Journal of Marine Science and Application 2016 No. 3
Francois Grinnaert1, Jean-Yves Billard1, Jean-Marc Laurens2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2016(No. 3): 223-235
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Currently, second generation intact stability criteria are being developed and evaluated by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). In this paper, we briefly present levels 1 and 2 assessment methods for the criteria of pure loss of stability and parametric roll failure modes. Subsequently, we show the KGmax curves associated with these criteria. We compute these curves for five different types of ships and compare them with the curves embodied in the current regulations. The results show that the safety margin ensured by the first level-1 method of calculation for both pure loss of stability and parametric roll seems to be excessive in many cases. They also show that the KGmax given by the second level-1 method and by the level-2 method may be very similar. In some cases, the level-2 method can be more conservative than the second level-1 method, which is unanticipated by the future regulation. The KGmax curves associated with parametric roll confirm that the C11 container ship is vulnerable to this failure mode. The computation of the second check coefficient of parametric roll level 2 (C2) for all possible values of KG reveals the existence of both authorized and restricted areas on the surface formed by both the draft and KG, which may replace the classical KGmax curves. In consequence, it is not sufficient to check that C2 is lower than the maximum authorized value (RPR0) for a fixed ship’s loading condition.

Jinbao Wang, Hai Yu, Yuefeng Zhang, Xiaoqing Xiong
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2016(No. 3): 236-241
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The value of form factor k at different drafts is important in predicting full-scale total resistance and speed for different types of ships. In the ITTC community, most organizations predict form factor k using a low-speed model test. However, this method is problematic for ships with bulbous bows and transom. In this article, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)-based method is introduced to obtain k for different type of ships at different drafts, and a comparison is made between the CFD method and the model test. The results show that the CFD method produces reasonable k values. A grid generating method and turbulence model are briefly discussed in the context of obtaining a consistent k using CFD.

Onakoya Rasheed Alaba1, T. C. Nwaoha2, M. O. Okwu3
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2016(No. 3): 242-249
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In this study, we optimizethe loading and discharging operations of theLiquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carrier. First, we identify the required precautions for LNG carrier cargo operations. Next, we prioritize these precautions using the analytic hierarchy process(AHP)and experts’ judgments, in order to optimize the operationalloading and discharging exercises of the LNG carrier, prevent system failure and human error, and reduce the risk of marine accidents. Thus, the objective of our study is to increase the level of safety during cargo operations.

Ahmad Bahoo Toroody1, Mohammad Mahdi Abaiee2, Reza Gholamnia3, Mohammad Javad Ketabdari2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2016(No. 3): 250-259
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Owing to the increase in unprecedented accidents with new root causes in almost all operational areas, the importance of risk management has dramatically risen. Risk assessment, one of the most significant aspects of risk management, has a substantial impact on the system-safety level of organizations, industries, and operations. If the causes of all kinds of failure and the interactions between them are considered, effective risk assessment can be highly accurate. A combination of traditional risk assessment approaches and modern scientific probability methods can help in realizing better quantitative risk assessment methods. Most researchers face the problem of minimal field data with respect to the probability and frequency of each failure. Because of this limitation in the availability of epistemic knowledge, it is important to conduct epistemic estimations by applying the Bayesian theory for identifying plausible outcomes. In this paper, we propose an algorithm and demonstrate its application in a case study for a light-weight lifting operation in the Persian Gulf of Iran. First, we identify potential accident scenarios and present them in an event tree format. Next, excluding human error, we use the event tree to roughly estimate the prior probability of other hazard-promoting factors using a minimal amount of field data. We then use the Success Likelihood Index Method (SLIM) to calculate the probability of human error. On the basis of the proposed event tree, we use the Bayesian network of the provided scenarios to compensate for the lack of data. Finally, we determine the resulting probability of each event based on its evidence in the epistemic estimation format by building on two Bayesian network types: the probability of hazard promotion factors and the Bayesian theory. The study results indicate that despite the lack of available information on the operation of floating objects, a satisfactory result can be achieved using epistemic data.

Christiaan Adika Adenya1,2, Huilong Ren1, Hui Li1, Di Wang1
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2016(No. 3): 260-268
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The desire to benefit from economy of scale is one of the major driving forces behind the continuous growth in ship sizes. However, models of new large ships need to be thoroughly investigated to determine the carrier’s response in waves. In this work, experimental and numerical assessments of the motion and load response of a 550,000 DWT ore carrier are performed using prototype ships with softer stiffness, and towing tank tests are conducted using a segmented model with two schemes of softer stiffness. Numerical analyses areperformedemploying both rigid body and linear hydroelasticity theories using an in-house program and a comparison isthen made between experimental and numerical results to establish the influence of stiffness on the ore carrier’s springing response. Results show that softer stiffness models can be used whenstudying the springing response of ships in waves.

Yan Huang1, Wei Li1, Yinghui Wang2, Baoshan Wu2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2016(No. 3): 269-274
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In this study, we carried out model tests to investigate the ice failure process and the resistance experienced by a transport vessel navigating in the Arctic region in pack ice conditions. We tested different navigation velocities, ice plate sizes, and ice concentrations. During the tests, we closely observed several phenomena, including the modes of interaction of the iceship and the moving and failure modes of ice. We also measured the vessel resistances under different conditions. The test results indicate that the navigation velocity is a significant determinant of the moving and failure modes of ice. Moreover, vessel resistance is remarkably dependent on the ice concentration and navigation velocity. The variances of the mean and maximum resistance are also compared and discussed in detail.

Alireza Bolghasi, Parviz Ghadimi, Mohammad A. Feizi Chekab
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2016(No. 3): 275-287
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The aim of the present study is to improve the capabilities and precision of a recently introduced Sea Surface Acoustic Simulator (SSAS) developed based on optimization of the Helmholtz-Kirchhoff-Fresnel (HKF) method. The improved acoustic simulator, hereby known as theModified SSAS (MSSAS), is capable of determining sound scattering from the sea surface and includes an extended Hall-Novarini model and optimized HKF method. The extended Hall-Novarini model is used for consideringthe effects of sub-surface bubbles over a wider range of radii of sub-surface bubbles compared to the previous SSAS version. Furthermore, MSSAS has the capability of making a three-dimensional simulation of scattered sound from the rough bubbly sea surface with less error than that of the Critical Sea Tests (CST) experiments. Also, it presents scattered pressure levels from the rough bubbly sea surface based on various incident angles of sound. Wind speed, frequency, incident angle, and pressure level of the sound source are considered as input data, and scattered pressure levels and scattering coefficients are provided. Finally, different parametric studies were conducted on wind speeds, frequencies, and incident angles to indicate that MSSAS is quite capable of simulating sound scattering from the rough bubbly sea surface, according to the scattering mechanisms determined by Ogden and Erskine.Therefore, it is concluded that MSSAS is valid for both scattering mechanisms and the transition region between them that are defined by Ogden and Erskine.

Mark J. Kaiser
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2016(No. 3): 288-306
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The offshore pipeline network in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico is the largest and most transparent system in the world. A review of deepwater projects in the region provides insight into construction cost and installation methods and the evolution of contract strategies. Pipeline projects are identified as export systems, infield flowline systems, and combined export and infield systems, and three dozen deepwater pipeline installations from 1980-2014 are described based on Offshore Technology Conference (OTC) and Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) industry publications and press release data. Export lines and infield flowlines are equally represented and many projects used a combination of J-lay, S-lay and reel methods with rigid steel, flexible line, and pipe-in-pipe systems. The average 2014 inflation-adjusted cost for pipeline projects based on OTC/SPE publications was $2.76 million/mi and ranged from $520 000/mi to $12.94 million/mi. High cost pipelines tend to be short segments or specialized pipeline. Excluding the two cost endpoints, the majority of projects ranged from $1 to $6million/mi. The average inflation-adjusted cost to install deepwater pipelines in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico based on available public data is estimated at $3.1 million/mi.

H. E. Lee1, M. S. Liew2, N. H. Mardi3, K. L. Na4, Iraj Toloue1, S. K Wong4
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2016(No. 3): 307-320
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This work details the simulation of tsunami waves generated by seaquakes in the Manila Trench and their effect on fixed oil and gas jacket platforms in waters offshore North Borneo. For this study, a four-leg livingquarter jacket platform located in a water depth of 63m is modelled in SACS v5.3. Malaysia has traditionally been perceived to be safe from the hazards of earthquakes and tsunamis. Local design practices tend to neglect tsunami waves and include no such provisions. In 2004, a 9.3Mw seaquake occurred off the northwest coast of Aceh, which generated tsunami waves that caused destruction in Malaysiatotalling US$ 25 million and 68 deaths. This event prompted an awareness of the need to study the reliability of fixed offshore platforms scattered throughout Malaysian waters. In this paper, we present a review ofresearch on the seismicity of the Manila Trench, which is perceived to be high risk for Southeast Asia. From the tsunami numerical model TUNA-M2, we extract computer-simulated tsunami waves at prescribed grid points in the vicinity of the platformsin the region. Using wave heights as input, we simulate the tsunami using SACS v5.3structural analysis software of offshore platforms,which is widely accepted by the industry. We employ the nonlinear solitary wave theory in our tsunami loading calculationsfor the platforms, and formulatea platform-specific risk quantification system. We then perform an intensive structural sensitivity analysis and derive a corresponding platform-specific riskrating model.

Boumedienne M. Beladjine1, Ahmed Ouadha1, Yacine Addad1,2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2016(No. 3): 321-330
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The present study aims to make a thermodynamic analysis of an ethylene cascade re-liquefaction systemthat consists of the following two subsystems: a liquefaction cycle using ethylene as the working fluid and a refrigeration cycle operating with a hydrocarbon refrigerant. The hydrocarbon refrigerants considered are propane (R290), butane (R600), isobutane (R600a), and propylene (R1270). A computer program written in FORTRAN is developed to compute parameters for characteristic points of the cycles and the system’s performance, which is determined and analyzed using numerical solutions for the refrigerant condensation temperature, temperature in tank, and temperature difference in the cascade condenser. Results show that R600a gives the best performance, followed by (in order) R600, R290, and R1270. Furthermore, it is found that an increase in tank temperature improves system performance but that an increase in refrigerant condensation temperature causes deterioration.In addition, it is found that running the system at a low temperature difference in the cascade condenser is advantageous.

Yifeng Guan, Jie Zhao, Tengfei Shi, Peipei Zhu
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2016(No. 3): 331-335
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In recent years, China’s increased interest in environmental protection has led to a promotion of energy-efficient dual fuel (diesel/natural gas) ships in Chinese inland rivers. A natural gas as ship fuel may pose dangers of fire and explosion if a gas leak occurs. If explosions or fires occur in the engine rooms of a ship, heavy damage and losses will be incurred. In this paper, a fault tree model is presented that considersboth fires and explosionsina dual fuel ship; in this model, dual fuel engine rooms are the top events. All the basic events along with the minimum cut sets are obtained through the analysis.The primary factors that affect accidents involving fires and explosions are determined by calculating the degree of structure importance of the basic events.According to these results, corresponding measures are proposedto ensure and improve the safety and reliability of Chinese inland dual fuel ships.

Alexandre Wahrhaftig1, Henrique Ribeiro2, Ademar Nascimento3, Milton Filho4
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2016(No. 3): 336-342
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In this paper,we investigate the properties of an alternative material for use in marine engineering, namely a rigid and light sandwich-structured composite made of expanded polystyrene and fiberglass. Not only does this material have an improved section modulus, but it is also inexpensive, light, easy to manipulate, and commercially available in various sizes. Using a computer program based on the finite element method, we calculated the hogging and sagging stresses and strains acting on a prismatic boat model composed of this material, and determined the minimum sizes and maximum permissible stresses to avoid deformation. Finally, we calculated the structural weight of the resulting vessel for comparison with another structure of comparable dimensions constructed from the commonly used core materialDivinycell.

G. Subramanian1, G. T. Parthiban2, K. Muthuraman2, P. Ramakrishna rao3
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2016(No. 3): 343-348
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In view of their excellent mechanical properties, workability and heat treatment characteristics, MDN 138 & MDN 250 have been widely used in missile, rocket and aerospace industries. With light weight and high performance characteristics HE 20 aluminium alloy acts as an important material in defence and aerospace applications. The galvanic corrosion behaviour of the metal combinations HE 20/MDN 138 and HE 20/MDN 250, with 1:1 area ratio, has been studied in natural seawater using the open well facility of CECRI’s Offshore Platform at Tuticorin for a year. The open circuit potentials of MDN 138, MDN 250 and HE 20 of the individual metal, the mixed potential and galvanic current of the couples HE 20/MDN 138 and HE 20/MDN 250 were periodically monitored throughout the study period. The calcareous deposits on MDN 138 and MDN 250 were analysed using XRD. The results of the study reveal that that HE 20 has offered required amount of protection to MDN 138 & MDN 250.