Journal of Marine Science and Application 2013 no. 4
Srikumar Panda and S. C. Martha
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 4): 381-392
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The scattering problem involving water waves by small undulation on the porous ocean-bed in a two-layer fluid, is investigated within the framework of the two-dimensional linear water wave theory where the upper layer is covered by a thin uniform sheet of ice modeled as a thin elastic plate. In such a two-layer fluid there exist waves with two different modes, one with a lower wave number propagate along the ice-cover whilst those with a higher wave number propagate along the interface. An incident wave of a particular wave number gets reflected and transmitted over the bottom undulation into waves of both modes. Perturbation analysis in conjunction with the Fourier transform technique is used to derive the first-order corrections of reflection and transmission coefficients for both the modes due to incident waves of two different modes. One special type of bottom topography is considered as an example to evaluate the related coefficients in detail. These coefficients are depicted in graphical forms to demonstrate the transformation of wave energy between the two modes and also to illustrate the effects of the ice sheet and the porosity of the undulating bed.

Rumpa Chakraborty and B. N. Mandal
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 4): 393-399
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The problem of water wave scattering by a thin vertical elastic plate submerged in uniform finite depth water is investigated here. The boundary condition on the elastic plate is derived from the Bernoulli-Euler equation of motion satisfied by the plate. Using the Green’s function technique, from this boundary condition, the normal velocity of the plate is expressed in terms of the difference between the velocity potentials (unknown) across the plate. The two ends of the plate are either clamped or free. The reflection and transmission coefficients are obtained in terms of the integrals’ involving combinations of the unknown velocity potential on the two sides of the plate, which satisfy three simultaneous integral equations and are solved numerically. These coefficients are computed numerically for various values of different parameters and depicted graphically against the wave number in a number of figures.

Hengxu Liu, Wenyang Duan and Xiaobo Chen
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 4): 400-405
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Wave diffraction of two concentric porous cylinders with varying porosity was studied by using an analytical method based on eigenfunction matching. The fluid domain around the cylinders is divided into three sub-domains and in each sub-domain an eigenfunction expansion of the velocity potential is obtained by satisfying the Laplace equation, the boundary conditions on the free surface and on the sea bed. The unknown coefficients of eigenfunction expansions are determined by boundary conditions on the porous hulls. In the paper, the boundary conditions are based upon the assumption that the flow in the porous medium is governed by Darcy’s law. Two porous-effect parameters applied on two porous cylinders are functions of the vertical coordinate instead of the constant. Wave loading on the outer and inner cylinder is presented in the numerical results.

Lixun Hou, Chao Wang, Xin Chang, and Sheng Huang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 4): 406-412
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In order to study the effects of geometric parameters of the rudder on the hydrodynamic performance of the propeller-rudder system, the surface panel method is used to build the numerical model of the steady interaction between the propeller and rudder to analyze the relevant factors. The interaction between the propeller and rudder is considered through the induced velocities, which are circumferentially averaged, so the unsteady problem is translated to steady state. An iterative calculation method is used until the hydrodynamic performance converges. Firstly, the hydrodynamic performance of the chosen propeller-rudder system is calculated, and the comparison between the calculated results and the experimental data indicates that the calculation program is reliable. Then, the variable parameters of rudder are investigated, and the calculation results show that the propeller-rudder spacing has a negative relationship with the efficiency of the propeller-rudder system, and the rudder span has an optimal match range with the propeller diameter. Futhermore, the rudder chord and thickness both have a positive correlation with the hydrodynamic performance of the propeller-rudder system.

G.Q. Feng, Y. Garbatov and C. Guedes Soares
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 4): 413-421
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The objective of this work is to analyse fatigue reliability of deck structures subjected to correlated crack growth. The stress intensity factors of the correlated cracks are obtained by finite element analysis and based on which the geometry correction functions are derived. The Monte Carlo simulations are applied to predict the statistical descriptors of correlated cracks based on the Paris-Erdogan equation. A probabilistic model of crack growth as a function of time is used to analyse the fatigue reliability of deck structures accounting for the crack propagation correlation. A deck structure is modelled as a series system of stiffened panels, where a stiffened panel is regarded as a parallel system composed of plates and are longitudinal. It has been proven that the method developed here can be conveniently applied to perform the fatigue reliability assessment of structures subjected to correlated crack growth.

So Gu Kim
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 4): 422-433
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On March 26, 2010 an underwater explosion (UWE) led to the sinking of the ROKS Cheonan. The official Multinational Civilian-Military Joint Investigation Group (MCMJIG) report concluded that the cause of the underwater explosion was a 250 kg net explosive weight (NEW) detonation at a depth of 6?9 m from a DPRK “CHT-02D” torpedo. Kim and Gitterman (2012a) determined the NEW and seismic magnitude as 136 kg at a depth of approximately 8m and 2.04, respectively using basic hydrodynamics based on theoretical and experimental methods as well as spectral analysis and seismic methods. The purpose of this study was to clarify the cause of the UWE via more detailed methods using bubble dynamics and simulation of propellers as well as forensic seismology. Regarding the observed bubble pulse period of 0.990 s, 0.976 s and 1.030 s were found in case of a 136 NEW at a detonation depth of 8 m using the boundary element method (BEM) and 3D bubble shape simulations derived for a 136 kg NEW detonation at a depth of 8 m approximately 5 m portside from the hull centerline. Here we show through analytical equations, models and 3D bubble shape simulations that the most probable cause of this underwater explosion was a 136 kg NEW detonation at a depth of 8m attributable to a ROK littoral “land control” mine (LCM).

Abdorreza Sheikholeslami, Gholamreza Ilati and Yones Eftekhari Yeganeh
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 4): 434-444
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The main challenge for container ports is the planning required for berthing container ships while docked in port. Growth of containerization is creating problems for ports and container terminals as they reach their capacity limits of various resources which increasingly leads to traffic and port congestion. Good planning and management of container terminal operations reduces waiting time for liner ships. Reducing the waiting time improves the terminal’s productivity and decreases the port difficulties. Two important keys to reducing waiting time with berth allocation are determining suitable access channel depths and increasing the number of berths which in this paper are studied and analyzed as practical solutions. Simulation based analysis is the only way to understand how various resources interact with each other and how they are affected in the berthing time of ships. We used the Enterprise Dynamics software to produce simulation models due to the complexity and nature of the problems. We further present case study for berth allocation simulation of the biggest container terminal in Iran and the optimum access channel depth and the number of berths are obtained from simulation results. The results show a significant reduction in the waiting time for container ships and can be useful for major functions in operations and development of container ship terminals.

Wei Deng and Duanfeng Han
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 4): 445-451
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In order to analyze the spatial maneuverability of the remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV), the 6-DOF motion mathematic model of the ROV was founded. Hydrodynamics were analyzed by using the Taylor series. The thrusters on the ROV were discussed. This paper considers three cases of motion simulation: vertical motion, rotational motion and Z-shape motion. A series of simulation experiments showed that the 6-DOF motion mathematic model was correct and reliable, and also fit with the scene simulation.

Guojun Bi, Shaohua Zhu, Jun Liu, Xiaoming Fang and Liquan Wang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 4): 452-458
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For studying the dynamic performance of subsea umbilical cable laying system and achieving the goal of cable tension and laying speed control, the rigid finite element method is used to discrete and transform the system into a rigid-flexible coupling multi-body system which consists of rigid elements and spring-damping elements. The mathematical model of subsea umbilical cable laying system kinematic chain is presented with the second order Lagrange equation in the joint coordinate system, and dynamic modeling and simulation is performed with ADAMS. The dynamic analysis is conducted assuming the following three statuses: ideal laying, practical laying under wave disturbance, and practical laying with tension compensation. Results show that motion disturbances of the laying budge under sea waves, especially with heaving and pitching, will cause relatively serious fluctuations in cable tension and laying speed. Tension compensation, i.e., active back tension torque control can restrict continuous tension increasing or decreasing effectively and rapidly, thus avoiding cable breach or buckling.

Dandan You, Liping Sun, Zhiguo Qu and Tao Wang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 4): 459-462
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For a large floating vessel in waves, radiation damping is not an accurate prediction of the degree of roll unlike other degrees of freedom motion. Therefore, to get the knowledge of roll motion performance of deepwater pipelay crane vessels and to keep the vessel working safety, the paper presents the relationship between a series of dimensionless roll damping coefficients and the roll response amplitude operator (RAO). By using two kinds of empirical data, the roll damping is estimated in the calculation flow. After getting the roll damping coefficient from the model test, a prediction of roll motion in regular waves is evaluated. According to the wave condition in the working region, short term statistics of roll motion are presented under different wave parameters. Moreover, the relationship between the maximal roll response level to peak spectral wave period and the roll damping coefficient is investigated. Results may provide some reference to design and improve this kind of vessel.

Ibrahim S. Seddiek, Mosaad A. Mosleh3 and Adel A. Banawan
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 4): 463-472
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The progress of economic globalization, the rapid growth of international trade, and the maritime transportation has played an increasingly significant role in the international supply chain. As a result, worldwide seaports have suffered from a central problem, which appears in the form of massive amounts of fuel consumed and exhaust gas fumes emitted from the ships while berthed. Many ports have taken the necessary precautions to overcome this problem, while others still suffer due to the presence of technical and financial constraints. In this paper, the barriers, interconnection standards, rules, regulations, power sources, and economic and environmental analysis related to ships, shore-side power were studied in efforts to find a solution to overcome his problem. As a case study, this paper investigates the practicability, costs and benefits of switching from onboard ship auxiliary engines to shore-side power connection for high-speed crafts called Alkahera while berthed at the port of Safaga, Egypt. The results provide the national electricity grid concept as the best economical selection with 49.03 percent of annual cost saving. Moreover, environmentally, it could achieve an annual reduction in exhaust gas emissions of CO2, CO, NOx, P.M, and SO2 by 276, 2.32, 18.87, 0.825 and 3.84 tons, respectively.

Yousri M. A. Welaya, M. Mosleh and Nader R. Ammar
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 4): 473-483
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Strong restrictions on emissions from marine power plants (particularly SOx, NOx) will probably be adopted in the near future. In this paper, a combined solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and steam turbine fuelled by natural gas is proposed as an attractive option to limit the environmental impact of the marine sector. The analyzed variant of the combined cycle includes a SOFC operated with natural gas fuel and a steam turbine with a single-pressure waste heat boiler. The calculations were performed for two types of tubular and planar SOFCs, each with an output power of 18 MW. This paper includes a detailed energy analysis of the combined system. Mass and energy balances are performed not only for the whole plant but also for each component in order to evaluate the thermal efficiency of the combined cycle. In addition, the effects of using natural gas as a fuel on the fuel cell voltage and performance are investigated. It has been found that a high overall efficiency approaching 60% may be achieved with an optimum configuration using the SOFC system. The hybrid system would also reduce emissions, fuel consumption, and improve the total system efficiency.

Fifi N.M. Elwekeel, Qun Zheng and Antar M.M. Abdala
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 4): 484-492
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Several industrial applications such as electronic devices, heat exchangers, gas turbine blades, etc. need cooling processes. The internal cooling technique is proper for some applications. In the present work, computational simulations were made using ANSYS CFX to predict the improvements of internal heat transfer in the rectangular ribbed channel using different coolants. Several coolants such as air, steam, air/mist and steam/mist were investigated. The shear stress transport model (SST) is selected by comparing the standard k-ω and Omega Reynolds Stress (ωRS) turbulence models with experimental results.The results indicate that the heat transfer coefficients are enhanced in the ribbed channel while injecting small amounts of mist. The heat transfer coefficients of air/mist, steam and steam/mist increase by 12.5%, 49.5% and 107% over that of air, respectively. Furthermore, in comparison to air, the air/mist heat transfer coefficient enhances by about 1.05 to 1.14 times when the mist mass fraction increases from 2% to 8%, respectively. The steam/mist heat transfer coefficient increases by about 1.12 to 1.27 times higher than that of steam over the considered range of mist mass fraction.

Deepati Anil Kumar, Pankaj Biswas, Sujoy Tikader, M. M. Mahapatra and N. R. Mandal
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 4): 493-499
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Most of the investigations regarding friction stir welding (FSW) of aluminum alloy plates have been limited to about 5 to 6 mm thick plates. In prior work conducted the various aspects concerning the process parameters and the FSW tool geometry were studied utilizing friction stir welding of 12 mm thick commercial grade aluminum alloy. Two different simple-to- manufacture tool geometries were used. The effect of varying welding parameters and dwell time of FSW tool on mechanical properties and weld quality was examined. It was observed that in order to achieve a defect free welding on such thick aluminum alloy plates, tool having trapezoidal pin geometry was suitable. Adequate tensile strength and ductility can be achieved utilizing a combination of high tool rotational speed of about 2000 r/min and low speed of welding around 28 mm/min. At very low and high dwell time the ductility of welded joints are reduced significantly.

G. Subramanian and S. Palanichamy
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 4): 500-509
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Corrosion behaviour and biofouling characteristics of mild steel in three different coastal locations in the Gulf of Mannar, India have been studied over a period of 24 months. Oyster fouling was predominant at Open sea - Tuticorin, while barnacle fouling was dominant at both Mandapam and Harbour - Tuticorin. The rate of corrosion for 24 months exposure period was highest at Mandapam, where fouling was minimal. The surface of the mild steel was characterized by etchings & crevices beneath the hard foulers attached on it, at all the test locations. The depth of crevice caused by hard foulers was higher at Open sea - Tuticorin followed by Harbour - Tuticorin and Mandapam. The loss in ultimate tensile strength was more in Open sea - Tuticorin than the other two locations. Corrosion behaviour of mild steel is discussed based on the variation in the biofouling assemblage at the three test locations.