comparison of these results with those of the experimental data indicates good agreement. The propeller efficiency for both submerged and surface conditions was found to be 67% and 64%, respectively, which compared to conventional propellers is a significantly higher efficiency.

Chunlong Huang1,2, Kunde Yang1,2, Qiulong Yang1,2, Hui Li1,2, Yuanliang Ma1,2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2021(3): 546-557
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The flow noise associated with sinusoidal vertical motion of a sonobuoy restrains its working performance. In practice, a suspension system consisting of elastic suspension cable and isolation mass is adopted to isolate the hydrophone from large vertical motions of the buoy on the ocean surface. In the present study, a theoretical model of vertical motion based on the sonobuoy suspension system was proposed. The vertical motion velocity response of the hydrophone of a sonobuoy can be obtained by solving the theoretical model with Runge-Kutta algorithm. The flow noise of the hydrophone at this response motion velocity was predicted using a hybrid computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) technique. The simulation results revealed that adding the elastic suspension cable with an appropriate elastic constant and counterweight with an appropriate mass have a good effect on reducing the flow noise caused by the sonobuoy vertical motion. The validation of this hybrid computational method used for reliable prediction of flow noise was also carried out on the basis of experimental data and empirical formula. The finds of this study can supply the deep understandings of the relationships between flow noise reduction and sonobuoy optimization.

Karan Sotoodeh
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2020(3): 465-472
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Subsea development is moving constantly toward simplification, digitalization, and cost-out strategies because the exploration and production of hydrocarbons are moving toward deeper and remote sea water areas. Usage of all-electric subsea technology instead of hydraulic technology is growing and will be the future of subsea systems due to the former’s environmental and functional advantages and reduced costs. The benefits of all-electric subsea systems are health, safety, and environment (HSE) and improved reliability, flexibility, and functionality compared with traditional hydraulic-electrical systems. Existing electrohydraulic technology for a typical subsea system, hydraulic and electric actuators, and subsea manifold valves including valve types and selection philosophy have been reviewed in this paper. Some major worldwide oil companies such as Equinor and Schlumberger have successful experiences with subsea electric actuators. Considering the benefits of all-electric technology especially in terms of cost and HSE, as well as successful experiences of two major oil companies, further research in this area is warranted. One of the gaps in existing reviewed literature is the effect of using all-electric actuators for manifold valves. Thus, three main questions related to electric actuator selection, requirement of safety integrity level (SIL), and effect of using electric actuators on manifold valve selection have been addressed and answered. Forty hydraulic actuated manifold valves from nine past subsea projects in different parts of the world, mainly Africa and Australia, have been selected for the analysis of all-electric actuators. Results show that 93% of the valves require spring-return electric actuators, whereas 7% can be operated with conventional electric actuators without any spring. The manifold valves do not require SIL certification because they are not connected to an emergency shut down system. Introducing the electric actuators to the manifold valve will not change the valve selection philosophy.

Runlong Miao, Shuo Pang, Dapeng Jiang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(3): 343-352
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Swarm robotics in maritime engineering is a promising approach characterized by large numbers of relatively small and inexpensive autonomous aquatic crafts (AACs) to monitor marine environments. Compared with a single, large aquatic manned or unmanned surface vehicle, a highly distributed aquatic swarm system with several AACs features advantages in numerous real-world maritime missions, and its natural potential is qualified for new classes of tasks that uniformly feature low cost and high efficiency through time. This article develops an inexpensive AAC based on an embedded-system companion computer and open-source autopilot, providing a verification platform for education and research on swarm algorithm on water surfaces. A topology communication network, including an inner communication network to exchange information among AACs and an external communication network for monitoring the state of the AAC Swarm System (AACSS), was designed based on the topology built into the Xbee units for the AACSS. In the emergence control network, the transmitter and receiver were coupled to distribute or recover the AAC. The swarm motion behaviors in AAC were resolved into the capabilities of go-to-waypoint and path following, which can be accomplished by two uncoupled controllers:speed controller and heading controller. The good performance of velocity and heading controllers in go-to-waypoint was proven in a series of simulations. Path following was achieved by tracking a set of ordered waypoints in the go-to-waypoint. Finally, a sea trial conducted at the China National Deep Sea Center successfully demonstrated the motion capability of the AAC. The sea trial results showed that the AAC is suited to carry out environmental monitoring tasks by efficiently covering the desired path, allowing for redundancy in the data collection process and tolerating the individual AACs’ path-following offset caused by winds and waves.

Javad Mohammadbagheri1, Fouad Salimi2, Maryam Rahbani3
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(3): 314-324
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Using a discretized finite difference method, a numerical model was developed to study the interaction of regular waves with a perforated breakwater. Considering a non-viscous, non-rotational fluid, the governing equations of Laplacian velocity potential were developed, and specific conditions for every single boundary were defined. The final developed model was evaluated based on an existing experimental result. The evaluated model was used to simulate the condition for various wave periods from 0.6 to 2 s. The reflection coefficient and transmission coefficient of waves were examined with different breakwater porosities, wave steepnesses, and angular frequencies. The results show that the developed model can suitably present the effect of the structural and hydraulic parameters on the reflection and transmission coefficients. It was also found that with the increase in wave steepness, the reflection coefficient increased logarithmically, while the transmission coefficient decreased logarithmically.

Ziqi Song1,2,3, Hongyu Bian1,2, Adam Zielinski3
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2015(No. 4): 425-433
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Underwater terrain-aided navigation is used to complement the traditional inertial navigation employed by autonomous underwater vehicles during lengthy missions. It can provide fixed estimations by matching real-time depth data with a digital terrain map. This study presents the concept of using image processing techniques in the underwater terrain matching process. A traditional gray-scale histogram of an image is enriched by incorporation with spatial information in pixels. Edge corner pixels are then defined and used to construct an edge corner histogram, which employs as a template to scan the digital terrain map and estimate the fixes of the vehicle by searching the correlation peak. Simulations are performed to investigate the robustness of the proposed method, particularly in relation to its sensitivity to background noise, the scale of real-time images, and the travel direction of the vehicle. At an image resolution of 1 m2/pixel, the accuracy of localization is more than 10 meters.

Duanfeng Han1, Ting Cui1, Yingfei Zan1, Lihao Yuan1, Song Ding2, Zhigang Li3
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(3): 247-259
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The probability distributions of wave characteristics from three groups of sampled ocean data with different significant wave heights have been analyzed using two transformation functions estimated by non-parametric and parametric methods. The marginal wave characteristic distribution and the joint density of wave properties have been calculated using the two transformations, with the results and accuracy of both transformations presented here. The two transformations deviate slightly between each other for the calculation of the crest and trough height marginal wave distributions, as well as the joint densities of wave amplitude with other wave properties. The transformation methods for the calculation of the wave crest and trough height distributions are shown to provide good agreement with real ocean data. Our work will help in the determination of the most appropriate transformation procedure for the prediction of extreme values.

Cheng Chin and Michael Lau
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 2): 150-163
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In this paper, numerical modeling and model testing of a complex-shaped remotely-operated vehicle (ROV) were shown. The paper emphasized the systematic modeling of hydrodynamic damping using the computational fluid dynamic software ANSYS-CFXTM on the complex-shaped ROV, a practice that is not commonly applied. For initial design and prototype testing during the developmental stage, small-scale testing using a free-decaying experiment was used to verify the theoretical models obtained from ANSYS-CFXTM. Simulation results are shown to coincide with the experimental tests. The proposed method could determine the hydrodynamic damping coefficients of the ROV.

Xiukun Li1,2,3, Yushuang Wu1,2,3
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(3): 380-386
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Elastic acoustic scattering is important for buried target detection and identification. For elastic spherical objects, studies have shown that a series of narrowband energetic arrivals follow the first specular one. However, in practice, the elastic echo is rather weak because of the acoustic absorption, propagation loss, and reverberation, which makes it difficult to extract elastic scattering features, especially for buried targets. To remove the interference and enhance the elastic scattering, the de-chirping method was adopted here to address the target scattering echo when a linear frequency modulation (LFM) signal is transmitted. The parameters of the incident signal were known. With the de-chirping operation, a target echo was transformed into a cluster of narrowband signals, and the elastic components could be extracted with a band-pass filter and then recovered by remodulation. The simulation results indicate the feasibility of the elastic scattering extraction and recovery. The experimental result demonstrates that the interference was removed and the elastic scattering was visibly enhanced after de-chirping, which facilitates the subsequent resonance feature extraction for target classification and recognition.

Benamar Derrar1, Benameur Hamoudi1, Mohammed El-Amine Dris2, Fethi Saidi1
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(3): 282-294
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This article presents a numerical study of the forces induced by hydrodynamic impact, that is, the impact of a part of the bottom of the hull on the water surface. The prediction of these efforts is often based on numerical simulations to determine the shock intensity of a structure on the surface of a weakly compressible fluid (for example, water). The short duration of the impact is also investigated in this work. This phenomenon occurs especially when a ship encounters a harsh and difficult sea conditions. Under such conditions, it is important to know how to predict the hydrodynamic forces applied to the structure to correctly optimize the ship elements during its design stage or to prevent possible damage. Indeed, various factors such as speed of the ship and height of the swell can cause the hull to partially emerge and then fall violently onto the water surface, which is referred to by naval personnel as tossing or slamming causing vibrations, stresses, and fatigue to the structural elements of the ship. In this work, we present an example of phenomenon modeling and then a numerical study of the different geometries (dihedron) that play a role in different sections of the bow. Then, we compare our present results with the theoretical and experimental results of other researchers in the field. The average interval impact time for a dihedral model corresponding to the section of the chosen ship and other experimental and theoretical data is in good agreement with the experimental and theoretical measurements.

Renwei Ji1,2, Qihu Sheng1,2, Shuqi Wang3, Yuquan Zhang4, Xuewei Zhang1,2, Liang Zhang1,2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(3): 325-333
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As the energy supply problem worsens, the development and utilization of marine renewable energy have become a research hotspot. The development of wave energy is moving from the near shore to the distant sea. The power-generation efficiency of a single two-floating-body wave-energy converter is relatively low. To fully utilize wave energy and improve the wave-energy capture rate of a fixed sea area, arranging a two-floating-body wave-energy converter array is necessary. This paper first introduces the basic theory of multi-floating flow field, time-domain calculation method, and influence factor of the waveenergy converter array. Then, the development of AQWA software in Fortran language considers the effect of power takeoff. A calculation method based on ANSYS-AQWA is proposed to simulate the motion of the oscillating-buoy two-floating-body wave-energy converter. The results are compared with the experimental results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Finally, the ANSYS-AQWA method is used to study the power characteristics of simple and complex arrays of wave-energy converters. The average power generation of simple arrays is largest at 0°, and the average power generation of complex arrays does not change with the wave direction. Optimal layout spacing exists for the simple and complex arrays. These findings can serve as a valuable reference for the large-scale array layout of wave-energy converters in the future.

Hafizul Islam1, Mashiur Rahaman2, M. Rafiqul Islam2, Hiromichi Akimoto3
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(3): 271-281
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Resistance prediction of ships using computational fluid dynamics has gained popularity over the years because of its high accuracy and low cost. This paper conducts numerical estimations of the ship resistance and motion of a Japan bulk carrier model using SHIP_Motion, a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RaNS)-based solver, and HydroSTAR, a commercial potential flow (PF)-based solver. The RaNS solver uses an overset-structured mesh and discretizes the flow field using the finite volume method, while the PF-based solver applies the three-dimensional panel method. In the calm water test, the total drag coefficient, sinkage, and trim were predicted using the RaNS solver following mesh dependency analysis, and the results were compared with the available experimental data. Next, calm water resistance was investigated for a range of Froude numbers. The added resistance in short-wave cases was simulated using both RaNS and PF solvers, and the results were compared. The PF solver showed better agreement with the RaNS solver for predicting motion responses than for predicting added resistance. While the added resistance results could not be directly validated because of the absence of experimental data, considering the previous accuracy of the RaNS solver in added resistance prediction and general added resistance profile of similar hull forms (bulk carriers), the prediction results could be concluded to be reliable.

Xing Zheng and Wen-yang Duan
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 1): 34-41
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Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is a Lagrangian meshless particle method. It is one of the best method for simulating violent free surface flows in fluids and solving large fluid deformations. Dam breaking is a typical example of these problems. The basis of SPH was reviewed, including some techniques for governing equation resolution, such as the stepping method and the boundary handling method. Then numerical results of a dam breaking simulation were discussed, and the benefits of concepts like artificial viscosity and position correction were analyzed in detail. When compared with dam breaking simulated by the volume of fluid (VOF) method, the wave profile generated by SPH had good agreement, but the pressure had only reasonable agreement. Improving pressure results is clearly an important next step for research.

E. L. Amromin
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(3): 260-270
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Ventilated cavitation has been successfully employed as ship drag reduction technology and potentially can mitigate flowinduced vibration. The obtained successes were based on solutions of design problems considered in the framework of ideal fluid theory with their following validation by towing tank tests. However, various aspects of the interaction of ventilated cavities with the viscous flows around the ship hulls remain unclear, whereas there is usually no possibility to simultaneously keep the full-scale Froude number and cavitation number in the test facilities. So, the further progress of the application of ventilated cavitation substantially depends on the ability of computational tools to predict this interaction. This paper briefly describes the state-of-the-art computation of ventilated cavitation and points out the most challenging unsolved problems that appeared in the model tests (prediction of air demand by cavities, ventilation effect on ship drag, on hydrofoil lift, and on the propagation of shock waves in cavities).

Pengyun Chen1, Pengfei Zhang1, Jianlong Chang1, Peng Shen2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(3): 334-342
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Terrain matching accuracy and real-time performance are affected by local underwater terrain features and structure of matching surface. To solve the extraction problem of local terrain features for underwater terrain-aided navigation (UTAN), real-time data model and selection method of beams are proposed. Then, an improved structure of terrain storage is constructed, and a fast interpolation strategy based on index is proposed, which can greatly improve the terrain interpolation-reconstruction speed. Finally, for the influences of tide, an elimination method of reference depth deviation is proposed, which can reduce the reference depth errors caused by tidal changes. As the simulation test shows, the proposed method can meet the requirements of real-time performance and effectiveness. Furthermore, the extraction time is considerably reduced, which makes the method suitable for the extraction of local terrain features for UTAN.

Changhui Song1, Weicheng Cui1,2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2020(3): 415-429
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This paper presents a comprehensive review and analysis of ship hull cleaning technologies. Various cleaning methods and devices applied to dry-dock cleaning and underwater cleaning are introduced in detail, including rotary brushes, high-pressure and cavitation water jet technology, ultrasonic technology, and laser cleaning technology. The application of underwater robot technology in ship cleaning not only frees divers from engaging in heavy work but also creates safe and efficient industrial products. Damage to the underlying coating of the ship caused by the underwater cleaning operation can be minimized by optimizing the working process of the underwater cleaning robot. With regard to the adhesion technology mainly used in underwater robots, an overview of recent developments in permanent magnet and electromagnetic adhesion, negative pressure force adhesion, thrust force adhesion, and biologically inspired adhesion is provided. Through the analysis and comparison of current underwater robot products, this paper predicts that major changes in the application of artificial intelligence and multirobot cooperation, as well as optimization and combination of various technologies in underwater cleaning robots, could be expected to further lead to breakthroughs in developing next-generation robots for underwater cleaning.

Rui Deng*, De-bo Huang, Jia Li, Xuan-kai Cheng, and Lei Yu
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 2): 187-191
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In order to get some useful parameters for grid generation of catamaran, the CFD software FLUENT is used to investigate the main effects of grid generation on flow field calculation. The influences of some elements are investigated with a series of calculations in the present paper, and some alteratives are proposed. The proposed alteratives based on the analysis of the effects are used for a catamaran resistance calculation, comparisons of the calculated results with experimental data show good agreement. It shows that the research result of this paper is useful for the numerical calculation of catamaran.

Abdolrahim Taheri, Ehsan Shahsavari
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(3): 372-379
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API RP2AWSD is a design code in practice for design of jacket platforms in the Persian Gulf but is based on the Gulf of Mexico environmental condition. So for the sake of using this code for the Persian Gulf, it is better to perform a calibration based on this specific region. Analysis and design of jacket platforms based on API code are performed in a static manner and dynamic analysis is not recommended for such structures. Regarding the fact that the real behavior of the offshore jacket platforms is a dynamic behavior, so in this research, dynamic analysis for an offshore jacket platform in the Persian Gulf under extreme environmental condition is performed using random time domain method. Therefore, a new constructed offshore jacket platform in the Persian Gulf is selected and analyzed. Fifteen, 1-h storm, simulations for the water surface elevation is produced to capture the statistical properties of extreme sea condition. Time series of base shear and overturning moment are derived from both dynamic and static responses. By calculating the maximum dynamic amplification factor (DAF) from each simulation and fitting the collected data to Weibull distribution, the most probable maximum extreme (MPME) value for the DAF is achieved. Results show that a realistic value for DAF for this specific platform is 1.06, which is a notable value and is recommended to take into practice in design of fixed jacket platform in the Persian Gulf.

Jin-chao Zhao, Huan Qi and Yong-ming Zhang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 1): 69-74
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The authors developed a prototype of a warship maintenance system. The process started by defining the maintenance requirements of warship equipment. Next, a planning scheme was development for a maintenance network. An optimization target for the plan and indexes for assessment were established. Based on the above work, a simulation model was proposed with two layers: a base and a workshop. Dispatching rules were then formulated for the simulation. Experimental results proved the validity of the model and the dispatching algorithm. It was found that the model can solve the capacity evaluation problem for maintenance systems and provides a scientific basis for decision-maker to make decisions regarding equipment maintenance.

Hamid Ahmadi, Mohammad Ali Lotfollahi-Yaghin and Mohammad H. Aminfar
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 1): 83-97
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A set of parametric stress analyses was carried out for two-planar tubular DKT-joints under different axial loading conditions. The analysis results were used to present general remarks on the effects of the geometrical parameters on stress concentration factors (SCFs) at the inner saddle, outer saddle, and crown positions on the central brace. Based on results of finite element (FE) analysis and through nonlinear regression analysis, a new set of SCF parametric equations was established for fatigue design purposes. An assessment study of equations was conducted against the experimental data and original SCF database. The satisfaction of acceptance criteria proposed by the UK Department of Energy (UK DoE) was also checked. Results of parametric study showed that highly remarkable differences exist between the SCF values in a multi-planar DKT-joint and the corresponding SCFs in an equivalent uni-planar KT-joint having the same geometrical properties. It can be clearly concluded from this observation that using the equations proposed for uni-planar KT-connections to compute the SCFs in multi-planar DKT-joints will lead to either considerably under-predicting or over-predicting results. Hence, it is necessary to develop SCF formulae specially designed for multi-planar DKT-joints. Good results of equation assessment according to UK DoE acceptance criteria, high values of correlation coefficients, and the satisfactory agreement between the predictions of the proposed equations and the experimental data guarantee the accuracy of the equations. Therefore, the developed equations can be reliably used for fatigue design of offshore structures.

Ibrahim S. Seddiek, Mosaad A. Mosleh3 and Adel A. Banawan
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 4): 463-472
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The progress of economic globalization, the rapid growth of international trade, and the maritime transportation has played an increasingly significant role in the international supply chain. As a result, worldwide seaports have suffered from a central problem, which appears in the form of massive amounts of fuel consumed and exhaust gas fumes emitted from the ships while berthed. Many ports have taken the necessary precautions to overcome this problem, while others still suffer due to the presence of technical and financial constraints. In this paper, the barriers, interconnection standards, rules, regulations, power sources, and economic and environmental analysis related to ships, shore-side power were studied in efforts to find a solution to overcome his problem. As a case study, this paper investigates the practicability, costs and benefits of switching from onboard ship auxiliary engines to shore-side power connection for high-speed crafts called Alkahera while berthed at the port of Safaga, Egypt. The results provide the national electricity grid concept as the best economical selection with 49.03 percent of annual cost saving. Moreover, environmentally, it could achieve an annual reduction in exhaust gas emissions of CO2, CO, NOx, P.M, and SO2 by 276, 2.32, 18.87, 0.825 and 3.84 tons, respectively.

Shuijin Li1, Masoud Hayatdavoodi1,2, R. Cengiz Ertekin2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2020(3): 317-338
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Structural integrity has remained a challenge for design and analysis of wave energy devices. A difficulty in assessment of the structural integrity is often laid in the accurate determination of the wave-induced loads on the wave energy devices and the repones of the structure. Decoupled hydroelastic response of a submerged, oscillating wave energy device to extreme nonlinear wave loads is studied here. The submerged wave energy device consists of an oscillating horizontal disc attached to a direct-drive power take-off system. The structural frame of the wave energy device is fixed on the seafloor in shallow water. Several extreme wave conditions are considered in this study. The nonlinear wave loads on members of the submerged structure are obtained by use of the level I Green-Naghdi equations and Morison’s equation for cylindrical members. Distribution of Von Mises stresses and the elastic response of the structure to the extreme wave loads are determined by use of a finite element method. The decoupled hydroelastic analysis of the structure is carried out for devices built by four different materials, namely stainless steel, concrete, aluminium alloy, and titanium alloy. The elastic response of these devices is studied and results are compared with each other. Points of maximum stress and deformations are determined and the structural integrity under the extreme conditions is assessed. It is shown that the proposed approaches provide invaluable information about the structural integrity of wave energy devices.

Wenyang Duan and Chuanqing Li
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 1): 1-12
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Under the background of the energy saving and emission reduction, more and more attention has been placed on investigating the energy efficiency of ships. The added resistance has been noted for being crucial in predicting the decrease of speed on a ship operating at sea. Furthermore, it is also significant to investigate the added resistance for a ship functioning in short waves of large modern ships. The researcher presents an estimation formula for the calculation of an added resistance study in short waves derived from the reflection law. An improved method has been proposed to calculate the added resistance due to ship motions, which applies the radiated energy theory along with the strip method. This procedure is based on an extended integral equation (EIE) method, which was used for solving the hydrodynamic coefficients without effects of the irregular frequency. Next, a combined method was recommended for the estimation of added resistance for a ship in the whole wave length range. The comparison data with other experiments indicate the method presented in the paper provides satisfactory results for large blunt ship.

Liangwu Wang, Ruiping Zhou, Xiang Xu and Hong Gao
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 4): 486-492
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When an oceanographic vessel is sailing, the currents near the surface of ship hull are rapid, making it hard to meet the environmental requirements of scientific observation equipment. To guarantee the installation space and environmental requirements of the observation equipment, the drop keel system was proposed for the first time for ocean-graphic ships at China, to avoid the traditional "rudder-shaft" type fin keel’s disadvantage. The research study will examine the operational mechanism and functions of the drop keel system, the operating conditions of the fin keel to determine the driver method and its arrangement, and the locking method of the fin keel underwater. The research will also provide some general designs for analyzing the best plan for the drop keel system.

Liping Sun and Hai Sun
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 4): 402-409
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Risk analysis of key systems have become a growing topic late of because of the development of offshore structures. Equipment failures of offloading system and fire accidents were analyzed based on the floating production, storage and offloading (FPSO) features. Fault tree analysis (FTA), and failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) methods were examined based on information already researched on modules of relex reliability studio (RRS). Equipment failures were also analyzed qualitatively by establishing a fault tree and Boolean structure function based on the shortage of failure cases, statistical data, and risk control measures examined. Failure modes of fire accident were classified according to the different areas of fire occurrences during the FMEA process, using risk priority number (RPN) methods to evaluate their severity rank. The qualitative analysis of FTA gave the basic insight of forming the failure modes of FPSO offloading, and the fire FMEA gave the priorities and suggested processes. The research has practical importance for the security analysis problems of FPSO.

Shiqiang Yan, Q. W. Ma, Jinghua Wang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2020(3): 362-380
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In the Lagrangian meshless (particle) methods, such as the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method and meshless local Petrov-Galerkin method based on Rankine source solution (MLPG_R), the Laplacian discretisation is often required in order to solve the governing equations and/or estimate physical quantities (such as the viscous stresses). In some meshless applications, the Laplacians are also needed as stabilisation operators to enhance the pressure calculation. The particles in the Lagrangian methods move following the material velocity, yielding a disordered (random) particle distribution even though they may be distributed uniformly in the initial state. Different schemes have been developed for a direct estimation of second derivatives using finite difference, kernel integrations and weighted/moving least square method. Some of the schemes suffer from a poor convergent rate. Some have a better convergent rate but require inversions of high order matrices, yielding high computational costs. This paper presents a quadric semi-analytical finite-difference interpolation (QSFDI) scheme, which can achieve the same degree of the convergent rate as the best schemes available to date but requires the inversion of significant lower-order matrices, i.e. 3×3 for 3D cases, compared with 6×6 or 10×10 in the schemes with the best convergent rate. Systematic patch tests have been carried out for either estimating the Laplacian of given functions or solving Poisson’s equations. The convergence, accuracy and robustness of the present schemes are compared with the existing schemes. It will show that the present scheme requires considerably less computational time to achieve the same accuracy as the best schemes available in literatures, particularly for estimating the Laplacian of given functions.

Mohammad Kazem Tahmasebi1, Rahim Shamsoddini1, Bahador Abolpour2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2020(3): 381-387
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Liquid sloshing is a common phenomenon in the transportation of liquid-cargo tanks. Liquid waves lead to fluctuating forces on the tank walls. If these fluctuations are not predicted or controlled, for example, by using baffles, they can lead to large forces and momentums. The volume of fluid (VOF) two-phase numerical model in OpenFOAM open-source software has been widely used to model the liquid sloshing. However, a big challenge for modeling the sloshing phenomenon is selecting a suitable turbulence model. Therefore, in the present study, different turbulence models were studied to determine their sloshing phenomenon prediction accuracies. The predictions of these models were validated using experimental data. The turbulence models were ranked by their mean error in predicting the free surface behaviors. The renormalization group (RNG) k-ε and the standard k-ω models were found to be the best and worst turbulence models for modeling the sloshing phenomena, respectively; moreover, the SST k-ω model and v2-f k-ε results were very close to the RNG k-ε model result.

So Gu Kim
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 4): 422-433
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On March 26, 2010 an underwater explosion (UWE) led to the sinking of the ROKS Cheonan. The official Multinational Civilian-Military Joint Investigation Group (MCMJIG) report concluded that the cause of the underwater explosion was a 250 kg net explosive weight (NEW) detonation at a depth of 6?9 m from a DPRK “CHT-02D” torpedo. Kim and Gitterman (2012a) determined the NEW and seismic magnitude as 136 kg at a depth of approximately 8m and 2.04, respectively using basic hydrodynamics based on theoretical and experimental methods as well as spectral analysis and seismic methods. The purpose of this study was to clarify the cause of the UWE via more detailed methods using bubble dynamics and simulation of propellers as well as forensic seismology. Regarding the observed bubble pulse period of 0.990 s, 0.976 s and 1.030 s were found in case of a 136 NEW at a detonation depth of 8 m using the boundary element method (BEM) and 3D bubble shape simulations derived for a 136 kg NEW detonation at a depth of 8 m approximately 5 m portside from the hull centerline. Here we show through analytical equations, models and 3D bubble shape simulations that the most probable cause of this underwater explosion was a 136 kg NEW detonation at a depth of 8m attributable to a ROK littoral “land control” mine (LCM).

Qunyan Ren, Jean Pierre Hermand and Shengchun Piao
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 4): 495-501
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Compared to a scalar pressure sensor, a vector sensor can provide a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) signal and more detailed information on the sound field. Study on vector sensors and their applications have become a hot topic. Research on the representation of a vector field is highly relevant for extending the scope of vector sensor technology. This paper discusses the range-frequency distribution of the vector field due to a broadband acoustic source moving in a shallow-water waveguide as the self noise of a surface ship, and the vector extension of the waveguide impulse response measured over a limited frequency range using an active source of known waveform. From theory analysis and numerical simulation, the range-frequency representation of a vector field exhibits an interference structure qualitatively similar to that of the corresponding pressure field but, being quantitatively different, provides additional information on the waveguide, especially through the vertical component. For the range-frequency representation, physical quantities that can better exhibit the interference characteristics of the waveguide are the products of pressure and particle velocity and of the pressure and pressure gradient. An image processing method to effectively detect and isolate the individual striations from an interference structure was reviewed briefly. The representation of the vector impulse response was discussed according to two different measurement systems, also known as particle velocity and pressure gradient. The vector impulse response representation can not only provide additional information from pressure only but even more than that of the range-frequency representation.

Xueqian Zhou, Serge Sutulo and C. Guedes Soares
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 3): 265-275
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A computer code based on the double-body potential flow model and the classic source panel method has been developed to study various problems of hydrodynamic interaction between ships and other objects with solid boundaries including the seabed. A peculiarity of the proposed implementation is the application of the so-called “moving-patch” method for simulating steady boundaries of large extensions. The method is based on an assumption that at any moment just the part of the boundary (“moving patch”) which lies close to the interacting ship is significant for the near-field interaction. For a specific case of the flat bottom, comparative computations were performed to determine optimal dimensions of the patch and of the constituting panels based on the trade-off between acceptable accuracy and reasonable efficiency. The method was applied to estimate the sway force on a ship hull moving obliquely across a dredged channel. The method was validated for a case of ship-to-ship interaction when tank data were available. This study also contains a description of a newly developed spline approximation algorithm necessary for creating consistent discretizations of ship hulls with various degrees of refinement.

Naga Venkata Rakesh Nimmagadda, Lokeswara Rao Polisetty, Anantha Subramanian Vaidyanatha Iyer
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2020(3): 398-414
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High-speed planing crafts have successfully evolved through developments in the last several decades. Classical approaches such as inviscid potential flow-based methods and the empirically based Savitsky method provide general understanding for practical design. However, sometimes such analyses suffer inaccuracies since the air-water interface effects, especially in the transition phase, are not fully accounted for. Hence, understanding the behaviour at the transition speed is of fundamental importance for the designer. The fluid forces in planing hulls are dominated by phenomena such as flow separation at various discontinuities viz., knuckles, chines and transom, with resultant spray generation. In such cases, the application of potential theory at high speeds introduces limitations. This paper investigates the simulation of modelling of the pre-planing behaviour with a view to capturing the air-water interface effects, with validations through experiments to compare the drag, dynamic trim and wetted surface area. The paper also brings out the merits of gridding strategies to obtain reliable results especially with regard to spray generation due to the air-water interface effects. The verification and validation studies serve to authenticate the use of the multi-gridding strategies on the basis of comparisons with simulations using model tests. It emerges from the study that overset/chimera grids give better results compared with single unstructured hexahedral grids. Two overset methods are investigated to obtain reliable estimation of the dynamic trim and drag, and their ability to capture the spray resulting from the air-water interaction. The results demonstrate very close simulation of the actual flow kinematics at steady-speed conditions in terms of spray at the air-water interface, drag at the pre-planing and full planing range and dynamic trim angles.

Antonio C. FERNANDES1* and Allan C. OLIVEIRA2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2009(No. 2): 144-150
DOI:[HTML]
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The methodology to obtain the non-linear roll damping from decay tests is very old. It has been proposed by Froude in the 19th century and used from then on. Behind it there is a quadratic model for the damping and a subsequent equivalent linearization. Probably all model basin in the world follows this approach to assess the damping from a decay test. This is well documented and so is the methods to get the p1-p2 coefficients. This is very general in the sense that in principle, it could be applied to any kind of hull. However, it has become clear that for hull with a flat bottom such as a very large crude carrier (VLCC), this approach may lead to confusing results such as negative p2. Faced with this, the work presents a completely new idea. Avoiding the polynomial approximation, the basic attitude is to devise two regions from the decaying test response. The first, called the large amplitude response region yields a larger damping, probably due to the large bilge keel vortices that are attracted to the hull flat bottom. The second is the small amplitude response region where the vortices are not attracted to the bottom but travels approximately 45? sidewise. These observations has led to a new approach called the bi-linear approach as discussed in the work after analyzing several (many) model test results. In fact, a new modified bi-linear approach is ultimately proposed after the understanding of a transition region instead of a transition angle.

Kai Yu, Peikai Yan, Jian Hu
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2020(3): 436-443
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In this study, a series of numerical calculations are carried out in ANSYS Workbench based on the unidirectional fluid-solid coupling theory. Using the DTMB 4119 propeller as the research object, a numerical simulation is set up to analyze the open water performance of the propeller, and the equivalent stress distribution of the propeller acting in the flow field and the axial strain of the blade are analyzed. The results show that FLUENT calculations can provide accurate and reliable calculations of the hydrodynamic load for the propeller structure. The maximum equivalent stress was observed in the blade near the hub, and the tip position of the blade had the largest stress. With the increase in speed, the stress and deformation showed a decreasing trend.

Xi-zeng Zhao and Zhao-chen Sun
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 1): 8-13
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The influence of wave breaking on wave statistics for finite-depth random wave trains is investigated experimentally. This paper is to investigate the influence of wave breaking and water depth on the wave statistics for random waves on water of finite depth. Greater attention is paid to changes in wave statistics due to wave breaking in random wave trains. The results show skewness of surface elevations is independent of wave breaking and kurtosis is suppressed by wave breaking. Finally, the exceedance probabilities for wave heights are also investigated.

Luigia Mocerino1, C. Guedes Soares2, Enrico Rizzuto3, Flavio Balsamo1, Franco Quaranta1
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2021(3): 534-545
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In this study, a model is developed to simulate the dynamics of an internal combustion engine, and it is calibrated and validated against reliable experimental data, making it a tool that can effectively be adopted to conduct emission predictions. In this work, the Ricardo WAVE software is applied to the simulation of a particular marine diesel engine, a four-stroke engine used in the maritime field. Results from the bench tests are used for the calibration of the model. Finally, the calibration of the model and its validation with full-scale data measured at sea are presented. The prediction includes not only the classic engine operating parameters for a comparison with surveys but also an estimate of nitrogen oxide emissions, which are compared with similar results obtained with emission factors. The calibration of the model made it possible to obtain an overlap between the simulation results and real data with an average error of approximately 7% on power, torque, and consumption. The model provides encouraging results, suggesting further applications, such as in the study on transient conditions, coupling of the engine model with the ship model for a complete simulation of the operating conditions, and optimization studies on consumption and emissions. The availability of the emission data during the sea trial and validated simulation results are the strengths and novelties of this work.

Hassan Oraith, Eddie Blanco-Davis, Zaili Yang, Ben Matellini
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2021(3): 393-409
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In recent years, marine pilotage accidents occurring on a worldwide basis as a result of human error have not been ceased to transpire, despite advances in technology and a significant set of international conventions, regulations, and recommendations to reduce them. This paper aims to investigate the effect of human factors on the safety of maritime pilotage operations. The human factors that affect the operators who are performing ships’ berthing operations have also been examined in detail. In this study, in order to determine the causes of human-related errors occurred in maritime pilotage accidents, a comprehensive literature review is carried out, and a considerable number of real past case examples and an analysis of the maritime accident investigation reports regarding pilotage operations events that occurred between 1995 and 2015 have been reviewed. To validate the identified human-related risk factors (HCFs) and explore other contributory factors, survey questionnaires and semi-structured interviews with domain experts have been conducted. A structural hierarchy diagram for the identified risk factors (HCFs) has been developed and validated through experienced experts belonging to the maritime sector. A questionnaire for pair-wise comparison is carried out and analysed using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) approach to evaluate the weight and rank the importance of the identified human causal factors. The findings of this study will benefit the maritime industry, by identifying a new database on causal factors that are contributing to the occurrence of maritime pilotage disasters. The database can be used as a stand-alone reference or help implement effective risk reduction strategies to reduce the human error, that might occur during pilotage operations.

Hao Yu, Xiaoyu Li and Shuguang Yang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 1): 111-118
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A jack-up platform, with its particular structure, showed obvious dynamic characteristics under complex environmental loads in extreme conditions. In this paper, taking a simplified 3-D finite element dynamic model in extreme storm conditions as research object, a transient dynamic analysis method was proposed, which was under both regular and irregular wave loads. The steps of dynamic analysis under extreme conditions were illustrated with an applied case, and the dynamic amplification factor (DAF) was calculated for each response parameter of base shear, overturning moment and hull sway. Finally, the structural response results of dynamic and static were compared and analyzed. The results indicated that the static strength analysis of the Jack-up Platforms was not enough under the dynamic loads including wave and current, further dynamic response analysis considering both computational efficiency and accuracy was necessary.

Charita D. Makavita1,2, Shantha G. Jayasinghe1, Hung D. Nguyen1, Dev Ranmuthugala1
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2021(3): 504-523
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Command governor–based adaptive control (CGAC) is a recent control strategy that has been explored as a possible candidate for the challenging task of precise maneuvering of unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) with parameter variations. CGAC is derived from standard model reference adaptive control (MRAC) by adding a command governor that guarantees acceptable transient performance without compromising stability and a command filter that improves the robustness against noise and time delay. Although simulation and experimental studies have shown substantial overall performance improvements of CGAC over MRAC for UUVs, it has also shown that the command filter leads to a marked reduction in initial tracking performance of CGAC. As a solution, this paper proposes the replacement of the command filter by a weight filter to improve the initial tracking performance without compromising robustness and the addition of a closed-loop state predictor to further improve the overall tracking performance. The new modified CGAC (M-CGAC) has been experimentally validated and the results indicate that it successfully mitigates the initial tracking performance reduction, significantly improves the overall tracking performance, uses less control force, and increases the robustness to noise and time delay. Thus, M-CGAC is a viable adaptive control algorithm for current and future UUV applications.

Yanuar, Gunawan, Sunaryo and A. Jamaluddin
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 3): 301-304
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Ship hull form of the underwater area strongly influences the resistance of the ship. The major factor in ship resistance is skin friction resistance. Bulbous bows, polymer paint, water repellent paint (highly water-repellent wall), air injection, and specific roughness have been used by researchers as an attempt to obtain the resistance reduction and operation efficiency of ships. Micro-bubble injection is a promising technique for lowering frictional resistance. The injected air bubbles are supposed to somehow modify the energy inside the turbulent boundary layer and thereby lower the skin friction. The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of injected micro bubbles on a navy fast patrol boat (FPB) 57 m type model with the following main dimensions: L=2 450 mm, B=400 mm, and T=190 mm. The influence of the location of micro bubble injection and bubble velocity was also investigated. The ship model was pulled by an electric motor whose speed could be varied and adjusted. The ship model resistance was precisely measured by a load cell transducer. Comparison of ship resistance with and without micro-bubble injection was shown on a graph as a function of the drag coefficient and Froude number. It was shown that micro bubble injection behind the mid-ship is the best location to achieve the most effective drag reduction, and the drag reduction caused by the micro-bubbles can reach 6%–9%.

Dimitris Konovessis, Wenkui Cai and Dracos Vassalos
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 2): 140-151
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In the past fifteen years, the attention of ship safety treatment as an objective rather than a constraint has started to sweep through the whole maritime industry. The risk-based ship design (RBD) methodology, advocating systematic integration of risk assessment within the conventional design process has started to takeoff. Despite this wide recognition and increasing popularity, important factors that could potentially undermine the quality of the results come from both quantitative and qualitative aspects during the risk assessment process. This paper details a promising solution by developing a formalized methodology for risk assessment through effective storing and processing of historical data combined with data generated through first-principle approaches. This method should help to generate appropriate risk models in the selected platform (Bayesian networks) which can be employed for decision making at design stage.

He Zhang*, Yu-ru Xu and Hao-peng Cai
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 2): 149-155
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Applications of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) to the maritime industry continue to grow with the increasing development of computers. Numerical approaches have evolved to a level of accuracy which allows them to be applied for hydrodynamic computations in industry areas. Hydrodynamic tests, especially planar-motion-mechanism (PMM) tests are simulated by CFD software –FLUENT, and all of the corresponding hydrodynamic coefficients are obtained, which satisfy the need of establishing the simulation system to evaluate maneuverability of vehicles during the autonomous underwater vehicle scheme design stage. The established simulation system performed well in tests.