Call for Paper—Special Issue on “Ultimate strength of ships and offshore structures”

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Guanyu Zhang, Xiang Chen, Decheng Wan
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(4): 387-399
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Nowadays, an increasing number of ships and marine structures are manufactured and inevitably operated in rough sea. As a result, some phenomena related to the violent fluid-elastic structure interactions (e.g., hydrodynamic slamming on marine vessels, tsunami impact on onshore structures, and sloshing in liquid containers) have aroused huge challenges to ocean engineering fields. In this paper, the moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method and finite element method (FEM) coupled method is proposed for use in numerical investigations of the interaction between a regular wave and a horizontal suspended structure. The fluid domain calculated by the MPS method is dispersed into fluid particles, and the structure domain solved by the FEM method is dispersed into beam elements. The generation of the 2D regular wave is firstly conducted, and convergence verification is performed to determine appropriate particle spacing for the simulation. Next, the regular wave interacting with a rigid structure is initially performed and verified through the comparison with the laboratory experiments. By verification, the MPS-FEM coupled method can be applied to fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems with waves. On this basis, taking the flexibility of structure into consideration, the elastic dynamic response of the structure subjected to the wave slamming is investigated, including the evolutions of the free surface, the variation of the wave impact pressures, the velocity distribution, and the structural deformation response. By comparison with the rigid case, the effects of the structural flexibility on wave-elastic structure interaction can be obtained.

Md. Mashud Karim, Nabila Naz
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(4): 400-416
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Reducing the fuel consumption of ships presents both economic and environmental gains. Although in the past decades, extensive studies were carried out on the flow around ship hull, it is still difficult to calculate the flow around the hull while considering propeller interaction. In this paper, the viscous flow around modern ship hulls is computed considering propeller action. In this analysis, the numerical investigation of flow around the ship is combined with propeller theory to simulate the hull-propeller interaction. Various longitudinal positions of the rudder are also analyzed to determine the effect of rudder position on propeller efficiency. First, a numerical study was performed around a bare hull using Shipflow computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to determine free-surface wave elevation and resistance components. A zonal approach was applied to successively incorporate "potential flow solver" in the region outside the boundary layer and wake, "boundary layer solver" in the thin boundary layer region near the ship hull, and "Navier-Stokes solver" in the wake region. Propeller open water characteristics were determined using an open-source MATLAB code OpenProp, which is based on the lifting line theory, for the moderately loaded propeller. The obtained open water test results were specified in the flow module of Shipflow for self-propulsion tests. The velocity field behind the ship was recalculated into an effective wake and given to the propeller code that calculates the propeller load. Once the load was known, it was transferred to the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver to simulate the propeller action. The interaction between the hull and propeller with different rudder positions was then predicted to improve the propulsive efficiency.

Anjan Sasmal1, Sandip Paul2, Soumen De1
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(4): 417-432
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The diffraction of obliquely incident wave by two unequal barriers with different porosity in infinitely deep water is investigated by using two-dimensional linearized potential theory. Reflection and transmission coefficients are computed numerically using appropriate Galerkin approximations for two partially immersed and two submerged barriers. The amount of energy dissipation due to the permeable barriers is derived using Green’s integral theorem. The coefficient of wave force is determined using the linear Bernoulli equation of dynamic pressure jump on the porous barriers. The numerical results of hydrodynamics quantities are illustrated graphically.

H. Behera1,2, S. Ghosh1,2,3
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(4): 433-443
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The present study deals with the oblique wave trapping by a surface-piercing flexible porous barrier near a rigid wall in the presence of step-type bottoms under the assumptions of small amplitude water waves and the structural response theory in finite water depth. The modified mild-slope equation along with suitable jump conditions and the least squares approximation method are used to handle the mathematical boundary value problem. Four types of edge conditions, i.e., clamped-moored, clamped-free, moored-free, and moored-moored, are considered to keep the barrier at a desired position of interest. The role of the flexible porous barrier is studied by analyzing the reflection coefficient, surface elevation, and wave forces on the barrier and the rigid wall. The effects of step-type bottoms, incidence angle, barrier length, structural rigidity, porosity, and mooring angle are discussed. The study reveals that in the presence of a step bottom, full reflection can be found periodically with an increase in (i) wave number and (ii) distance between the barrier and the rigid wall. Moreover, nearly zero reflection can be found with a suitable combination of wave and structural parameters, which is desirable for creating a calm region near a rigid wall in the presence of a step bottom.

Zijie Song1, Zhiqiang Hu2, Jonas W. Ringsberg3
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(4): 444-456
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NVA mild steel is a commonly used material in the shipbuilding industry. An accurate model for description of this material’s ductile fracture behaviour in numerical simulation is still a challenging task. In this paper, a new method for predicting the critical void volume fraction fc in the Guson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) model is introduced to describe the ductile fracture behaviour of NVA shipbuilding mild steel during ship collision and grounding scenarios. Most of the previous methods for determination of the parameter fc use a converse method, which determines the values of the parameters through comparisons between experimental results and numerical simulation results but with high uncertainty. A new method is proposed based on the Hill, Bressan, and Williams hypothesis, which reduces the uncertainty to a satisfying extent. To accurately describe the stress-strain relationship of materials before and after necking, a combination of the Voce and Swift models is used to describe the material properties of NVA mild steel. A user-defined material subroutine has been developed to enable the application of the new parameter determination method and its implementation in the finite element software LS-DYNA. It is observed that the model can accurately describe structural damage by comparing the numerical simulation results with those of experiments; thus, the results demonstrate the model’s capacity for structural response prediction in ship collision and grounding scenario simulations

K. Ravindra Babu, R. Datta, A. Bhattacharyya
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(4): 457-471
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In this paper, the influence of heave and pitch motions on green water impact on the deck is numerically investigated. The vessel motions are determined using a potential theory based method and provided as input to finite volume based CFD computations of green water phenomenon. A dynamic mesh approach is adopted to determine instantaneous body positioning in the fluid domain. Detailed validation studies with published experimental results for 2D and 3D fixed vessel cases are initially performed to validate the present numerical approach before studying the moving vessel problem. The results show that inclusion of heave and pitch motion changes the disturbed wave field near the bow which influences the free surface as well as the impact loading due to green water. The effect of wave steepness on green water impact is also investigated and it is seen that the present numerical method is capable of capturing green water load. It is observed that the effects of vessel motions on green water load are not negligible and one should consider this effect too. The incorporation of vessel motions in the vertical plane affects the green water loading on the deck.

Yanuar, Ibadurrahman, R. Muhammad Arif, D. P. Muhamad Ryan
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(4): 472-481
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Pentamaran, a vessel with five hulls, can be an alternative for high-speed vessels due to its advantages, for instance, its excellent stability and seakeeping performance and broader deck space than an equivalent monohull with the same displacement. The destructive interference between the system of waves produced by the vessel’s hulls might benefit the reduction of power consumption. This study investigated a Wigley hull form pentamaran model with five asymmetric and symmetric hull configurations and three variations of hull separation. The ship model was towed in conditions of fixed towing and calm water with Froude numbers (Fr) ranging from 0.55 to 1.00. A resistance analysis had been carried out to ensure proper comparison between the asymmetric and symmetric hull configurations. Results showed that total resistance coefficient of the asymmetries created different properties from the symmetries, that is, symmetries produced steadier trends than asymmetries. The hull separation variation caused a slight alteration in the total resistant coefficient (in magnitude) under the same configuration. Although not a single configuration outperformed the others in the entire range of Fr, three configurations were noteworthy as optimum models based on their Fr range. Moreover, a configuration of asymmetric hull with S/L=0.22 could generate a constant destructive interference throughout the investigated Fr range.

Srinivasan Chandrasekaran, P. T. Ajesh Kumar
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(4): 482-491
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A conventional method of damage modeling by a reduction in stiffness is insufficient to model the complex non-linear damage characteristics of concrete material accurately. In this research, the concrete damage plasticity constitutive model is used to develop the numerical model of a deck beam on a berthing jetty in the Abaqus finite element package. The model constitutes a solid section of 3D hexahedral brick elements for concrete material embedded with 2D quadrilateral surface elements as reinforcements. The model was validated against experimental results of a beam of comparable dimensions in a cited literature. The validated beam model is then used in a three-point load test configuration to demonstrate its applicability for preliminary numerical evaluation of damage detection strategy in marine concrete structural health monitoring. The natural frequency was identified to detect the presence of damage and mode shape curvature was found sensitive to the location of damage.

Lijun Wang1, Nikolaos I. Xiros2, Eleftherios K. Loghis3
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(4): 492-509
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Roll motion of ships can be distinguished in two parts:an unavoidable part due to their natural movement while turning and an unwanted and avoidable part that is due to encounter with waves and rough seas in general. For the attenuation of the unwanted part of roll motion, ways have been developed such as addition of controllable fins and changes in shape. This paper investigates the effectiveness of augmenting the rudder used for rejecting part of the unwanted roll, while maintaining steering and course changing ability. For this purpose, a controller is designed, which acts through intentional superposition of fast, compared with course change, movements of rudder, in order to attenuate the high-frequency roll effects from encountering rough seas. The results obtained by simulation to exogenous disturbance support the conclusion that the roll stabilization for displacement can be effective at least when displacement hull vessels are considered. Moreover, robust stability and performance is verified for the proposed control scheme over the entire operating range of interest.

Yuanyuan Wang, Hung Duc Nguyen
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(4): 510-521
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The roll motions of ships advancing in heavy seas have severe impacts on the safety of crews, vessels, and cargoes; thus, it must be damped. This study presents the design of a rudder roll damping autopilot by utilizing the dual extended Kalman filter (DEKF)-trained radial basis function neural networks (RBFNN) for the surface vessels. The autopilot system constitutes the roll reduction controller and the yaw motion controller implemented in parallel. After analyzing the advantages of the DEKFtrained RBFNN control method theoretically, the ship’s nonlinear model with environmental disturbances was employed to verify the performance of the proposed stabilization system. Different sailing scenarios were conducted to investigate the motion responses of the ship in waves. The results demonstrate that the DEKF RBFNN-based control system is efficient and practical in reducing roll motions and following the path for the ship sailing in waves only through rudder actions.

Jingwei Yin1,2,3, Bing Liu1,2,3, Guangping Zhu1,2,3, Xiao Han1,2,3
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(4): 522-529
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In recent years, moving target detection methods based on low-rank and sparse matrix decomposition have been developed, and they have achieved good results. However,there is not enough interpretation to support the assumption that there is ahigh correlation among the reverberations after each transmitting pulse. In order to explain the correlation of reverberations, a new reverberation model is proposed from the perspective of scattering cells in this paper. The scattering cells are the subarea divided from the detection area. The energy fluctuation of a scattering cell with time and the influence of the neighboring cells are considered. Key parameters of the model were analyzed by numerical analysis, and the applicability of the model was verified by experimental analysis. The results showed that the model can be used for several simulations to evaluate the performance of moving target detection methods.

Yanhui Wei, Jing Liu, Shenggong Hao, Jiaxing Hu
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(4): 530-541
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This paper proposes a heading fault tolerance scheme for operation-level underwater robots subject to external interference. The scheme is based on a double-criterion fault detection method using a redundant structure of a dual electronic compass. First, two subexpansion Kalman filters are set up to fuse data with an inertial attitude measurement system. Then, fault detection can effectively identify the fault sensor and fault source. Finally, a fault-tolerant algorithm is used to isolate and alarm the faulty sensor. The program can effectively detect the constant magnetic field interference, change the magnetic field interference and small transient magnetic field interference, and conduct fault tolerance control in time to ensure the heading accuracy of the system. Test verification shows that the system is practical and effective.

Qingcai Yang, Shuying Li, Yunpeng Cao
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2019(4): 542-553
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Monitoring and evaluating the health parameters of marine gas turbine engine help in developing predictive control techniques and maintenance schedules. Because the health parameters are unmeasurable, researchers estimate them only based on the available measurement parameters. Kalman filter-based approaches are the most commonly used estimation approaches; however, the conventional Kalman filter-based approaches have a poor robustness to the model uncertainty, and their ability to track the mutation condition is influenced by historical data. Therefore, in this paper, an improved Kalman filter-based algorithm called the strong tracking extended Kalman filter (STEKF) approach is proposed to estimate the gas turbine health parameters. The analytical expressions of Jacobian matrixes are deduced by non-equilibrium point analytical linearization to address the problem of the conventional approaches. The proposed approach was used to estimate the health parameters of a two-shaft marine gas turbine engine in the simulation environment and was compared with the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the unscented Kalman filter (UKF). The results show that the STEKF approach not only has a computation cost similar to that of the EKF approach but also outperforms the EKF approach when the health parameters change abruptly and the noise mean value is not zero.