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HAO Yan-ling CHEN Ming-hui LI Liang-jun XU Bo
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2008(No. 2): 0
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There are many filtering methods that can be used for the initial alignment of an integrated inertial navigation system.This paper discussed the use of GPS,but focused on two kinds of filters for the initial alignment of an integrated strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS).One method is based on the Kalman filter (KF),and the other is based on the robust filter.Simulation results showed that the filter provides a quick transient response and a little more accurate estimate than KF,given substantial process noise or unknown noise statistics.So the robust filter is an effective and useful method for initial alignment of SINS.This research should make the use of SINS more popular,and is also a step for further research.

QIN Ting-rong CHEN Wei-jiong ZENG Xiang-kun
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2008(No. 4): 0
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Quantified risk assessment (QRA) needs mathematicization of risk theory. However,attention has been paid almost exclusively to applications of assessment methods,which has led to neglect of research into fundamental theories,such as the relationships among risk,safety,danger,and so on. In order to solve this problem,as a first step,fundamental theoretical relationships about risk and risk management were analyzed for this paper in the light of mathematics,and then illustrated with some charts. Second,man-machine-environment-management (MMEM) theory was introduced into risk theory to analyze some properties of risk. On the basis of this,a three-dimensional model of risk management was established that includes: a goal dimension;a management dimension;an operation dimension. This goal management operation (GMO) model was explained and then emphasis was laid on the discussion of the risk flowchart (operation dimension),which lays the groundwork for further study of risk management and qualitative and quantitative assessment. Next,the relationship between Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) and Risk Management was researched. This revealed that the FSA method,which the international maritime organization (IMO) is actively spreading,comes from Risk Management theory. Finally,conclusion were made about how to apply this risk management method to concrete fields efficiently and conveniently,as well as areas where further research is required.

Xing Zheng and Wen-yang Duan
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 1): 34-41
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Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is a Lagrangian meshless particle method. It is one of the best method for simulating violent free surface flows in fluids and solving large fluid deformations. Dam breaking is a typical example of these problems. The basis of SPH was reviewed, including some techniques for governing equation resolution, such as the stepping method and the boundary handling method. Then numerical results of a dam breaking simulation were discussed, and the benefits of concepts like artificial viscosity and position correction were analyzed in detail. When compared with dam breaking simulated by the volume of fluid (VOF) method, the wave profile generated by SPH had good agreement, but the pressure had only reasonable agreement. Improving pressure results is clearly an important next step for research.

So Gu Kim
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 4): 422-433
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On March 26, 2010 an underwater explosion (UWE) led to the sinking of the ROKS Cheonan. The official Multinational Civilian-Military Joint Investigation Group (MCMJIG) report concluded that the cause of the underwater explosion was a 250 kg net explosive weight (NEW) detonation at a depth of 6?9 m from a DPRK “CHT-02D” torpedo. Kim and Gitterman (2012a) determined the NEW and seismic magnitude as 136 kg at a depth of approximately 8m and 2.04, respectively using basic hydrodynamics based on theoretical and experimental methods as well as spectral analysis and seismic methods. The purpose of this study was to clarify the cause of the UWE via more detailed methods using bubble dynamics and simulation of propellers as well as forensic seismology. Regarding the observed bubble pulse period of 0.990 s, 0.976 s and 1.030 s were found in case of a 136 NEW at a detonation depth of 8 m using the boundary element method (BEM) and 3D bubble shape simulations derived for a 136 kg NEW detonation at a depth of 8 m approximately 5 m portside from the hull centerline. Here we show through analytical equations, models and 3D bubble shape simulations that the most probable cause of this underwater explosion was a 136 kg NEW detonation at a depth of 8m attributable to a ROK littoral “land control” mine (LCM).

Antonio C. FERNANDES1* and Allan C. OLIVEIRA2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2009(No. 2): 144-150
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The methodology to obtain the non-linear roll damping from decay tests is very old. It has been proposed by Froude in the 19th century and used from then on. Behind it there is a quadratic model for the damping and a subsequent equivalent linearization. Probably all model basin in the world follows this approach to assess the damping from a decay test. This is well documented and so is the methods to get the p1-p2 coefficients. This is very general in the sense that in principle, it could be applied to any kind of hull. However, it has become clear that for hull with a flat bottom such as a very large crude carrier (VLCC), this approach may lead to confusing results such as negative p2. Faced with this, the work presents a completely new idea. Avoiding the polynomial approximation, the basic attitude is to devise two regions from the decaying test response. The first, called the large amplitude response region yields a larger damping, probably due to the large bilge keel vortices that are attracted to the hull flat bottom. The second is the small amplitude response region where the vortices are not attracted to the bottom but travels approximately 45? sidewise. These observations has led to a new approach called the bi-linear approach as discussed in the work after analyzing several (many) model test results. In fact, a new modified bi-linear approach is ultimately proposed after the understanding of a transition region instead of a transition angle.

Hao Yu, Xiaoyu Li and Shuguang Yang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 1): 111-118
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A jack-up platform, with its particular structure, showed obvious dynamic characteristics under complex environmental loads in extreme conditions. In this paper, taking a simplified 3-D finite element dynamic model in extreme storm conditions as research object, a transient dynamic analysis method was proposed, which was under both regular and irregular wave loads. The steps of dynamic analysis under extreme conditions were illustrated with an applied case, and the dynamic amplification factor (DAF) was calculated for each response parameter of base shear, overturning moment and hull sway. Finally, the structural response results of dynamic and static were compared and analyzed. The results indicated that the static strength analysis of the Jack-up Platforms was not enough under the dynamic loads including wave and current, further dynamic response analysis considering both computational efficiency and accuracy was necessary.

Qiang Wang, Li-ping Sun and Shan Ma
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 2): 200-207
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Problems experienced during Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) tandem offloading operations were investigated. The aim of this research was to improve the reliability of such systems, and it needed a means to assess them. Time-domain simulation and analysis of offloading systems was performed using the multi-body mooring software ARIANE 7.0. Hydrodynamic interaction between the vessels was considered. The responses of the offloading system in different loading cases, different parameters of offloading hawsers and the effects of challenging environmental conditions were calculated. There was a focus on the problems of relative motion between the two bodies and its effects on the intensity of hawser forces. Minimum relative distance, maximum relative headings and maximum tension in the hawsers of offloading systems were obtained by time-domain analysis. The time-domain analysis was effective and comparative study can be used to optimize parameters of the system and extend operating limits.

Binbin Li, Kun Liu, Gongwei Yan and Jinping Ou
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 3): 306-314
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The South China Sea contains tremendous oil and gas resources in deepwater areas. However, one of the keys for deepwater exploration, the investigation of deepwater floating platforms, is very inadequate. In this paper, the authors studied and compared the hydrodynamics and global motion behaviors of typical deepwater platforms in the South China Sea environment. The hydrodynamic models of three main types of floating platforms, e.g. the Semi-submersible, tension leg platform (TLP), and Truss Spar, which could potentially be utilized in the South China Sea, were established by using the 3-D potential theory. Additionally, some important considerations which significantly influence the hydrodynamics were given. The RAOs in frequency domains as well as global motions in time domains under time-varying wind, random waves, and current in 100-y, 10-y, and 1-y return period environment conditions were predicted, compared, and analyzed. The results indicate that the heave and especially the pitch motion of the TLP are favorable. The heave response of the Truss Spar is perfect and comparable with that of the TLP when the peak period of random waves is low. However, the pitch motion of Truss Spar is extraordinarily larger than that of Semi-submersible and TLP.

Xueqian Zhou, Serge Sutulo and C. Guedes Soares
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 3): 265-275
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A computer code based on the double-body potential flow model and the classic source panel method has been developed to study various problems of hydrodynamic interaction between ships and other objects with solid boundaries including the seabed. A peculiarity of the proposed implementation is the application of the so-called “moving-patch” method for simulating steady boundaries of large extensions. The method is based on an assumption that at any moment just the part of the boundary (“moving patch”) which lies close to the interacting ship is significant for the near-field interaction. For a specific case of the flat bottom, comparative computations were performed to determine optimal dimensions of the patch and of the constituting panels based on the trade-off between acceptable accuracy and reasonable efficiency. The method was applied to estimate the sway force on a ship hull moving obliquely across a dredged channel. The method was validated for a case of ship-to-ship interaction when tank data were available. This study also contains a description of a newly developed spline approximation algorithm necessary for creating consistent discretizations of ship hulls with various degrees of refinement.

Hamid Ahmadi, Mohammad Ali Lotfollahi-Yaghin and Mohammad H. Aminfar
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 1): 83-97
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A set of parametric stress analyses was carried out for two-planar tubular DKT-joints under different axial loading conditions. The analysis results were used to present general remarks on the effects of the geometrical parameters on stress concentration factors (SCFs) at the inner saddle, outer saddle, and crown positions on the central brace. Based on results of finite element (FE) analysis and through nonlinear regression analysis, a new set of SCF parametric equations was established for fatigue design purposes. An assessment study of equations was conducted against the experimental data and original SCF database. The satisfaction of acceptance criteria proposed by the UK Department of Energy (UK DoE) was also checked. Results of parametric study showed that highly remarkable differences exist between the SCF values in a multi-planar DKT-joint and the corresponding SCFs in an equivalent uni-planar KT-joint having the same geometrical properties. It can be clearly concluded from this observation that using the equations proposed for uni-planar KT-connections to compute the SCFs in multi-planar DKT-joints will lead to either considerably under-predicting or over-predicting results. Hence, it is necessary to develop SCF formulae specially designed for multi-planar DKT-joints. Good results of equation assessment according to UK DoE acceptance criteria, high values of correlation coefficients, and the satisfactory agreement between the predictions of the proposed equations and the experimental data guarantee the accuracy of the equations. Therefore, the developed equations can be reliably used for fatigue design of offshore structures.

Rui Deng*, De-bo Huang, Jia Li, Xuan-kai Cheng, and Lei Yu
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 2): 187-191
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In order to get some useful parameters for grid generation of catamaran, the CFD software FLUENT is used to investigate the main effects of grid generation on flow field calculation. The influences of some elements are investigated with a series of calculations in the present paper, and some alteratives are proposed. The proposed alteratives based on the analysis of the effects are used for a catamaran resistance calculation, comparisons of the calculated results with experimental data show good agreement. It shows that the research result of this paper is useful for the numerical calculation of catamaran.

Hassan Ghasseni and Parviz Ghadimi
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 3): 289-299
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A numerical analysis based on the boundary element method (BEM) was presented for the hydrodynamic performance of a high skew propeller (HSP) which is employed by an underwater vehicle (UV). Since UVs operate at two different working conditions (surface and submerged conditions), the design of such a propeller is a cumbersome task. This is primarily due to the fact that the resistance forces as well as the vessel efficiency under these conditions are significantly different. Therefore, some factors are necessary for the design of the optimum propeller to utilize the power at the mentioned conditions. The design objectives of the optimum propeller are to obtain the highest possible thrust, minimum torque, and efficiency. In the current study, a 5-bladed HSP was chosen for running the UV. This propeller operated at the stern of the UV hull where the inflow velocity to the propeller was non-uniform. Some parameters of the propeller were predicted based on the UV geometrical hull and operating conditions. The computed results include the pressure distribution and the hydrodynamic characteristics of the HSP in open water conditions, and comparison of these results with those of the experimental data indicates good agreement. The propeller efficiency for both submerged and surface conditions was found to be 67% and 64%, respectively, which compared to conventional propellers is a significantly higher efficiency.

Ling Hou, Fangcheng Li and Chunliang Wu
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 3): 305-310
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In this research, liquid sloshing behavior in a 2-D rectangular tank was simulated using ANSYS-FLUENT software subject to single or multiple-coupled external excitations (such as sway coupled with roll, and sway and roll coupled with heave). The volume of fluid (VOF) method was used to track the free surface of sloshing. External excitation was imposed through the motion of the tank by using the dynamic mesh technique. The study shows that if the tank is subjected to multiple coupled excitations and resonant excitation frequencies, liquid sloshing will become violent and sloshing loads, including impact on the top wall, will be intensified.

Hong-wei Wang1*, Yong Luo1, Kai-ye Hu2 and Teng-teng Li3
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 2): 168-174
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To solve the dimensional limitations of physical models in tests, an equivalent water depth truncated design for a classical SPAR working in 913 m water was investigated. The water depth was reduced to 736m and then to 552m. As this was done, the mooring line lengths, EA value, and mass per meter were adjusted. Truncation rules and formulas for parameters and truncation factors were proposed. SPAR static characteristics were made to be consistent with those at full water depth. Then further time-domain coupled analysis was carried out for the SPAR when the mooring system experienced waves. The mooring lines were simulated by quasi-static method. Global responses and mooring line forces were found to agree well with test results for a prototype at that water depth. The truncation method proved to be robust and reliable.

Pankaj Biswas, Nisith Ranjan Mandal and Om Prakash Sha
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 1): 14-21
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Line heating process is a very complex phenomenon as a variety of factors affects the amount of residual deformations. Numerical thermal and mechanical analysis of line heating for prediction of residual deformation is time consuming. In the present work dimensional analysis has been presented to obtain a new relationship between input parameters and resulting residual deformations during line heating process. The temperature distribution and residual deformations for 6 mm, 8 mm, 10 mm and 12 mm thick steel plates were numerically estimated and compared with experimental and published results. Extensive data generated through a validated FE model were used to find co-relationship between the input parameters and the resulting residual deformation by multiple regression analysis. The results obtained from the deformation equations developed in this work compared well with those of the FE analysis with a drop in the computation time in the order of 100 (computational time required for FE analysis is around 7 200 second to 9 000 seconds and where the time required for getting the residual deformation by developed equations is only 60 to 90 seconds). Keywords: dimensional analysis; 3-D finite element analysis; elasto-plastic analysis; residual deformations; multiple regression analysis; oxy-acetylene gas flame

Shi-e Yang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 1): 22-26
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The channel effect of bottom reverberation had been investigated by many authors (Bucker and Morris, 1968; Holland, 2006; Mackenzie, 1962; Zhou and Zhang, 1977), but in most of these researches, bottom reverberation had been described as the sound field formed by distributed secondary sources on boundary, and results obtained in such way sometimes will contradict with principle of reciprocity in bi-static cases (Wang and Shang, 1981). It is desirable to give a method for computation of reverberation, which directly using the scattering effect of stochastic characteristics of water channel, and can give results obeying the principle of reciprocity in any case. In this paper, the method of coupled mode is used for evaluation of bottom reverberation field caused by roughness of bottom interface, and multi-pole method is introduced for consideration of directional source.

Xi-zeng Zhao and Zhao-chen Sun
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 1): 8-13
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The influence of wave breaking on wave statistics for finite-depth random wave trains is investigated experimentally. This paper is to investigate the influence of wave breaking and water depth on the wave statistics for random waves on water of finite depth. Greater attention is paid to changes in wave statistics due to wave breaking in random wave trains. The results show skewness of surface elevations is independent of wave breaking and kurtosis is suppressed by wave breaking. Finally, the exceedance probabilities for wave heights are also investigated.

Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 2): 156-162
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Flexible risers and steel catenary risers often provide unique riser solutions for today’s deepwater field development. Accurate analysis of these slender structures, in which there are high-speed HP/HT internal flows, is critical to ensure personnel and asset safety. In this study, a special global coordinate-based FEM rod model was adopted to identify and quantify the effects of internal flow and hydrostatic pressure on both flexible and deepwater steel catenary risers, with emphasis on the latter. By incorporating internal flow induced forces into the model, it was found that the internal flow contributes a new term to the effective tension expression. For flexible risers in shallow water, internal flow and hydrostatic pressure made virtually no change to effective tension by merely altering the riser wall tension. In deep water the internal pressure wielded a dominant role in governing the riser effective tension and furthering the static configuration, while the effect of inflow velocity was negligible. With respect to the riser seabed interaction, both the seabed support and friction effect were considered, with the former modeled by a nonlinear quadratic spring, allowing for a consistent derivation of the tangent stiffness matrix. The presented application examples show that the nonlinear quadratic spring is, when using the catenary solution as an initial static profile, an efficient way to model the quasi-Winkler-type elastic seabed foundation in this finite element scheme.

Ping-jian Ming1,3*, Yang-zhe Sun2, Wen-yang Duan3 and Wen-ping Zhang1
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 2): 181-186
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This paper presents an improved unstructured grid immersed boundary method. The advantages of both immersed boundary method and body fitted grids which are generated by unstructured grid technology are used to enhance the computation efficiency of fluid structure interaction in complex domain. The Navier-Stokes equation was discretized spacially with collocated finite volume method and Euler implicit method in time domain. The rigid body motion was simulated by immersed boundary method in which the fluid and rigid body interface interaction was dealt with VOS (volume of solid) method. A new VOS calculation method based on graph was presented in which both immersed boundary points and cross points were collected in arbitrary order to form a graph. The method is verified with flow past oscillating cylinder.

Shiqiang Yan, Qingwei Ma and Xiaoming Cheng
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 1): 1-9
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wo floating structures in close proximity are very commonly seen in offshore engineering. They are often subjected to steep waves and, therefore, the transient effects on their hydrodynamic features are of great concern. This paper uses the quasi arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian finite element method (QALE-FEM), based on the fully nonlinear potential theory (FNPT), to numerically investigate the interaction between two 3-D floating structures, which undergo motions with 6 degrees of freedom (DOFs), and are subjected to waves with different incident angles. The transient behaviours of floating structures, the effect of the accompanied structures, and the nonlinearity on the motion of and the wave loads on the structures are the main focuses of the study. The investigation reveals an important transient effects causing considerably larger structure motion than that in steady state. The results also indicate that the accompanied structure in close proximity enhances the interaction between different motion modes and results in stronger nonlinearity causing 2nd-order component to be of similar significance to the fundamental one.

Shahid Mahmood and Debo Huang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 3): 286-294
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Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) plays a major role in predicting the flow behavior of a ship. With the development of fast computers and robust CFD software, CFD has become an important tool for designers and engineers in the ship industry. In this paper, the hull form of a ship was optimized for total resistance using CFD as a calculation tool and a genetic algorithm as an optimization tool. CFD based optimization consists of major steps involving automatic generation of geometry based on design parameters, automatic generation of mesh, automatic analysis of fluid flow to calculate the required objective/cost function, and finally an optimization tool to evaluate the cost for optimization. In this paper, integration of a genetic algorithm program, written in MATLAB, was carried out with the geometry and meshing software GAMBIT and CFD analysis software FLUENT. Different geometries of additive bulbous bow were incorporated in the original hull based on design parameters. These design variables were optimized to achieve a minimum cost function of “total resistance”. Integration of a genetic algorithm with CFD tools proves to be effective for hull form optimization.

Sheng Huang, Miao He, Chao Wang and Xin Chang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 1): 63-68
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In order to predict the effects of cavitation on a hydrofoil, the state equations of the cavitation model were combined with a linear viscous turbulent method for mixed fluids in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software FLUENT to simulate steady cavitating flow. At a fixed attack angle, pressure distributions and volume fractions of vapor at different cavitation numbers were simulated, and the results on foil sections agreed well with experimental data. In addition, at the various cavitation numbers, the vapor fractions at different attack angles were also predicted. The vapor region moved towards the front of the airfoil and the length of the cavity grew with increased attack angle. The results show that this method of applying FLUENT to simulate cavitation is reliable.

He Zhang*, Yu-ru Xu and Hao-peng Cai
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 2): 149-155
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Applications of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) to the maritime industry continue to grow with the increasing development of computers. Numerical approaches have evolved to a level of accuracy which allows them to be applied for hydrodynamic computations in industry areas. Hydrodynamic tests, especially planar-motion-mechanism (PMM) tests are simulated by CFD software –FLUENT, and all of the corresponding hydrodynamic coefficients are obtained, which satisfy the need of establishing the simulation system to evaluate maneuverability of vehicles during the autonomous underwater vehicle scheme design stage. The established simulation system performed well in tests.

Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 2): 163-174
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It is hypothesized that steady anguilliform swimming motion of aquatic animals is purely reactive such that no net vortex wake is left downstream. This is versus carangiform and tunniform swimming of fish, where vortex streams are shed from tail, fins, and body. But there the animal movements are such to produce partial vortex cancellation downstream in maximizing propulsive efficiency. In anguilliform swimming characteristic of the eel family, it is argued that the swimming motions are configured by the animal such that vortex shedding does not occur at all. However, the propulsive thrust in this case is higher order in the motion amplitude, so that relatively large coils are needed to produce relatively small thrust; the speeds of anguilliform swimmers are less than the carangiform and tunniform, which develop first order thrusts via lifting processes. Results of experimentation on live lamprey are compared to theoretical prediction which assumes the no-wake hypothesis. Two-dimensional analysis is first performed to set the concept. This is followed by three-dimensional analysis using slender-body theory. Slender-body theory has been applied by others in studying anguilliform swimming, as it is ideally suited to the geometry of the lamprey and other eel-like animals. The agreement between this new approach based on the hypothesis of wakeless swimming and the experiments is remarkably good in spite of the physical complexities.

Yu Cao; Bao-jun Yu and Jian-fang Wang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 3): 292
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The seakeeping performance of a luxury cruise ship was evaluated during the concept design phase. By comparing numerical predictions based on 3-D linear potential flow theory in the frequency domain with the results of model tests, it was shown that the 3-D method predicted the seakeeping performance of the luxury cruise ship well. Based on the model, the seakeeping features of the luxury cruise ship were analyzed, and then the influence was seen of changes to the primary design parameters (center of gravity, inertial radius, etc.). Based on the results, suggestions were proposed to improve the choice of parameters for luxury cruise ships during the concept design phase. They should improve seakeeping performance.

Wenyang Duan and Binbin Zhao
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 4): 364-398
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An innovative hydrodynamic theory and numerical model were developed to help improve the efficiency, accuracy, and convergence of the numerical prediction of wave drift forces on two side-by-side deepwater floating bodies. The wave drift forces were expressed by the double integration of source strength and the corresponding Green function on the body surface, which is consistent with the far field formula based on momentum conservation and sharing the advantage of near field calculations providing the drift force on each body. Numerical results were validated through comparing the general far field model and pressure integral model, as well as the middle field model developed using the software HydroStar.

Wenyang Duan and Chuanqing Li
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 1): 1-12
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Under the background of the energy saving and emission reduction, more and more attention has been placed on investigating the energy efficiency of ships. The added resistance has been noted for being crucial in predicting the decrease of speed on a ship operating at sea. Furthermore, it is also significant to investigate the added resistance for a ship functioning in short waves of large modern ships. The researcher presents an estimation formula for the calculation of an added resistance study in short waves derived from the reflection law. An improved method has been proposed to calculate the added resistance due to ship motions, which applies the radiated energy theory along with the strip method. This procedure is based on an extended integral equation (EIE) method, which was used for solving the hydrodynamic coefficients without effects of the irregular frequency. Next, a combined method was recommended for the estimation of added resistance for a ship in the whole wave length range. The comparison data with other experiments indicate the method presented in the paper provides satisfactory results for large blunt ship.

Qiang Wang, Hu Zhou and Decheng Wan
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 3): 321-327
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Numerical simulations of wind turbine blade-tower interaction by using the open source OpenFOAM tools coupled with arbitrary mesh interface (AMI) method were presented. The governing equations were the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) which were solved by the pimpleDyMFoam solver, and the AMI method was employed to handle mesh movements. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) phase VI wind turbine in upwind configuration was selected for numerical tests with different incoming wind speeds (5, 10, 15, and 25 m/s) at a fixed blade pitch and constant rotational speed. Detailed numerical results of vortex structure, time histories of thrust, and pressure distribution on the blade and tower were presented. The findings show that the wind turbine tower has little effect on the whole aerodynamic performance of an upwind wind turbine, while the rotating rotor will induce an obvious cyclic drop in the front pressure of the tower. Also, strong interaction of blade tip vortices with separation from the tower was observed.

YUE Ji-xiang*, QI Yao-guang, XIAO Wen-sheng, YANG Lei and YANG Yi-pu
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2009(No. 2): 117-122
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The general layout of 6th generation semi-submersible drilling platforms is the main factor impacting the efficiency of their drilling operations. This paper provides a compound/integrated algorithm based on process flow that is aimed at improving efficiency, while giving attention to stability and safety at the same time. The paper describes the process flow of dual drilling centers and a hierarchical division of rigs based on the different modes of transportation of various drilling support systems. The general layout-centripetal overall arrangement spatially was determined based on drilling efficiency. We derived our modules according to drilling functionality; the modules became our basic layout units. We applied different layout algorithm to mark out the upper and lower decks. That is, the upper deck was designed based on the lowest transportation cost while the lower deck’s calculations were based on the best-fit scope. Storage configurations in columns and pontoons were also considered for the layout design. Finally the center of gravity was taken into consideration and the general layout was adjusted accordingly, to result in an optimal center of gravity. The methodology of the general layout can provide a reference for implementation of domestic designs of semi-submersible rigs.

Ai Shang-mao* and SUN Li-ping
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2009(No. 2): 151-155
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During the operation and installation of offshore pipelines, high axial forces and pressures are experienced, and their effects cannot be neglected. In this article, the effect of internal flow velocity and functional loads on vortex-induced vibration (VIV) response is investigated. On the basis of the Hamilton principle, a differential equation was derived to describe the motion of a pinned-pinned tensioned spanning pipeline conveying fluid. The VIV response was calculated according to DNV-RP-F105 under different functional loads. The results showed that functional loads influence free spanning pipeline VIV response by changing the natural frequency. Internal flow velocity was found less important for VIV response than other functional load factors, such as effective axial force, because the speed in reality is not high enough to be significant. The research may provide a reference for sensitivity studies of the effect of functional loads on allowable free span lengths.

YAN Fa-suo*, ZHANG Da-gang, SUN Li-ping and Dai Yang-shan
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2009(No. 2): 132-136
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Stress response of a tension leg platform (TLP) in extreme environments was investigated in this paper. A location on one of the gussets was selected as the object point, where directional stresses were numerically simulated and also experimentally verified by a strain gage. Environmental loading and the platform’s structural strength were analyzed in accordance with industrial standards, utilizing linear wave theory and the finite element method (FEM). The fast Fourier transform technique was used to calculate the stress response amplitude operators (RAO) from the records of measurements. A comparison was performed between the stress RAO of the numerical simulation and that of the actual measurements. The results indicated that the stress RAO of the numerical simulation fitted well with measured data at specified wave headings with different periods.

Yanuar, Gunawan, Sunaryo and A. Jamaluddin
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 3): 301-304
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Ship hull form of the underwater area strongly influences the resistance of the ship. The major factor in ship resistance is skin friction resistance. Bulbous bows, polymer paint, water repellent paint (highly water-repellent wall), air injection, and specific roughness have been used by researchers as an attempt to obtain the resistance reduction and operation efficiency of ships. Micro-bubble injection is a promising technique for lowering frictional resistance. The injected air bubbles are supposed to somehow modify the energy inside the turbulent boundary layer and thereby lower the skin friction. The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of injected micro bubbles on a navy fast patrol boat (FPB) 57 m type model with the following main dimensions: L=2 450 mm, B=400 mm, and T=190 mm. The influence of the location of micro bubble injection and bubble velocity was also investigated. The ship model was pulled by an electric motor whose speed could be varied and adjusted. The ship model resistance was precisely measured by a load cell transducer. Comparison of ship resistance with and without micro-bubble injection was shown on a graph as a function of the drag coefficient and Froude number. It was shown that micro bubble injection behind the mid-ship is the best location to achieve the most effective drag reduction, and the drag reduction caused by the micro-bubbles can reach 6%–9%.

GAO Zhu1*, LI Xing2, TANG Hong-wu3, GU Zheng-hua4
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2009(No. 4): 338-342
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Revetments of concrete frame tetrahedrons are being used more and more in river engineering in China. Due to their complex geometry, it is difficult to measure the velocity fields inside them using traditional measurement methods. This limits understanding of their mechanics, potentially leading to suboptimal solutions. A 3-D hydrodynamic model based on the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, Fluent, was developed to predict velocity fields and drags. The realizable k-ε model was adopted for turbulent closure of the Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations. The study demonstrates that the numerical model can effectively supplement experimental studies in understanding the complex flow fields and mechanics of concrete frame tetrahedron revetments. Graphs showing the drag coefficient CD versus Reynolds number Re and lift coefficient CL versus Reynolds number Re were produced.

Ying Xiong, Zhanzhi Wang and Wanjiang Qi
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 1): 13-20
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Numerical simulation is investigated to disclose how propeller boss cap fins (PBCF) operate utilizing Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) method. In addition, exploration of the influencing mechanism of PBCF on the open water efficiency of one controllable-pitch propeller is analyzed through the open water characteristic curves, blade surface pressure distribution and hub streamline distribution. On this basis, the influence of parameters including airfoil profile, diameter, axial position of installation and circumferential installation angle on the open water efficiency of the controllable-pitch propeller is investigated. Numerical results show: for the controllable-pitch propeller, the thrust generated is at the optimum when the radius of boss cap fins is 1.5 times of propeller hub with an optimal installation position in the axial direction, and its optimal circumferential installation position is the midpoint of the extension line of the front and back ends of two adjacent propeller roots in the front of fin root. Under these optimal parameters, the gain of open water efficiency of the controllable-pitch propeller with different advance velocity coefficients is greater than 0.01, which accounts for approximately an increase of 1%-5% of open water efficiency.

Khaled Hafez and Abdel-Rahman El-Kot
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 4): 377-393
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This paper numerically investigates the influence of separation variation of the outriggers on the hydrodynamic performance of a high speed trimaran (HST) aiming at improving its applicability in diverse realistic disciplines. The present investigation was performed within the framework of the 2-D slender body method (SBM) by calculating the resistance of three symmetric trimaran series moving in a calm free surface of deep water. Each trimaran series comprises of 4681 configurations generated by considering 151 staggers (?50%≤α≤+100%), and 31 separations (100%≤β≤400%) for 81 Froude numbers (0.20≤Fn≤1.0). In developing the three trimaran series, Wigley?-st, AMECRC?-09, and NPL?-4a models were used separately for both the main and side hulls of each individual series models. A computer macro named Tri-PL? was created using the Visual Basic for Applications?. Tri-PL? sequentially interfaced Maxsurf? then Hullspeed? to generate the models of the three trimaran series together with their detailed hydrostatic particulars, followed by their resistance components. The numerical results were partially validated against the available published numerical calculations and experimental results, to benchmark the Tri-PL? macro and hence to rely on the analysis outcomes. A graph template was created within the framework of SigmaPlot? to visualize the significant results of the Tri-PL? properly.

Liping Sun and Bo Qi
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 4): 478-484
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The mechanical performance of a flexible riser is more outstanding than other risers in violent environmental conditions. Based on the lumped mass method, a steep wave flexible riser configuration attached to a Floating Production Storage and Offloading (FPSO) has been applied to a global analysis in order to acquire the static and dynamic behavior of the flexible riser. The riser was divided into a series of straight massless line segments with a node at each end. Only the axial and torsional properties of the line were modeled, while the mass, weight, and buoyancy were all lumped to the nodes. Four different buoyancy module lengths have been made to demonstrate the importance of mode selection, so as to confirm the optimum buoyancy module length. The results in the sensitivity study show that the flexible riser is not very sensitive to the ocean current, and the buoyancy module can reduce the Von Mises stress and improve the mechanical performance of the flexible riser. Shorter buoyancy module length can reduce the riser effective tension in a specific range of the buoyancy module length when other parameters are constant, but it can also increase the maximum curvature of the riser. As a result, all kinds of the riser performances should be taken into account in order to select the most appropriate buoyancy module length.

DENG Zhong-chao*, YAO Xiong-liang and ZHANG Da-gang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2009(No. 4): 291-297
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Isolator systems on ships should ideally be able to simultaneously reduce low frequency vibration response and high frequency shock response. Conventional isolator systems are unable to do so. To solve the problem, a new style isolator system was created. This isolator system consists of a steel coil spring component and a magnetorheological (MR) damper component working in parallel. Experiments on this isolator system were carried out, including tests of vibration reduction and shock resistance. The vibration load frequencies were set from 1-15 Hz, and force amplitudes from 2.94~11.76 kN. The maximum shock input acceleration was 20 g, and impulse width was 10ms. Both the vibration and shock loads were applied using MTS Systems Corporation’s hydraulic actuators. The experimental results indicated that the isolator system performs well on system vibration response, with resonance humps of the vibration response obviously reduced after using the MR damper. For the shock experiment, the attenuation of shock response was much faster with increased MR damping. The MR damper’s effect on shock moments was very different from its performance in vibration mode. The correlation between MR force and control current was not as evident as it was during vibration loads.

Ru-jian Yan, Shuo Pang, Han-bing Sun and Yong-jie Pang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 4): 451-457
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The navy and other Department of Defense organizations are increasingly interested in the use of unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) for a variety of missions and applications. The term USV refers to any vehicle that operates on the surface of the water without a crew. USVs have the potential, and in some cases the demonstrated ability, to reduce risk to manned forces, provide the necessary force multiplication to accomplish military missions, perform tasks which manned vehicles cannot, and do so in a way that is affordable for the navy. A survey of USV activities worldwide as well as the general technical challenges of USVs was presented below. A general description of USVs was provided along with their typical applications. The technical challenges of developing a USV include its intelligence level, control, high stability, and developmental cost reduction. Through the joint efforts of researchers around the world, it is believed that the development of USVs will enter a new phase in the near future, as USVs could soon be applied widely both in military and civilian service.

Hengxu Liu, Wenyang Duan and Xiaobo Chen
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 4): 400-405
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Wave diffraction of two concentric porous cylinders with varying porosity was studied by using an analytical method based on eigenfunction matching. The fluid domain around the cylinders is divided into three sub-domains and in each sub-domain an eigenfunction expansion of the velocity potential is obtained by satisfying the Laplace equation, the boundary conditions on the free surface and on the sea bed. The unknown coefficients of eigenfunction expansions are determined by boundary conditions on the porous hulls. In the paper, the boundary conditions are based upon the assumption that the flow in the porous medium is governed by Darcy’s law. Two porous-effect parameters applied on two porous cylinders are functions of the vertical coordinate instead of the constant. Wave loading on the outer and inner cylinder is presented in the numerical results.

ZHANG Da-gang1,2, DENG Zhong-chao1* and YAN Fa-suo1
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2009(No. 2): 123-131
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The concepts of floating structure plays a very important role in deepwater projects; and the design of the floating structure is one of the most important tasks in the project. The importance of the floating structure in offshore projects can be demonstrated in the following several areas: the substantial dynamic structure responses due to wave loading and current loading; the limited motion requirements of risers in deep water; and the increasing difficulty of installation for different components of the system. Three major technical aspects have to be considered, i.e. the strength of structure, the fatigue resistance capacity of the system, and local and global stability of the structure. This paper reviews the current design practice of floating structures, evaluates the main tasks during the design and associated major technical requirements, and addresses the major technical challenges encountered during the design. As a close-out of the paper, the authors discuss some potential future developments in the design of floating structures.

Liping Sun, Qiang He and Shangmao Ai
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 3): 315-320
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In order to improve the safety properties of an offloading system with side-by-side (SBS) mooring in which the FPSO is moored by a yoke system in the field of BZ25-1, it is necessary to analyze those properties. According to the experience of similar projects, tow strategies of different offloading arrangements were discussed by using the 3-D radiation/diffraction theory and quasi-static time domain method to assess their respective safety properties. Through the safety assessment analysis of different arrangement comparisons, various ways to improve the safety properties of offloading systems with side-by-side mooring were verified by analyzing the tension in the mooring lines and the fender deflection. Through comparison it can be concluded that by enlarging the key factors properly, including the size of the fenders and the hawsers as well as the number of hawsers, a better safety performance can be achieved.

Hassan GHASSEMI
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2009(No. 4): 267-274
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Demand for high-speed marine vehicles (HSMVs) is high among both commercial and naval users. It is the duty of the marine vessel’s designer to provide a hull and propulsion system that diminishes drag, improves propulsive efficiency, increases safety and improves maneuverability. From the propulsor side, surface piercing propellers (SPPs) should improve performance. Unlike immersed propellers, behavior of the SPP is affected by depth of immersion, Weber number and shaft inclination angle. This paper uses a practical numerical method to predict the hydrodynamic characteristics of an SPP. The critical advance velocity ratio is derived using the Weber number and pitch ratio in the transition mode, then the potential based boundary element method (BEM) is used on the engaged surfaces. Two models of three and six-bladed SPPs (SPP-1 and SPP-2) were selected and some results are shown.

Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 2): 184-189
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The water entry problem of an asymmetric wedge with roll motion was analyzed by the method of a modified Logvinovich model (MLM). The MLM is a kind of analytical model based on the Wagner method, which linearizes the free surface condition and body boundary condition. The difference is that the MLM applies a nonlinear Bernoulli equation to obtain pressure distribution, which has been proven to be helpful to enhance the accuracy of hydrodynamic loads. The Wagner condition in this paper was generalized to solve the problem of the water entry of a wedge body with rotational velocity. The comparison of wet width between the MLM and a fully nonlinear numerical approach was given, and they agree well with each other. The effect of angular velocity on the hydrodynamic loads of a wedge body was investigated.

Hanyang Gong, Ruhua Yuan, Xiaodong Xing, Liquan Wang, Zhipeng Wang and Haixia Gong
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 1): 98-105
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The plow of the submarine plowing trencher is one of the main functional mechanisms, and its optimization is very important. The design parameters play a very significant role in determining the requirements of the towing force of a vessel. A multi-objective genetic algorithm based on analytical models of the plow surface has been examined and applied in efforts to obtain optimal design of the plow. For a specific soil condition, the draft force and moldboard surface area which are the key parameters in the working process of the plow are optimized by finding the corresponding optimal values of the plow blade penetration angle and two surface angles of the main cutting blade of the plow. Parameters such as the moldboard side angle of deviation, moldboard lift angle, angular variation of the tangent line, and the spanning length are also analyzed with respect to the force of the moldboard surface along soil flow direction. Results show that the optimized plow has an improved plow performance. The draft forces of the main cutting blade and the moldboard are 10.6% and 7%, respectively, less than the original design. The standard deviation of Gaussian curvature of moldboard is lowered by 64.5%, which implies that the smoothness of the optimized moldboard surface is much greater than the original.

Wenjun Shen and Yougang Tang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 4): 471-477
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Considering the static stability and the change of the displacement volume, including the influences of higher order nonlinear terms and the instantaneous wave surface, the nonlinear coupled heave-pitch motion was established in stochastic waves. The responses of heave-pitch coupling motion for the Truss Spar platform were investigated. It was found that, when the characteristic frequency of a stochastic wave is close to the natural heave frequency, the large amplitude pitch motion is induced under the parametric-forced excitation, which is called the Mathieu instability. It was observed that the heave mode energy is transferred to pitch mode when the heave motion amplitude exceeds a certain extent. In addition, the probability of internal resonant heave-pitch motion is greatly reduced while the characteristic wave frequency is away from the natural heave frequency.

KANG Zhuang1* and William C. WEBSTER2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2009(No. 2): 99-104
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Experiments on the two-degree-freedom vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a flexibly-mounted, rigid, smooth cylinder were performed at MIT. The research reported here is an analysis of the cylinder’s trajectories. System identification methods were used to derive a best Fourier representation for these motions and to parse these motions into symmetric and asymmetric behaviors. It was postulated that the asymmetric behavior was due to distortions caused by the free surface and bottom used at the test facility, and that the symmetric behavior is representative of deepwater VIV. Further application of systems identification methods was used to associate the symmetric behavior and test conditions to a traditional vortex street model. These models were analyzed for their ability to predict details of VIV trajectories.

Weijun Xu, Kazuhiro Iijima, Ryota Wada and Masahiko Fujikubo
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 1): 34-43
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Experimental investigations into the collapse behavior of a box-shape hull girder subjected to extreme wave-induced loads are presented. The experiment was performed using a scaled model in a tank. In the middle of the scaled model, sacrificial specimens with circular pillar and trough shapes which respectively show different bending moment-displacement characteristics were mounted to compare the dynamic collapse characteristics of the hull girder in waves. The specimens were designed by using finite element (FE)-analysis. Prior to the tank tests, static four-point-bending tests were conducted to detect the load-carrying capacity of the hull girder. It was shown that the load-carrying capacity of a ship including reduction of the capacity after the ultimate strength can be reproduced experimentally by employing the trough type specimens. Tank tests using these specimens were performed under a focused wave in which the hull girder collapses under once and repetitive focused waves. It was shown from the multiple collapse tests that the increase rate of collapse becomes higher once the load-carrying capacity enters the reduction path while the increase rate is lower before reaching the ultimate strength.

Torgeir MOAN
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2009(No. 2): 83-92
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Based on relevant in-service experience, this paper discusses how risks associated with station-keeping systems can be controlled through adequate design criteria, inspection, repair and maintenance practice, as well as quality assurance and control of the engineering processes. Particular focus must be placed on quantitative design for system robustness. The application of structural reliability analysis to quantify safety is briefly reviewed. In particular it was emphasized that reliability predictions based on normal uncertainties and variability yielded lower failure rates than those experienced for predictions of hulls and catenary mooring systems; gross errors in design, fabrication and operation were responsible. For this reason the broad safety management approach mentioned above was proposed. Moreover, it was found that this approach needed to be supported by a quantitative risk assessment. Finally, the challenges in dealing with the effects of human factors in risk management are outlined, along with means to deal with them in a qualitative manner, by the so-called barrier method to limit risk.

Haixiao Liu
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 4): 393-401
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Experimental and theoretical studies of drag embedment plate anchors recently carried out in Tianjin University are summarized in this research paper, which involve a series of important topics relevant to the study of drag anchors. The techniques for measuring the trajectory and movement direction of drag anchors in soils, the techniques for measuring the moving embedment point and reverse catenary shape of the embedded drag line, the penetration mechanism and kinematic behavior of drag anchors, the ultimate embedment depth of drag anchors, the movement direction of the anchor with an arbitrary fluke section, the reverse catenary properties of the embedded drag line, the interactional properties between drag anchor and installation line, the kinematic model of drag anchors in seabed soils, and the analytical method for predicting the anchor trajectory in soils will all be examined. The present work remarkably reduces the uncertainties in design and analysis of drag embedment plate anchors, and is beneficial to improving the application of this new type of drag anchor in offshore engineering.

Jia-wen Sun, Shu-xiu Liang, Zhao-chen Sunand Xi-zeng Zhao
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 4): 372-378
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A numerical model was established for simulating wave impact on a horizontal deck by an improved incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (ISPH). As a grid-less particle method, the ISPH method has been widely used in the free-surface hydrodynamic flows with good accuracy. The improvement includes the employment of a corrective function for enhancement of angular momentum conservation in a particle-based calculation and a new estimation method to predict the pressure on the horizontal deck. The simulation results show a good agreement with the experiment. The present numerical model can be used to study wave impact load on the horizontal deck.