Journal of Marine Science and Application [Others]
Hailong Chen, Ji Li, Conglai Long, Tong Wei, Guoqing Ning, Jun Yan and Zhuangjun Fan
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2014(No. 4): 462-466
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This work presents NiS/graphene/carbon nanotube (NiS/GNS/CNT) composites as electrode material for the supercapacitor application in sea flashing signal systems. NiS nanosheets were closely anchored on the conductive GNS-CNT networks. As a result, the NiS/GNS/CNT electrode showed a high specific capacitance of 2 377 F?g-1 at 2 mV?s-1 and good cycling stability compared with the pure NiS (1 599 F?g-1). The enhanced electrochemical performances are attributed to the synergetic effect between the conductive carbon and the pseudo-capacitive NiS. The high performance supercapacitor may provide application in the sea flashing signal system.

Deepati Anil Kumar, Pankaj Biswas, Sujoy Tikader, M. M. Mahapatra and N. R. Mandal
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 4): 493-499
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Most of the investigations regarding friction stir welding (FSW) of aluminum alloy plates have been limited to about 5 to 6 mm thick plates. In prior work conducted the various aspects concerning the process parameters and the FSW tool geometry were studied utilizing friction stir welding of 12 mm thick commercial grade aluminum alloy. Two different simple-to- manufacture tool geometries were used. The effect of varying welding parameters and dwell time of FSW tool on mechanical properties and weld quality was examined. It was observed that in order to achieve a defect free welding on such thick aluminum alloy plates, tool having trapezoidal pin geometry was suitable. Adequate tensile strength and ductility can be achieved utilizing a combination of high tool rotational speed of about 2000 r/min and low speed of welding around 28 mm/min. At very low and high dwell time the ductility of welded joints are reduced significantly.

Rodrigo Perez Fernandez
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 1): 58-64
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Motion sickness is one of the main reasons why travelling by sea becomes a bad memory for a number of people, mainly due to a nauseating symptom. The aim of this paper is to characterize a condition called seasickness that has affected many people from a mathematical and psychological point of view. Based on the mathematical characterization, an existing model will be reviewed and described. In the psychological aspects, a statistical study of two hundred and thirteen people was performed in order to provide a comprehensive view of the different psychological factors affecting the passengers. Motion sickness also impacts onboard safety, as it reduces the effectiveness and the operating capability of the crew when responding to hazardous situations.

Xiaogong Lin, Shusheng Xu and Yehai Xie
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 1): 106-111
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In the normal operation condition, a conventional square-root cubature Kalman filter (SRCKF) gives sufficiently good estimation results. However, if the measurements are not reliable, the SRCKF may give inaccurate results and diverges by time. This study introduces an adaptive SRCKF algorithm with the filter gain correction for the case of measurement malfunctions. By proposing a switching criterion, an optimal filter is selected from the adaptive and conventional SRCKF according to the measurement quality. A subsystem soft fault detection algorithm is built with the filter residual. Utilizing a clear subsystem fault coefficient, the faulty subsystem is isolated as a result of the system reconstruction. In order to improve the performance of the multi-sensor system, a hybrid fusion algorithm is presented based on the adaptive SRCKF. The state and error covariance matrix are also predicted by the priori fusion estimates, and are updated by the predicted and estimated information of subsystems. The proposed algorithms were applied to the vessel dynamic positioning system simulation. They were compared with normal SRCKF and local estimation weighted fusion algorithm. The simulation results show that the presented adaptive SRCKF improves the robustness of subsystem filtering, and the hybrid fusion algorithm has the better performance. The simulation verifies the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

H. K. Mohanty, M. M. Mahapatra, P. Kumar, P. Biswas and N. R. Mandal
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 4): 493-503
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The present paper discusses the modeling of tool geometry effects on the friction stir aluminum welds using response surface methodology. The friction stir welding tools were designed with different shoulder and tool probe geometries based on a design matrix. The matrix for the tool designing was made for three types of tools, based on three types of probes, with three levels each for defining the shoulder surface type and probe profile geometries. Then, the effects of tool shoulder and probe geometries on friction stirred aluminum welds were experimentally investigated with respect to weld strength, weld cross section area, grain size of weld and grain size of thermo-mechanically affected zone. These effects were modeled using multiple and response surface regression analysis. The response surface regression modeling were found to be appropriate for defining the friction stir weldment characteristics.

Dhiren Dave, Sanjay Nalbalwar and Ashok Ghatol
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 4): 504-511
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Location aware management and location based automation are fast upcoming technologies which are facilitated by availability of reliable, accurate, and cheap global positioning systems and location based services. This paper discusses the development of C++ classes, which may be used for development of software for location aware management and control, specifically in merchant shipping, so as to provide improved safety, increased automation, prevention of pollution and reducing the work burden of the crew. The GPS is used in conjunction with the regionally accessible nested global shorelines (RANGS) dataset for this purpose. The design of two main C++ classes named CShorelines and CGPSInput have been discussed. A control system mandatory on all oil-tankers above 150 GRT (and few other vessels) called ODMCS has been made location aware using the novel software developed and the results obtained have been critically examined and presented.

H. K. Narang, M. M. Mahapatra, P. K. Jha and P. Biswas
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 3): 387-391
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A fuzzy model was presented to predict the weldment shape profile of submerged arc welds (SAW) including the shape of heat affected zone (HAZ). The SAW bead-on-plates were welded by following a full factorial design matrix. The design matrix consisted of three levels of input welding process parameters. The welds were cross-sectioned and etched, and the zones were measured. A mapping technique was used to measure the various segments of the weld zones. These mapped zones were used to build a fuzzy logic model. The membership functions of the fuzzy model were chosen for the accurate prediction of the weld zone. The fuzzy model was further tested for a set of test case data. The weld zone predicted by the fuzzy logic model was compared with the experimentally obtained shape profiles and close agreement between the two was noted. The mapping technique developed for the weld zones and the fuzzy logic model can be used for on-line control of the SAW process. From the SAW fuzzy logic model an estimation of the fusion and HAZ can also be developed.

H. K. Mohanty, M. M. Mahapatra, P. Kumar, P. Biswas and N. R. Mandal
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 2): 200-207
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In marine application, marine grade steel is generally used for haul and superstructures. However, aluminum has also become a good choice due to its lightweight qualities, while rusting of aluminum is minimal compared to steel. In this paper a study on friction stir welding of aluminum alloys was presented. The present investigation deals with the effects of different friction stir welding tool geometries on mechanical strength and the microstructure properties of aluminum alloy welds. Three distinct tool geometries with different types of shoulder and tool probe profiles were used in the investigation according to the design matrix. The effects of each tool shoulder and probe geometry on the weld was evaluated. It was also observed that the friction stir weld tool geometry has a significant effect on the weldment reinforcement, microhardness, and weld strength.

Deok Eun Kim and Tuo Han Chen
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 1): 52-58
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Hamid Ahmadi, Mohammad Ali Lotfollahi-Yaghin and Mohammad H. Aminfar
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 1): 83-97
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A set of parametric stress analyses was carried out for two-planar tubular DKT-joints under different axial loading conditions. The analysis results were used to present general remarks on the effects of the geometrical parameters on stress concentration factors (SCFs) at the inner saddle, outer saddle, and crown positions on the central brace. Based on results of finite element (FE) analysis and through nonlinear regression analysis, a new set of SCF parametric equations was established for fatigue design purposes. An assessment study of equations was conducted against the experimental data and original SCF database. The satisfaction of acceptance criteria proposed by the UK Department of Energy (UK DoE) was also checked. Results of parametric study showed that highly remarkable differences exist between the SCF values in a multi-planar DKT-joint and the corresponding SCFs in an equivalent uni-planar KT-joint having the same geometrical properties. It can be clearly concluded from this observation that using the equations proposed for uni-planar KT-connections to compute the SCFs in multi-planar DKT-joints will lead to either considerably under-predicting or over-predicting results. Hence, it is necessary to develop SCF formulae specially designed for multi-planar DKT-joints. Good results of equation assessment according to UK DoE acceptance criteria, high values of correlation coefficients, and the satisfactory agreement between the predictions of the proposed equations and the experimental data guarantee the accuracy of the equations. Therefore, the developed equations can be reliably used for fatigue design of offshore structures.

Miao Chen, Duanfeng Han and Haipeng Zhang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 3): 340-346
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In order to enhance the authenticity and accuracy of passenger evacuation simulation in ships, a new multi-grid model was proposed on the basis of a traditional cellular automata model. In the new model finer lattices were used, interaction of force among pedestrians or between pedestrians and constructions was considered, and static floor fields in a multi-level exit environment were simplified into cabin and exit static floor fields. Compared with the traditional cellular automata model, the multi-grid model enhanced the continuity of the passengers’ track and the precision of the boundary qualifications. The functions of the dislocation distribution of passengers as well as partial overlap of tracks due to congestion were realized. Furthermore, taking the typical cabin environment as an example, the two models were used to analyze passenger evacuation under the same conditions. It was found that the laws of passenger evacuation simulated by the two models are similar, while the simulation’s authenticity and accuracy are enhanced by the multi-grid model.

Zhen Shang, Changhua Qiu and Shifan Zhu
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 3): 347-357
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Applying man-machine-environment system engineering (MMESE) in vessels is a method to improve the effectiveness of the interaction between equipment, environment, and humans for the purpose of advancing operating efficiency, performance, safety, and habitability of a vessel and its subsystems. In the following research, the life cycle of vessels was divided into 9 phases, and 15 research subjects were also identified from among these phases. The 15 subjects were systemized, and then the man-machine-environment engineering system application model for vessels was developed using the ICAM definition method 0 (IDEF0), which is a systematical modeling method. This system model bridges the gap between the data and information flow of every two associated subjects with the major basic research methods and approaches included, which brings the formerly relatively independent subjects together as a whole. The application of this systematic model should facilitate the application of man-machine-environment system engineering in vessels, especially at the conceptual and embodiment design phases. The managers and designers can deal with detailed tasks quickly and efficiently while reducing repetitive work.

Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 2): 246-251
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Propeller blade width measurement has been extensively studied in the past using direct and indirect methods, and it plays a great role in determining the quality of the finished products. It has surveyed that previous techniques are usually time-consuming and erroneous due to a large number of points to be processed in blade width measurement. This paper proposes a new method of measuring blade width using two images acquired from different viewpoints of the same blade. And a new feature points matching approach for propeller blade image is proposed in stereo vision measurement. Based on these, pixel coordinates of contour points of the blade in two images are extracted and converted to real world coordinates by image algorithm and binocular stereo machine vision theory. Then, from the real world coordinates, the blade width at any position can be determined by simple geometrical method.

Li Zhu1, Qingfen Li and F. G. Buchholz
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 1): 105-112
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Fracture processes in ship-building structures are in many cases of a 3-D character. A finite element (FE) model of an all fracture mode (AFM) specimen was built for the study of 3-D mixed mode crack fracture behavior including modes I, II, and III. The stress intensity factors (SIFs) were calculated by the modified virtual crack closure integral (MVCCI) method, and the crack initiation angle assessment was based on a recently developed 3-D fracture criterion––the Richard criterion. It was shown that the FE model of the AFM-specimen is applicable for investigations under general mixed mode loading conditions, and the computational results of crack initiation angles are in agreement with some available experimental findings. Thus, the applicability of the FE model of the AFM-specimen for mixed mode loading conditions and the validity of the Richard criterion can be demonstrated.

Ru-jian Yan, Shuo Pang, Han-bing Sun and Yong-jie Pang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 4): 451-457
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The navy and other Department of Defense organizations are increasingly interested in the use of unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) for a variety of missions and applications. The term USV refers to any vehicle that operates on the surface of the water without a crew. USVs have the potential, and in some cases the demonstrated ability, to reduce risk to manned forces, provide the necessary force multiplication to accomplish military missions, perform tasks which manned vehicles cannot, and do so in a way that is affordable for the navy. A survey of USV activities worldwide as well as the general technical challenges of USVs was presented below. A general description of USVs was provided along with their typical applications. The technical challenges of developing a USV include its intelligence level, control, high stability, and developmental cost reduction. Through the joint efforts of researchers around the world, it is believed that the development of USVs will enter a new phase in the near future, as USVs could soon be applied widely both in military and civilian service.

Hai Lan, Jiu-fang Li and Dian-hua Zhang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 1): 93-98
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The effect of line voltage drop is considered larger on loads, especially on asynchronous motor, transformers and other non-linear load parameters in power system of large ships. A novel power flow method based on improved node voltage method is proposed, and a typical ship power system, which has 2 power stations and 10 nodes, with closed-loop design but open-loop operation, is taken as an example. Simulation results show that the improved power flow calculation method has achieved higher accuracy and better convergence.

SONG Bao-wei*, LIU Zhan-yi, Xu Ting, HU Hai-bao and HUANG Ming-ming
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2009(No. 4): 333-337
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This paper presents a method based on the Spalding formula for testing drag-reduction on riblet surfaces. Its advantage lies in that it is more convenient and yields more precise data compared with testing methods using instruments such as a scale. With this method, data is obtained from the velocity distribution within the inner layer, nearest the riblet surface. Precision of measurement of the velocity distribution is the key factor affecting the precision of the testing.

WANG Zhi-jie1,2*
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2009(No. 2): 175-179
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As a result of the high speed of anti-submarine patrol aircraft as well as their wide range, high efficiency and other characteristics, aerial torpedoes released by anti-submarine patrol aircraft have become the key anti submarine tool. In order to improve operational efficiency, a deep study was made of the target detection probabilities for aerial torpedoes released by anti-submarine patrol aircraft. The operational modes of aerial torpedoes were analyzed and mathematical-simulation models were then established. The detection probabilities of three attacking modes were then calculated. Measures were developed for improving low probabilities of detection when attacking a probable target position. This study provides an important frame of reference for the operation of aerial torpedo released by anti-submarine patrol aircraft.

SUN Cheng-meng and JI Zhuo-shang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2009(No. 1): 1-6
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GU Cai-xiang*, ZHU Guan-jun, LI Lei, TIAN Xiao-yu and ZHU Guang-yao
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2009(No. 1): 71-76
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In order to enhance the tribological properties of lubricating oil, suitable surfactants such as Tween-20, Tween-60, Span-20 and Sodium sodecylbenzenesulfonate were selected and lubricating oils containing CeO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared. The morphology and size of CeO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles were examined with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The tribological properties of the oils were tested using an MRS-1J four-ball tribotester. The research results show that when the proportion by weight of CeO2 nanoparticles to TiO2 nanoparticles is 1:3, and the total weight fraction is 0.6%, the lubricating oil has optimal anti-wear and friction reducing properties. The addition of CeO2 nanoparticles reduces the required amount of TiO2 nanoparticles.

ZHANG Wei-ying LIN Yan JI Zhuo-shang ZHANG Guang-fa
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2008(No. 4): 0
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Containership stowage plans are a pivotal teaches in the system of container transportation. With the increasing containers shipping,planning containership stowage has become more and more complicated. So intelligent stowage planning for containerships is of great significance. An effective stowage plan may improve efficiency of transportation system. First,the progress of containership stowage plan at home and abroad is reviewed,including the latest developments,such as the application of various optimization methods and computer techniques to the problem. Then,the complexities of the problem are discussed and areas where investigations are still needed are pointed out. This will provide a reference for further research on the subject.

QIN Ting-rong CHEN Wei-jiong ZENG Xiang-kun
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2008(No. 4): 0
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Quantified risk assessment (QRA) needs mathematicization of risk theory. However,attention has been paid almost exclusively to applications of assessment methods,which has led to neglect of research into fundamental theories,such as the relationships among risk,safety,danger,and so on. In order to solve this problem,as a first step,fundamental theoretical relationships about risk and risk management were analyzed for this paper in the light of mathematics,and then illustrated with some charts. Second,man-machine-environment-management (MMEM) theory was introduced into risk theory to analyze some properties of risk. On the basis of this,a three-dimensional model of risk management was established that includes: a goal dimension;a management dimension;an operation dimension. This goal management operation (GMO) model was explained and then emphasis was laid on the discussion of the risk flowchart (operation dimension),which lays the groundwork for further study of risk management and qualitative and quantitative assessment. Next,the relationship between Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) and Risk Management was researched. This revealed that the FSA method,which the international maritime organization (IMO) is actively spreading,comes from Risk Management theory. Finally,conclusion were made about how to apply this risk management method to concrete fields efficiently and conveniently,as well as areas where further research is required.

SONG Tian-shu LI Dong REN Zheng-yi
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2008(No. 4): 0
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Wave propagation in an infinite elastic piezoelectric medium with a circular cavity and an impermeable crack subjected to steady-state anti-plane shearing was studied based on Green’s function and the crack-division technique. Theoretical solutions were derived for the whole elastic displacement and electric potential field in the interaction between the circular cavity and the impermeable crack. Expressions were obtained on the dynamic stress concentration factor (DSCF) at the cavity’s edge,the dynamic stress intensity factor (DSIF) and the dynamic electric displacement intensity factor (DEDIF) at the crack tip. Numerical solutions were performed and plotted with different incident wave numbers,parameters of piezoelectric materials and geometries of the structure. Finally,some of the calculation results were compared with the case of dynamic anti-plane interaction of a permeable crack and a circular cavity in an infinite piezoelectric medium. This paper can provide a valuable reference for the design of piezoelectric actuators and sensors widely used in marine structures.