Journal of Marine Science and Application [Ship Design and Performance]
Shukui Liu1, Baoguo Shang2, Apostolos Papanikolaou1, Victor Bolbot1
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2016(No. 4): 442-451
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The authors previously introduced a semi-empirical formula that enabled fast estimation of the added resistance of ships in head waves, and in this study the formula is further refined for easy use in engineering applications. It includes an alternative ship draft correction coefficient, which better accounts for the wave pressure decay with ship’s draft. In addition, it only uses the speed and main characteristics of the ship and wave environment as input, and has been simplified to the extent that it can be readily processed using a pocket calculator. Extensive validations are conducted for different ship types at low to moderate speeds in various typical irregular sea conditions, and encouraging results are obtained. This relevant and topical research lies within the framework of the recent IMO MEPC.232(65) (2013) EEDI guidelines for estimating the minimum powering of ships in adverse weather conditions, which specify for the use of simple methods in current Level 2 assessment within engineering applications.

Weilin Luo1,2, Zhicheng Zhang1
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2016(No. 4): 426-432
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In this paper, Neural Networks (NNs) are used in the modeling of ship maneuvering motion. A nonlinear response model and a linear hydrodynamic model of ship maneuvering motion are also investigated. The maneuverability indices and linear non-dimensional hydrodynamic derivatives in the models are identified by using two-layer feed forward NNs. The stability of parametric estimation is confirmed. Then, the ship maneuvering motion is predicted based on the obtained models. A comparison between the predicted results and the model test results demonstrates the validity of the proposed modeling method.

D. N. Pagonis1, G. Livanos1, G. Theotokatos2, S. Peppa1, N. Themelis3
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2016(No. 4): 405-425
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In this feasibility study, we investigate the viability of using Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) fuel in an open type Ro-Ro passenger ferry and the associated potential challenges with regard to the vessel safety systems. We recommend an appropriate methodology for converting existing ships to run on LNG fuel, discuss all the necessary modifications to the ship’s safety systems, and also evaluate the relevant ship evacuation procedures. We outline the basic requirements with which the ship already complies for each safety system and analyze the additional restrictions that must be taken into consideration for the use of LNG fuel. Appropriate actions are recommended. Furthermore, we carry out a hazard identification study. Overall, we clearly demonstrate the technical feasibility of the investigated scenario. Minimal modifications to the ship’s safety systems are required to comply with existing safety rules for this specific type of ship.

Francois Grinnaert1, Jean-Yves Billard1, Jean-Marc Laurens2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2016(No. 3): 223-235
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Currently, second generation intact stability criteria are being developed and evaluated by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). In this paper, we briefly present levels 1 and 2 assessment methods for the criteria of pure loss of stability and parametric roll failure modes. Subsequently, we show the KGmax curves associated with these criteria. We compute these curves for five different types of ships and compare them with the curves embodied in the current regulations. The results show that the safety margin ensured by the first level-1 method of calculation for both pure loss of stability and parametric roll seems to be excessive in many cases. They also show that the KGmax given by the second level-1 method and by the level-2 method may be very similar. In some cases, the level-2 method can be more conservative than the second level-1 method, which is unanticipated by the future regulation. The KGmax curves associated with parametric roll confirm that the C11 container ship is vulnerable to this failure mode. The computation of the second check coefficient of parametric roll level 2 (C2) for all possible values of KG reveals the existence of both authorized and restricted areas on the surface formed by both the draft and KG, which may replace the classical KGmax curves. In consequence, it is not sufficient to check that C2 is lower than the maximum authorized value (RPR0) for a fixed ship’s loading condition.

Onakoya Rasheed Alaba1, T. C. Nwaoha2, M. O. Okwu3
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2016(No. 3): 242-249
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In this study, we optimizethe loading and discharging operations of theLiquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carrier. First, we identify the required precautions for LNG carrier cargo operations. Next, we prioritize these precautions using the analytic hierarchy process(AHP)and experts’ judgments, in order to optimize the operationalloading and discharging exercises of the LNG carrier, prevent system failure and human error, and reduce the risk of marine accidents. Thus, the objective of our study is to increase the level of safety during cargo operations.

Yan Huang1, Wei Li1, Yinghui Wang2, Baoshan Wu2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2016(No. 3): 269-274
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In this study, we carried out model tests to investigate the ice failure process and the resistance experienced by a transport vessel navigating in the Arctic region in pack ice conditions. We tested different navigation velocities, ice plate sizes, and ice concentrations. During the tests, we closely observed several phenomena, including the modes of interaction of the iceship and the moving and failure modes of ice. We also measured the vessel resistances under different conditions. The test results indicate that the navigation velocity is a significant determinant of the moving and failure modes of ice. Moreover, vessel resistance is remarkably dependent on the ice concentration and navigation velocity. The variances of the mean and maximum resistance are also compared and discussed in detail.

Yan Huang1, Jianqiao Sun1, Shaopeng Ji2, Yukui Tian2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2016(No. 2): 105-111
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This study investigates the resistance of a transport ship navigating in level ice by conducting a series of model tests in an ice tank at Tianjin University. The laboratory-scale model ship was mounted on a rigid carriage using a one-directional load cell and then towed through an ice sheet at different speeds. We observed the ice-breaking process at different parts of the ship and motion of the ice floes and measured the resistances under different speeds to determine the relationship between the ice-breaking process and ice resistance. The bending failure at the shoulder area was found to cause maximum resistance. Furthermore, we introduced the analytical method of Lindqvist (1989) for estimating ice resistance and then compared these calculated results with those from our model tests. The results indicate that the calculated total resistances are higher than those we determined in the model tests.

T. C. Nwaoha1, Andrew John2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2016(No. 2): 144-156
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This study discusses the analysis of various modeling approaches such as genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic and evidential reasoning, and maintenance techniques applicable to the liquefied natural gas (LNG) carrier operations in the maritime environment. The usefulness of these algorithms in the LNG carrier industry in the areas of risk assessment and maintenance modeling as a standalone or hybrid algorithm are identified. This is evidenced with illustrative case studies.

Ismail Zainol1, Omar Yaakob2,3
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2016(No. 2): 214-221
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Fishing is a major local industry in Malaysia, particularly in rural areas. However, the rapidly increasing price of fuel is seriously affecting the industry’s viability. At present, outboard petrol engines are the preferred choice for use in small-scale fishing boats because they deliver the advantages of high speed and low weight, they are easy to install, and they use minimal space. Petrol outboard engines are known to consume a greater amount of fuel than inboard diesel engines, but installing diesel engines with conventional submerged propellers in existing small-scale fishing boats is not economically viable because major hullform modifications and extra expenditure are required to achieve this. This study describes a proposal to enable reductions in fuel consumption by introducing the combined use of a diesel engine and Surface-Piercing Propeller (SPP). An analysis of fuel consumption reduction is presented, together with an economic feasibility study. Resulting data reveal that the use of the proposed modifications would save 23.31 liters of fuel per trip (40.75%) compared to outboard motors, equaling annual savings of RM 3962 per year.

Giuliano Vernengo, Dario Bruzzone
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2016(No. 1): 1-7
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The hydrodynamic analysis of a new semi-small waterplane area twin hull(SWATH) suitable for various applicationssuch as small and medium size passenger ferries is presented. This may be an attractive crossover configuration resulting from the merging of two classical shapes:a conventional SWATH and a fast catamaran. The final hull design exhibits a wedge-like waterline shapewith the maximum beam at the stern;the hullends with a very narrow entrance angle, has a prominent bulbous bow typical of SWATH vessels, and features full stern to arrange waterjet propellers. Our analysis aims to perform a preliminary assessment of the hydrodynamic performance of a hull with such a complex shapeboth in terms of resistanceof the hull in calm water and seakeeping capability in regular head waves and compare the performancewith that of a conventional SWATH. The analysis is performed usinga boundary element method that waspreliminarily validated on a conventional SWATH vessel.

Yanuar1, Gunawan1, A. Muhyi1, A. Jamaluddin2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2016(No. 1): 28-32
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Multihull ships are widely used for sea transportation, and those with four hulls are known as quadramarans.Hull position configurations of a quadramaran include the diamond, tetra, and slice.In general, multihull vessels traveling at high speeds have better hydrodynamic efficiency than monohull ships.This study aims to identify possible effects of various quadramaran hull position configurations on ship resistance for hull dimensions of 2 m length, 0.21 m breadth, and 0.045 m thickness.We conducted a towing test in which we varied the hull spacing and speed at Fr values between 0.08 and 0.62 and measured the total resistance using a load cell transducer.The experimental results reveal that the lowest total resistance was achieved with a diamond quadramaran configuration at Fr=0.1-0.6 and an effective interference factor of up to 0.35 with S/L=3/10 and R/L=1/2 at Fr=0.62.

S. Palraj, M. Selvaraj, K. Maruthan and M. Natesan
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2015(No. 1): 105-112
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In continuation of the extensive studies carried out to update the corrosion map of India, in this study, the degradation of mild steel by air pollutants was studied at 16 different locations from Nagore to Ammanichatram along the east coast of Tamilnadu, India over a period of two years. The weight loss study showed that the mild steel corrosion was more at Nagapattinam site, when compared to Ammanichatram and Maravakadu sites. A linear regression analysis of the experimental data was attempted to predict the mechanism of the corrosion. The composition of the corrosion products formed on the mild steel surfaces was identified by XRD technique. The corrosion rate values obtained are discussed in the light of the weathering parameters, atmospheric pollutants such as salt content & SO2 levels in the atmosphere, corrosion products formed on the mild steel surfaces.

Hassan Bagheri and Hassan Ghassemi
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2014(No. 4): 422-429
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The research performed in this paper was carried out to investigate the computational procedure to design seakeeping optimized ship hull form. To reach the optimized hull form, four stages should be done, which consists of: generate alternative hull form, seakeeping calculations, objective functions and optimization techniques. There are many parameters that may be determined in ship hull form optimization. This paper deals with developed strip theory for determining the seakeeping performance, genetic algorithm (GA) as optimization method, high order equations for curve fitting of the hull form and finally reaching to the minimum bow vertical motion in regular head waves. The Wigley hull is selected as an initial hull and carried to be optimized. Two cases are considered. For the first case, the only form coefficients of the hull (CB, CM, CW, CP) are changed and main dimensions (L, B, T) are fixed. In the second case both hull form and main dimensions are varied simultaneously. Finally, optimized hull form and its seakeeping performances are presented. The results of optimization procedure demonstrate that the optimized hull forms yield a reduction in vertical motion and acceleration.

Yan Lin, Yanyun Yu and Guan Guan
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2014(No. 4): 430-436
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This paper describes the characteristics of liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers briefly. The LNG carrier includes power plant selection, vapor treatment, liquid cargo tank type, etc. Two parameters—fuel substitution rate and recovery of boil of gas (BOG) volume to energy efficiency design index (EEDI) formula are added, and EEDI formula of LNG carriers is established based on ship EEDI formula. Then, based on steam turbine propulsion device of LNG carriers, mathematical models of LNG carriers’ reference line value are established in this paper. By verification, the EEDI formula of LNG carriers described in this paper can provide a reference for LNG carrier EEDI calculation and green shipbuilding.

M.Y. Abdollahzadeh Jamalabadi
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2014(No. 3): 281-290
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In this paper an analytical solution for the stability of the fully developed flow drive in a magneto-hydro-dynamic pump with pulsating transverse Eletro-magnetic fields is presented. To do this, a theoretical model of the flow is developed and the analytical results are obtained for both the cylindrical and Cartesian configurations that are proper to use in the propulsion of marine vessels. The governing parabolic momentum PDEs are transformed into an ordinary differential equation using approximate velocity distribution. The numerical results are obtained and asymptotic analyses are built to discover the mathematical behavior of the solutions. The maximum velocity in a magneto-hydro-dynamic pump versus time for various values of the Stuart number, electro-magnetic interaction number, Reynolds number, aspect ratio, as well as the magnetic and electrical angular frequency and the shift of the phase angle is presented. Results show that for a high Stuart number there is a frequency limit for stability of the fluid flow in a certain direction of the flow. This stability frequency is dependent on the geometric parameters of a channel.

Ruosi Zha, Haixuan Ye, Zhirong Shen and Decheng Wan
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2014(No. 2): 158-166
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The prediction of a ship’s resistance especially the viscous wave-making resistance is an important issue in CFD applications. In this paper, the resistances of six ships from hull 1 to hull 6 with different hull forms advancing in still water are numerically studied using the solver naoe-FOAM-SJTU, which was developed based on the open source code package OpenFOAM. Different components of the resistances are computed and compared while considering two speed conditions (12 kn and 16 kn). The resistance of hull 3 is the smallest while that of hull 5 is the largest at the same speed. The results show hull 3 is a good reference for the design of similar ships, which can provide some valuable guidelines for hull form optimization.

Ngo Van He and Yoshiho Ikeda
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2014(No. 1): 11-22
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In this paper, added resistances acting on a hull of non ballast water ship (NBS) in high waves is discussed. The non ballast water ships were developed at the laboratory of the authors at Osaka Prefecture University, Japan. In the present paper, the performances of three kinds of bow shapes developed for the NBS were theoretically and experimentally investigated to find the best one in high waves. In previous papers, an optimum bow shape for the NBS was developed in calm water and in moderated waves. For a 2 m model for experiments and computations, the wave height is 0.02 m. This means that the wave height is 15% of the draft of the ship in full load conditions. In this paper, added resistances in high waves up to 0.07 m for a 2 m model or 53% of the full load draft are investigated. In such high waves linear wave theories which have been used in the design stage of a ship for a long time may not work well anymore, and experiments are the only effective tool to predict the added resistance in high waves. With the computations for waves, the ship is in a fully captured condition because shorter waves, λ/Lpp<0.6, are assumed.

Ngo Van He and Yoshiho Ikeda
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 3): 251-260
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In this research, a commercial CFD code “Fluent” was applied to optimization of bulbous bow shape for a non ballast water ships (NBS). The ship was developed at the Laboratory of the authors in Osaka Prefecture University, Japan. At first, accuracy of the CFD code was validated by comparing the CFD results with experimental results at towing tank of Osaka Prefecture University. In the optimizing process, the resistances acting on ships in calm water and in regular head waves were defined as the object function. Following features of bulbous bow shapes were considered as design parameters: volume of bulbous bow, height of its volume center, angle of bow bottom, and length of bulbous bow. When referring to the computed results given by the CFD like resistance, pressure and wave pattern made by ships in calm water and in waves, an optimal bow shape for ships was discovered by comparing the results in the series of bow shapes. In the computation on waves, the ship is in fully captured condition because shorter waves, λ/Lpp<0.6, are assumed.

Xiufeng Zhang, Zhenwang Lyu, Yong Yin and Yicheng Jin
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 3): 286-292
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Small water-plane area twin-hull (SWATH) has drawn the attention of many researchers due to its good sea-keeping ability. In this paper, MMG’s idea of separation was used to perform SWATH movement modeling and simulation; respectively the forces and moment of SWATH were divided into bare hull, propeller, rudder at the fluid hydrodynamics, etc. Wake coefficient at the propellers which reduces thrust coefficient, and rudder mutual interference forces among the hull and propeller, for the calculation of SWATH, were all considered. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta method of integration was used by solving differential equations, in order to get SWATH’s movement states. As an example, a turning test at full speed and full starboard rudder of ‘Seagull’ craft is shown. The simulation results show the SWATH’s regular pattern and trend of motion. It verifies the correctness of the mathematical model of the turning movement. The SWATH’s mathematical model is applied to marine simulator in order to train the pilots or seamen, or safety assessment for ocean engineering project. Lastly, the full mission navigation simulating system (FMNSS) was determined to be a successful virtual reality technology application sample in the field of navigation simulation.

Yanuar, Gunawan, M. A. Talahatu, Ragil T. Indrawati and A. Jamaluddin
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 3): 293-297
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The application of multi-hull ship or trimaran vessel as a mode of transports in both river and sea environments have grown rapidly in recent years. Trimaran vessels are currently of interest for many new high speed ship projects due to the high levels of hydrodynamic efficiency that can be achieved, compared to the mono-hull and catamaran hull forms. The purpose of this study is to identify the possible effects of using an unsymmetrical trimaran ship model with configuration (S/L) 0.1–0.3 and R/L=0.1–0.2. Unsymmetrical trimaran ship model with main dimensions: L=2000mm, B=200 mm and T=45 mm. Experimental methods (towing tank) were performed in the study using speed variations at Froude number 0.1–0.6. The ship model was pulled by an electric motor whose speed could be varied and adjusted. The ship model resistance was measured precisely by using a load cell transducer. The comparison of ship resistance for each configuration with mono-hull was shown on the graph as a function of the total resistance coefficient and Froude number. The test results found that the effective drag reduction could be achieved up to 17% at Fr=0.35 with configuration S/L=0.1.

Dimitris Konovessis, Wenkui Cai and Dracos Vassalos
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 2): 140-151
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In the past fifteen years, the attention of ship safety treatment as an objective rather than a constraint has started to sweep through the whole maritime industry. The risk-based ship design (RBD) methodology, advocating systematic integration of risk assessment within the conventional design process has started to takeoff. Despite this wide recognition and increasing popularity, important factors that could potentially undermine the quality of the results come from both quantitative and qualitative aspects during the risk assessment process. This paper details a promising solution by developing a formalized methodology for risk assessment through effective storing and processing of historical data combined with data generated through first-principle approaches. This method should help to generate appropriate risk models in the selected platform (Bayesian networks) which can be employed for decision making at design stage.

Yang Liu, Mei Meng, Shuang Liu
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 2): 152-162
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The research study proposes to examine a three-dimensional visualization program, emphasizing on improving genetic algorithms through the optimization of a layout design-based standard and discrete shipbuilding workshop. By utilizing a steel processing workshop as an example, the principle of minimum logistic costs will be implemented to obtain an ideological equipment layout, and a mathematical model. The objectiveness is to minimize the total necessary distance traveled between machines. An improved control operator is implemented to improve the iterative efficiency of the genetic algorithm, and yield relevant parameters. The Computer Aided Tri-Dimensional Interface Application (CATIA) software is applied to establish the manufacturing resource base and parametric model of the steel processing workshop. Based on the results of optimized planar logistics, a visual parametric model of the steel processing workshop is constructed, and qualitative and quantitative adjustments then are applied to the model. The method for evaluating the results of the layout is subsequently established through the utilization of AHP. In order to provide a mode of reference to the optimization and layout of the digitalized production workshop, the optimized discrete production workshop will possess a certain level of practical significance.

Hassan Zakerdoost, Hassan Ghassemi and Mahmoud Ghiasi
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 2): 170-179
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This study presents a numerical method for optimizing hull form in calm water with respect to total drag which contains a viscous drag and a wave drag. The ITTC 1957 model-ship correlation line was used to predict frictional drag and the corrected linearized thin-ship theory was employed to estimate the wave drag. The evolution strategy (ES) which is a member of the evolutionary algorithms (EAs) family obtains an optimum hull form by considering some design constraints. Standard Wigley hull is considered as an initial hull in optimization procedures for two test cases and new hull forms were achieved at Froude numbers 0.24, 0.316 and 0.408. In one case the ES technique was ran for the initial hull form, where the main dimensions were fixed and the only variables were the hull offsets. In the other case in addition to hull offsets, the main dimensions were considered as variables that are optimized simultaneously. The numerical results of optimization procedure demonstrate that the optimized hull forms yield a reduction in total drag.

Wenyang Duan and Chuanqing Li
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 1): 1-12
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Under the background of the energy saving and emission reduction, more and more attention has been placed on investigating the energy efficiency of ships. The added resistance has been noted for being crucial in predicting the decrease of speed on a ship operating at sea. Furthermore, it is also significant to investigate the added resistance for a ship functioning in short waves of large modern ships. The researcher presents an estimation formula for the calculation of an added resistance study in short waves derived from the reflection law. An improved method has been proposed to calculate the added resistance due to ship motions, which applies the radiated energy theory along with the strip method. This procedure is based on an extended integral equation (EIE) method, which was used for solving the hydrodynamic coefficients without effects of the irregular frequency. Next, a combined method was recommended for the estimation of added resistance for a ship in the whole wave length range. The comparison data with other experiments indicate the method presented in the paper provides satisfactory results for large blunt ship.

Hanyang Gong, Ruhua Yuan, Xiaodong Xing, Liquan Wang, Zhipeng Wang and Haixia Gong
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 1): 98-105
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The plow of the submarine plowing trencher is one of the main functional mechanisms, and its optimization is very important. The design parameters play a very significant role in determining the requirements of the towing force of a vessel. A multi-objective genetic algorithm based on analytical models of the plow surface has been examined and applied in efforts to obtain optimal design of the plow. For a specific soil condition, the draft force and moldboard surface area which are the key parameters in the working process of the plow are optimized by finding the corresponding optimal values of the plow blade penetration angle and two surface angles of the main cutting blade of the plow. Parameters such as the moldboard side angle of deviation, moldboard lift angle, angular variation of the tangent line, and the spanning length are also analyzed with respect to the force of the moldboard surface along soil flow direction. Results show that the optimized plow has an improved plow performance. The draft forces of the main cutting blade and the moldboard are 10.6% and 7%, respectively, less than the original design. The standard deviation of Gaussian curvature of moldboard is lowered by 64.5%, which implies that the smoothness of the optimized moldboard surface is much greater than the original.

Morteza Ghassabzadeh and Hassan Ghassemi
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 4): 453-461
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The creation of geometric model of a ship to determine the characteristics of hydrostatic and hydrodynamic, and also for structural design and equipments arrangement are so important in the ship design process. Planning tunnel high speed craft is one of the crafts in which, achievement to their top speed is more important. These crafts with the use of tunnel have the aero-hydrodynamics properties to diminish the resistance, good sea-keeping behavior, reduce slamming and avoid porpoising. Because of the existence of the tunnel, the hull form generation of these crafts is more complex and difficult. In this paper, it has attempted to provide a method based on geometry creation guidelines and with an entry of the least control and hull form adjustment parameters, to generate automatically the hull form of planning tunnel craft. At first, the equations of mathematical model are described and subsequent, three different models generated based on present method are compared and analyzed. Obviously, the generated model has more application in the early stages of design.

Liangwu Wang, Ruiping Zhou, Xiang Xu and Hong Gao
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 4): 486-492
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When an oceanographic vessel is sailing, the currents near the surface of ship hull are rapid, making it hard to meet the environmental requirements of scientific observation equipment. To guarantee the installation space and environmental requirements of the observation equipment, the drop keel system was proposed for the first time for ocean-graphic ships at China, to avoid the traditional "rudder-shaft" type fin keel’s disadvantage. The research study will examine the operational mechanism and functions of the drop keel system, the operating conditions of the fin keel to determine the driver method and its arrangement, and the locking method of the fin keel underwater. The research will also provide some general designs for analyzing the best plan for the drop keel system.

Yanuar, Gunawan, Sunaryo and A. Jamaluddin
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 3): 301-304
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Ship hull form of the underwater area strongly influences the resistance of the ship. The major factor in ship resistance is skin friction resistance. Bulbous bows, polymer paint, water repellent paint (highly water-repellent wall), air injection, and specific roughness have been used by researchers as an attempt to obtain the resistance reduction and operation efficiency of ships. Micro-bubble injection is a promising technique for lowering frictional resistance. The injected air bubbles are supposed to somehow modify the energy inside the turbulent boundary layer and thereby lower the skin friction. The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of injected micro bubbles on a navy fast patrol boat (FPB) 57 m type model with the following main dimensions: L=2 450 mm, B=400 mm, and T=190 mm. The influence of the location of micro bubble injection and bubble velocity was also investigated. The ship model was pulled by an electric motor whose speed could be varied and adjusted. The ship model resistance was precisely measured by a load cell transducer. Comparison of ship resistance with and without micro-bubble injection was shown on a graph as a function of the drag coefficient and Froude number. It was shown that micro bubble injection behind the mid-ship is the best location to achieve the most effective drag reduction, and the drag reduction caused by the micro-bubbles can reach 6%–9%.

Georgios I. Papatzanakis, Apostolos D. Papanikolaou and Shukui Liu
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 1): 10-17
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A route optimization methodology in the frame of an onboard decision support/guidance system for the ship’s master has been developed and is presented in this paper. The method aims at the minimization of the fuel voyage cost and the risks related to the ship’s seakeeping performance expected to be within acceptable limits of voyage duration. Parts of this methodology were implemented by interfacing alternative probability assessment methods, such as Monte Carlo, first order reliability method (FORM) and second order reliability method (SORM), and a 3-D seakeeping code, including a software tool for the calculation of the added resistance in waves of NTUA-SDL. The entire system was integrated within the probabilistic analysis software PROBAN. Two of the main modules for the calculation of added resistance and the probabilistic assessment for the considered seakeeping hazards with respect to exceedance levels of predefined threshold values are herein elaborated and validation studies proved their efficiency in view of their implementation into an on-board optimization system.

Li Sun and Deyu Wang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 1): 59-67
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In this paper a hybrid process of modeling and optimization, which integrates a support vector machine (SVM) and genetic algorithm (GA), was introduced to reduce the high time cost in structural optimization of ships. SVM, which is rooted in statistical learning theory and an approximate implementation of the method of structural risk minimization, can provide a good generalization performance in metamodeling the input-output relationship of real problems and consequently cuts down on high time cost in the analysis of real problems, such as FEM analysis. The GA, as a powerful optimization technique, possesses remarkable advantages for the problems that can hardly be optimized with common gradient-based optimization methods, which makes it suitable for optimizing models built by SVM. Based on the SVM-GA strategy, optimization of structural scantlings in the midship of a very large crude carrier (VLCC) ship was carried out according to the direct strength assessment method in common structural rules (CSR), which eventually demonstrates the high efficiency of SVM-GA in optimizing the ship structural scantlings under heavy computational complexity. The time cost of this optimization with SVM-GA has been sharply reduced, many more loops have been processed within a small amount of time and the design has been improved remarkably.

Aman Zhang , Furen Ming, Xueyan Cao and Wenshan Yang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 4): 437-446
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Based on the traditional Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) algorithm, the linked-list search algorithm combined with the variable smoothing length and square support domain was put forward to improve the calculation efficiency and guarantee the calculation accuracy. The physical process of high velocity fragment impact on a broadside liquid cabin was programmed for simulation. The numerical results agreed well with those of the general software ANSYS AUTODYN, which verifies the effectiveness and feasibility of the numerical method. From the perspective of the outer plate thickness of the liquid cabin, the width of the liquid cabin, and incident angle of the fragment, the influence of these parameters on protective mechanisms was analyzed to provide a basis for protective design of a broadside liquid cabin. Results show that the influence of outer plate thickness is not obvious; therefore, the conventional design can be adopted in the design of the outer plate. The width of the liquid cabin has a great influence on the residual velocity of the fragment and the width of the liquid cabin should be designed to be as wide as possible under the premise of meeting other requirements. There is a certain incident angle in which the velocity attenuation of the fragment is most obvious, and the high-pressure zone near the inner plate is asymmetric. The inner plate of liquid cabin should be strengthened according to the hull form, principal dimensions, and vulnerable points.

Hua Yuan, Yao Zhao and Jun Yan
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 4): 447-455
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A new method of virtual ship assembly modeling which integrates ship three-dimensional design and ship construction planning was described in this paper. A workflow model of simulation modeling based on the virtual ship assembly process was also established; furthermore, a method of information transformation between the ship three-dimensional design and ship construction plan was formulated. To meet the requirements of information sharing between different systems in the ship virtual assembly, a simulation database was created by using the software engineering design method and the relational data model. With the application of this database, the information of ship three-dimensional design, construction planning, and virtual assembly can be integrated into one system. Subsequently, this new method was applied as a tool to simulate the virtual assembly of a ship, and the results guarantee its rationality and reliability.

Xuebiao Zhang, Yulong Yang and Yujun Liu
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 4): 456-464
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The purpose of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of high-frequency induction heat for the line heating process through a series of experimental studies and numerical calculations. The results show that the heating temperature of induction heating meets the demands of steel plate bending, and the deformation of a steel plate heated by induction heating can achieve the same effect as flame heating. Meanwhile, the finite element model of moving induction heating of the plate is developed, and the comparison of the residual strain fields and transverse shrinkage between these two kinds of heating shows that great similarity has been achieved.

Rui Li, Yu-jun Liu and Kunihiro Hamada
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 4): 355-362
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Manufacturing of ship piping systems is one of the major production activities in shipbuilding. The schedule of pipe production has an important impact on the master schedule of shipbuilding. In this research, the ITOC concept was introduced to solve the scheduling problems of a piping factory, and an intelligent scheduling system was developed. The system, in which a product model, an operation model, a factory model, and a knowledge database of piping production were integrated, automated the planning process and production scheduling. Details of the above points were discussed. Moreover, an application of the system in a piping factory, which achieved a higher level of performance as measured by tardiness, lead time, and inventory, was demonstrated.

Chao Wang, Sheng Huang, Xin Chang and Miao He
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 3): 262-267
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Mathematical models of propellers were created that investigate the influence of periodic boundary conditions on predictions of a propeller’s performance. Thrust and torque coefficients corresponding to different advance coefficients of DTMB 4119, 4382, and 4384 propellers were calculated. The pressure coefficient distribution of the DTMB 4119 propeller at different sections was also physically tested. Comparisons indicated good agreement between the results of experiments and the simulation. It showed that the periodic boundary condition can be used to rationally predict the open water performance of a propeller. By analyzing the three established modes for the computation, it was shown that using the spline curve method to divide the grids can meet the calculation’s demands for precision better than using the rake cutting method.

Yu Cao; Bao-jun Yu and Jian-fang Wang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 3): 292
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The seakeeping performance of a luxury cruise ship was evaluated during the concept design phase. By comparing numerical predictions based on 3-D linear potential flow theory in the frequency domain with the results of model tests, it was shown that the 3-D method predicted the seakeeping performance of the luxury cruise ship well. Based on the model, the seakeeping features of the luxury cruise ship were analyzed, and then the influence was seen of changes to the primary design parameters (center of gravity, inertial radius, etc.). Based on the results, suggestions were proposed to improve the choice of parameters for luxury cruise ships during the concept design phase. They should improve seakeeping performance.

Nian-qing Wu, Yao Zhao and Hua Yuan
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 3): 307-311
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Rectangular tiles can be laid on a ship’s hull for protection, but the sides of the tiles must be adjusted so adjacent tiles will conform to the curvature of the hull. A method for laying tiles along a reference line was proposed, and an allowable range of displacement for the four vertices of the tile was determined. Deformations of each tile on a specific reference line were then obtained. It was found that the least deformation was required when the tiles were laid parallel to a line with the least curvature. After calculating the mean curvature on the surface, the surface was divided into three layout areas. A set of discrete points following the least deformation of the principal curvatures was obtained. A NURBS interpolation curve was then plotted as the reference line for laying tiles. The optimum size of the tiles was obtained, given the allowable maximum deformation condition. This minimized the number of bolts and the amount of stuffing. A typical aft hull section was selected and divided into three layout areas based on the distribution of curvature. The optimum sizes of rectangular tiles were obtained for every layout area and they were then laid on the surface. In this way the layout of the rectangular tiles could be plotted.

Yasunori Nihei, Qiao Li* and Yoshiho Ikeda
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 2): 121-128
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In recent years, demands for car transportation by a ship have been increasing with favorable economic conditions in auto sector, and the need of a pure car carrier (PCC) has grown quickly. A PCC needs huge parking space but smaller displacement since a car is comparatively light for its volume. As a result, almost all PCCs have wide breadth, shallow draft and huge structure above the water surface. These features cause some technical issues of a PCC, like lack of stability, effect of strong winds on its resistance, difficulty of course keeping in rough seas, difficulty of berthing in strong winds, and so on. To overcome these technical issues, one of the authors has proposed a new concept for a PCC. This is a trimaran PCC which has very limited transverse bulkheads in the center hull by using two side hulls as fenders. In the present research, wind forces acting on a scale model of the trimaran PCC were measured in the towing tank with a wind generator at Osaka Prefecture University. Furthermore, in order to clarify the characteristics of wind pressure on the trimaran, height and width of tunnels which are between a main hull and side hulls were changed. And then, in order to imitate a real ship, we used wind reduction technology of corner-cut design for accommodation house of the ship. Moreover, the wind pressure acting on the trimaran was compared with that on a mono-hull PCC. Using these experimental and theoretical results, an estimation method of wind pressure acting on the trimaran PCC is deduced.

Tatsuhiro Mizobe*, Yasunori Nihei and Yoshiho Ikeda
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 2): 137-141
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In the present paper, a new trimaran Pure Car Carrier (PCC) is proposed and a feasibility study on the ship is carried out. In this study, first, the effective horse power (EHP)/car of the PCC running in still water is predicted. By comparing the predicted EHP/car with that of a conventional mono-hull PCC, it is found that the trimaran PCC is superior to the conventional mono-hull PCC at rather higher speed. As ship speed increases, the reduction of the resistance of the trimaran is bigger. It is also found that at common service speed of PCCs, the EHP/car of a small PCC is lower than that of a conventional PCC. Secondly, the optimal L/B of a main-hull of the trimaran PCC in still water is determined. The optimal L/B of the main-hull varies with ship speed and size because the wave resistance decreases but the frictional resistance increases as L/B of the hull increases. As ship size increases, the optimal L/B of the main-hull of the trimaran PCC decreases. Finally, the increase of the resistance of PCCs running in strong wind is predicted. The results show that drift angle and speed reduction of the trimaran PCC are much smaller than the conventional mono-hull PCC because of large side force created by three demi-hulls.

Rui Deng*, De-bo Huang, Jia Li, Xuan-kai Cheng, and Lei Yu
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 2): 187-191
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In order to get some useful parameters for grid generation of catamaran, the CFD software FLUENT is used to investigate the main effects of grid generation on flow field calculation. The influences of some elements are investigated with a series of calculations in the present paper, and some alteratives are proposed. The proposed alteratives based on the analysis of the effects are used for a catamaran resistance calculation, comparisons of the calculated results with experimental data show good agreement. It shows that the research result of this paper is useful for the numerical calculation of catamaran.

Zhu-xin Wu* and Zheng-lin Liu
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 2): 220-224
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Thrust bearing is a key component of the propulsion system of a ship. It transfers the propulsive forces from the propeller to the ship’s hull, allowing the propeller to push the ship ahead. The performance of a thrust bearing pad is critical. When the thrust bearing becomes damaged, it can cause the ship to lose power and can also affect its operational safety. For this paper, the distribution of the pressure field of a thrust pad was calculated with numerical method, applying Reynolds equation. Thrust bearing properties for loads were analyzed, given variations in outlet thickness of the pad and variations between the load and the slope of the pad. It was noticed that the distribution of pressure was uneven. As a result, increases of both the outlet thickness and the slope coefficient of the pad were able to improve load bearing capability.

Seiki Onishi, Tsutomu Momoki and Yoshiho Ikeda
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 2): 143-148
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Ships which have large structures above water surface, such as pure car carriers (PCCs) and container vessels, have large speed reduction by wind pressure. In the present study, the running speed of a large PCC with two or more sails for using wind power is simulated. The simulated results demonstrate that the ship can keep a constant service speed even in winds of 20m/s except head and bow winds. This sail system can shorten annual average navigation time by about 4 hours per voyage.

Jin-chao Zhao, Huan Qi and Yong-ming Zhang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 1): 69-74
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The authors developed a prototype of a warship maintenance system. The process started by defining the maintenance requirements of warship equipment. Next, a planning scheme was development for a maintenance network. An optimization target for the plan and indexes for assessment were established. Based on the above work, a simulation model was proposed with two layers: a base and a workshop. Dispatching rules were then formulated for the simulation. Experimental results proved the validity of the model and the dispatching algorithm. It was found that the model can solve the capacity evaluation problem for maintenance systems and provides a scientific basis for decision-maker to make decisions regarding equipment maintenance.

WANG Zhi-dong1*, CONG Wen-chao1 and ZHANG Xiao-qing2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2009(No. 4): 298-304
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The thrust coefficients and propulsive efficiency of a two-dimensional flexible fin with heaving and pitching motion were computed using FLUENT. The effect of different locations of the pitching axis on propulsive performance was examined using three deflexion modes which are respectively, modified Bose mode, cantilever beam with uniformly distributed load and cantilever beam with non-uniformly distributed load. The results show that maximum thrust can be achieved with the pitching axis at the trailing edge, but the highest propulsive efficiency can be achieved with the pitching axis either 1/3 of the chord length from the leading edge in modified Bose mode, or 2/3 of the chord length from the leading edge in cantilever beam mode. At the same time, the effects of the Strouhal number and maximal attack angle on the hydrodynamics performance of the flexible fin were analyzed. Parameter interval of the maximum thrust coefficient and the highest propulsive efficiency were gained. If the Strouhal number is low, high propulsive efficiency can be achieved at low , and vice versa.

YIN Peng*, CHEN Yuan-ming, CUI Tong-kai, WANG Zi-shen, GONG Li-jiang and YU Xiang-fen
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2009(No. 3): 228-232
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The plant design management system (PDMS) is an integrated application which includes a database and is useful when designing complex 3-D industrial projects. It could be used to simplify the most difficult part of a subsea oil extraction project—detailed pipeline design. It could also be used to integrate the design of equipment, structures, HVAC, E-ways as well as the detailed designs of other specialists. This article mainly examines the applicability of the Vantage PDMS database to pipeline projects involving jack-up drilling ships. It discusses the catalogue (CATA) of the pipeline, the spec-world (SPWL) of the pipeline, the bolt tables (BLTA) and so on. This article explains the main methods for CATA construction as well as problem in the process of construction. In this article, the authors point out matters needing attention when using the Vantage PDMS database in the design process and discuss partial solutions to these questions.

PENG Xing-ning,NIE Wu and YAN Bo
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2009(No. 1): 13-17
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The protective bulkhead of the large surface warship need to be designed working in the membrane mode. In this paper, a formula is derived for calculating the plastic deformation of the protective bulkhead subjected to blast loading by the energy method, and the ultimate capability of the protective bulkhead can be calculated. The design demand of the protective bulkhead is discussed. The calculation is compared with external experiments, which indicates that the formula is of great application value.

CHEN Kang HUANG De-bo LI Yun-bo
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2008(No. 3): 0
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As a new type of hull form, trimaran has remarkable excellent performances and has drawn more and more attention. When the viscous CFD technology now available is applied to the research of resistance performance of trimaran, the spatial discretization would usually result in the grid error and uncertainty, and thus the considerable discrepancy between the numerical results and the experimental data. In order to ascertain how much the grid would affect the calculation, the grid convergence should be studied. A mathematical trimaran was chosen as an example, with the commercial code CFX for the simulation, VOF for surface treatment, and the grid study was carried out based on two different turbulence models. It was concluded that carrying out grid study is helpful in estimating the grid error and uncertainty, and indicating the direction of improving the credibility of the numerical calculation,and, in addition to grid errors and uncertainties, the turbulence modeling errors and uncertainties contribute to the simulation errors.

JIN Yong-xing WANG Ze-sheng CHEN Jin-biao BUPing
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2008(No. 3): 0
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Container vessels navigate among the world’s ports, frequently passing through narrow and congested waters. Due to the many layers of containers on a container vessel’s decks, it is difficult for the crew to be aware of all fishing vessels and other obstacles in a container vessel’s radar observation blind zone. This greatly increases the risk of collisions and other accidents. Given such great challenges to safe navigation and safety management with container vessels, their security risks are severe. An effective visual monitoring system can improve the safety of the water area surrounding container vessel by eliminating a vessel’s observation blind zone, providing an effective safety measure for vessels navigating fishing zones and other troublesome areas. The system has other functions, such as accident recording, ship security, and monitoring of loading and unloading operations, thus ensuring the ship operates safely. Six months’ trial operation showed that the system facilitates safe navigation of container vessels.

LI Yun-bo WU Xiao-yu MA Yong WANG Jin-guang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2008(No. 2): 0
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This research is intended to provide academic reference and design guidance for further studies to determine the most effective means to reduce a ship’s resistance through an air-cavity.On the basis of potential theory and on the assumption of an ideal and irrotational fluid,this paper drives a method for calculating air cavity formation using slender ship theory then points out the parameters directly related to the formation of air cavities and their interrelationships.Simulations showed that the formation of an air cavity is affected by cavitation number,velocity,groove geometry and groove size.When the ship’s velocity and groove structure are given,the cavitation number must be within range to form a steady air cavity.The interface between air and water forms a wave shape and could be adjustedby an air injection system.