Journal of Marine Science and Application [Ship Structural Mechanics]
Christiaan Adika Adenya1,2, Huilong Ren1, Hui Li1, Di Wang1
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2016(No. 3): 260-268
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The desire to benefit from economy of scale is one of the major driving forces behind the continuous growth in ship sizes. However, models of new large ships need to be thoroughly investigated to determine the carrier’s response in waves. In this work, experimental and numerical assessments of the motion and load response of a 550,000 DWT ore carrier are performed using prototype ships with softer stiffness, and towing tank tests are conducted using a segmented model with two schemes of softer stiffness. Numerical analyses areperformedemploying both rigid body and linear hydroelasticity theories using an in-house program and a comparison isthen made between experimental and numerical results to establish the influence of stiffness on the ore carrier’s springing response. Results show that softer stiffness models can be used whenstudying the springing response of ships in waves.

Yifeng Guan, Jie Zhao, Tengfei Shi, Peipei Zhu
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2016(No. 3): 331-335
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In recent years, China’s increased interest in environmental protection has led to a promotion of energy-efficient dual fuel (diesel/natural gas) ships in Chinese inland rivers. A natural gas as ship fuel may pose dangers of fire and explosion if a gas leak occurs. If explosions or fires occur in the engine rooms of a ship, heavy damage and losses will be incurred. In this paper, a fault tree model is presented that considersboth fires and explosionsina dual fuel ship; in this model, dual fuel engine rooms are the top events. All the basic events along with the minimum cut sets are obtained through the analysis.The primary factors that affect accidents involving fires and explosions are determined by calculating the degree of structure importance of the basic events.According to these results, corresponding measures are proposedto ensure and improve the safety and reliability of Chinese inland dual fuel ships.

Alexandre Wahrhaftig1, Henrique Ribeiro2, Ademar Nascimento3, Milton Filho4
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2016(No. 3): 336-342
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In this paper,we investigate the properties of an alternative material for use in marine engineering, namely a rigid and light sandwich-structured composite made of expanded polystyrene and fiberglass. Not only does this material have an improved section modulus, but it is also inexpensive, light, easy to manipulate, and commercially available in various sizes. Using a computer program based on the finite element method, we calculated the hogging and sagging stresses and strains acting on a prismatic boat model composed of this material, and determined the minimum sizes and maximum permissible stresses to avoid deformation. Finally, we calculated the structural weight of the resulting vessel for comparison with another structure of comparable dimensions constructed from the commonly used core materialDivinycell.

Ismail Zainol1, Omar Yaakob2,3
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2016(No. 2): 214-221
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Fishing is a major local industry in Malaysia, particularly in rural areas. However, the rapidly increasing price of fuel is seriously affecting the industry’s viability. At present, outboard petrol engines are the preferred choice for use in small-scale fishing boats because they deliver the advantages of high speed and low weight, they are easy to install, and they use minimal space. Petrol outboard engines are known to consume a greater amount of fuel than inboard diesel engines, but installing diesel engines with conventional submerged propellers in existing small-scale fishing boats is not economically viable because major hullform modifications and extra expenditure are required to achieve this. This study describes a proposal to enable reductions in fuel consumption by introducing the combined use of a diesel engine and Surface-Piercing Propeller (SPP). An analysis of fuel consumption reduction is presented, together with an economic feasibility study. Resulting data reveal that the use of the proposed modifications would save 23.31 liters of fuel per trip (40.75%) compared to outboard motors, equaling annual savings of RM 3962 per year.

Abdeljalil Benmansour, Benameur Hamoudi, Lahouari Adjlout
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2016(No. 1): 33-40
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This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation dealing with the effect of bow overhang extensions on the quantity of shipping water over the foredeck in case of ships advancing in regular head waves.To perform this investigation, a series of free-running tests was conducted in regular waves using an experimental model of a multipurpose cargo ship to quantify the amount of shipping water.The tests were performed on five bow overhang variants with several combinations of wavelength and ship speed conditions.It was observed that the quantity of shipping water was affected by some parameters such as wavelength, ship speed, and bow shape in terms of an overhang extension.The results show the significant influence of an overhang extension, which is associated with the bow flare shape, on the occurrence of water shipping.These results involve the combined incoming regular waves and model speed.

Haoyang Cen, Rupp Carriveau, David S-K Ting
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2016(No. 1): 50-62
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The effect of the mass ratio on the flow-induced vibration(FIV) of a flexible circular cylinder is experimentally investigated in a towing tank.A Tygon tube with outer and inner diameters of 7.9 mm and 4.8 mm, respectively, was employed for the study.The tube was connected to a carriage and towed from rest to a steady speed up to 1.6 m/s before slowing down to rest again over a distance of 1.6 m in still water.Reynolds number based on the cylinder’s outer diameter was 800-13, 000, and the reduced velocity(velocity normalized by the cylinder’s natural frequency and outer diameter) spanned from 2 to 25.When connected, the cylinder was elongated from 420 mm to 460 mm under an axial pre-tension of 11 N.Based on the cylinder’s elongated length, the aspect ratio(ratio of the cylinder’s length to outer diameter) was calculated as 58.Three mass ratios(ratio of the cylinder’s structural mass to displaced fluid mass, m*) of 0.7, 1.0, and 3.4 were determined by filling the cylinder’s interior with air, water, and alloy powder(nickel-chromium-boron matrix alloy), respectively. An optical method was adopted for response measurements. Multi-frequency vibrations were observed in both in-line(IL) and cross-flow(CF) responses;at high Reynolds number, vibration modes up to the 3rd one were identified in the CF response.The mode transition was found to occur at a lower reduced velocity for the highest tested mass ratio.The vibration amplitude and frequency were quantified and expressed with respect to the reduced velocity.A significant reduced vibration amplitude was found in the IL response with increasing mass ratios, and only initial and upper branches existed in the IL and CF response amplitudes.The normalized response frequencies were revealed to linearly increase with respect to the reduced velocity, and slopes for linear relations were found to be identical for the three cases tested.

Dong-Myung Bae1, Aditya Rio Prabowo1,2,3, Bo Cao1, Ahmad Fauzan Zakki4, Gunawan Dwi Haryadi3
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2016(No. 1): 63-72
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In the present analysis, several parameters used in a numerical simulation are investigated in an integrated study to obtain their influence on the process and results of this simulation. The parameters studied are element formulation, friction coefficient, and material model.Numerical simulations using the non-linear finite element method are conducted to produce virtual experimental data for several collision scenarios.Pattern and size damages caused by collision in a real accident case are assumed as real experimental data, and these are used to validate the method. The element model study performed indicates that the Belytschko-Tsay element formulation should be recommended for use in virtual experiments.It is recommended that the real value of the friction coefficient for materials involved is applied in simulations.For the study of the material model, the application of materials with high yield strength is recommended for use in the side hull structure.

Zhiqiang Hu1, Ge Wang2, Qi Yao1, Zhaolong Yu3
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2016(No. 1): 73-85
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This study presents a simplified analytical model for predicting the structural responses of double-bottom ships in a shoal grounding scenario.This solution is based on a series of analytical models developed from elastic-plastic mechanism theories for different structural components, including bottom girders, floors, bottom plating, and attached stiffeners.We verify this simplified analytical model by numerical simulation, and establish finite element models for a typical tanker hold and a rigid indenter representing seabed obstacles.Employing the LS-DYNA finite element solver, we conduct numerical simulations for shoal-grounding cases with a wide range of slope angles and indentation depths.In comparison with numerical simulations, we verify the proposed simplified analytical model with respect to the total energy dissipation and the horizontal grounding resistance.We also investigate the interaction effect of deformation patterns between bottom structure components.Our results show that the total energy dissipation and resistances predicted by the analytical model agree well with those from numerical simulations.

S. Palraj, M. Selvaraj, K. Maruthan and M. Natesan
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2015(No. 1): 105-112
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In continuation of the extensive studies carried out to update the corrosion map of India, in this study, the degradation of mild steel by air pollutants was studied at 16 different locations from Nagore to Ammanichatram along the east coast of Tamilnadu, India over a period of two years. The weight loss study showed that the mild steel corrosion was more at Nagapattinam site, when compared to Ammanichatram and Maravakadu sites. A linear regression analysis of the experimental data was attempted to predict the mechanism of the corrosion. The composition of the corrosion products formed on the mild steel surfaces was identified by XRD technique. The corrosion rate values obtained are discussed in the light of the weathering parameters, atmospheric pollutants such as salt content & SO2 levels in the atmosphere, corrosion products formed on the mild steel surfaces.

Tao Zhang, Yong’ou Zhang, Huajiang Ouyang and Tao Guo
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2014(No. 4): 394-401
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The effect of a guide vane installed at the elbow on flow-induced noise and vibration is investigated in the range of Reynolds numbers from 1.70?105 to 6.81?105, and the position of guide vane is determined by publications. The turbulent flow in the piping elbow is simulated with large eddy simulation (LES). Following this, a hybrid method of combining LES and Lighthill’s acoustic analogy theory is used to simulate the hydrodynamic noise and sound sources are solved as volume sources in code Actran. In addition, the flow-induced vibration of the piping elbow is investigated based on a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) code. The LES results indicate that the range of vortex zone in the elbow without the guide vane is larger than the case with the guide vane, and the guide vane is effective in reducing flow-induced noise and vibration in the 90° piping elbow at different Reynolds numbers.

Mohammad Reza Shekari
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2014(No. 3): 299-304
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In thispaper, the effects of a rigid baffle on the seismic response of liquid in a rigid cylindrical tank are evaluated. A baffle is an annular plate which supplies a kind of passive control on the effects of ground excitation. The contained liquid is assumed incompressible, inviscid and has irrotational motion. To estimate the seismic response, the method of superposition of modes has been applied. To analyze the rigid tank response, Laplace’s equation is considered as the governing equation of the fluid domain, in both time and frequency domains. The boundary element method (BEM) is employed to evaluate the natural modes of liquid in a cylindrical tank. To gain this goal, the fluid domain is divided into two upper and lower parts partitioned by the baffle. Linearized kinematic and dynamic boundary conditions of the free surface of the contained liquid have been considered.

Qingyong Niu, Tianyun Li, Xiang Zhu and Lu Wang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2014(No. 2): 178-184
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A pneumatic launcher is theoretically investigated to study its natural transverse vibration in water. Considering the mass effect of the sealing cover, the launcher is simplified as a uniform cantilever beam with a top point mass. By introducing the boundary and continuity conditions into the motion equation, the natural frequency equation and the mode shape function are derived. An iterative calculation method for added mass is also presented using the velocity potential function to account for the mass effect of the fluid on the launcher. The first 2 order natural frequencies and mode shapes are discussed in external flow fields and both external and internal flow fields. The results show good agreement with both natural frequencies and mode shapes between the theoretical analysis and the FEM studies. Also, the added mass is found to decrease with the increase of the mode shape orders of the launcher. And because of the larger added mass in both the external and internal flow fields than that in only the external flow field, the corresponding natural frequencies of the former are relatively smaller.

Kandouci Chahr-Eddine and Adjal Yassine
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2014(No. 2): 200-205
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This present paper deals with a mathematical description of linear axial and torsional vibrations. The normal and tangential stress tensor components produced by axial-torsional deformations and vibrations in the propeller and intermediate shafts, under the influence of propeller-induced static and variable hydrodynamic excitations are also studied. The transfer matrix method related to the constant coefficients of differential equation solutions is used. The advantage of the latter as compared with a well-known method of transfer matrix associated with state vector is the possibility of reducing the number of multiplied matrices when adjacent shaft segments have the same material properties and diameters. The results show that there is no risk of buckling and confirm that the strength of the shaft line depends on the value of the static tangential stresses which is the most important component of the stress tensor.

W. Huang, Y. Garbatov and C. Guedes Soares
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2014(No. 1): 23-31
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The objective of this work is to analyze the fatigue reliability of complex welded structures composed of multiple web-frame joints, accounting for correlation effects. A three-dimensional finite element model using the 20-node solid elements is generated. A linear elastic finite element analysis was performed, hotspot stresses in a web-frame joint were analyzed and fatigue damage was quantified employing the S-N approach. The statistical descriptors of the fatigue life of a non-correlated web-frame joint containing several critical hotspots were estimated. The fatigue reliability of a web-frame joint wasmodeled as a series system of correlated components using the Ditlevsen bounds. The fatigue reliability of the entire welded structure with multiple web-frame joints, modeled as a parallel system of non-correlated web-frame joints was also calculated.

Zhuang Wang , Ming Hong, Junchen Xu and Hongyu Cui
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2014(No. 1): 32-40
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The structures in engineering can be simplified into elastic beams with concentrated masses and elastic spring supports. Studying the law of vibration of the beams can be a help in guiding its design and avoiding resonance. Based on the Laplace transform method, the mode shape functions and the frequency equations of the beams in the typical boundary conditions are derived. A cantilever beam with a lumped mass and a spring is selected to obtain its natural frequencies and mode shape functions. An experiment was conducted in order to get the modal parameters of the beam based on the NExT-ERA method. By comparing the analytical and experimental results, the effects of the locations of the mass and spring on the modal parameter are discussed. The variation of the natural frequencies was obtained with the changing stiffness coefficient and mass coefficient, respectively. The findings provide a reference for the vibration analysis methods and the lumped parameters layout design of elastic beams used in engineering.

Junkai Zhu, Zhe Lin,Qiang Liu and Lihua Zhang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2014(No. 1): 41-48
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The added mass coefficient and the water level index formulas for the same-phase and anti-phase vibration of rectangular liquid tanks’ bulkheads were derived based on dry mode theory. Three fluid-structure interaction numerical methods including Fluid FEM and Fluid BEM were used in this case. The comparison of numerical and theoretical results by the present method shows that ANSYS/Fluid80 is more credible, the NASTRAN/Virtual Mass Method is more suitable for engineering calculations and results of the same-phase vibration by the present method is more accurate.

Xu Bai, Liping Sun, Wei Qin and Yongkun Lv
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2014(No. 1): 49-54
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The stiffened cylindrical shell is commonly used for the pressure hull of submersibles and the legs of offshore platforms. There are various failure modes because of uncertainty with the structural size and material properties, uncertainty of the calculation model and machining errors. Correlations among failure modes must be considered with the structural reliability of stiffened cylindrical shells. However, the traditional method cannot consider the correlations effectively. The aim of this study is to present a method of reliability analysis for stiffened cylindrical shells which considers the correlations among failure modes. Firstly, the joint failure probability calculation formula of two related failure modes is derived through use of the 2D joint probability density function. Secondly, the full probability formula of the tandem structural system is given with consideration to the correlations among failure modes. At last, the accuracy of the system reliability calculation is verified through use of the Monte Carlo simulation. Result of the analysis shows the failure probability of stiffened cylindrical shells can be gained through adding the failure probability of each mode.

Junyuan Ma, Jianhua Xiao, Rui Ma and Kai Cao
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2014(No. 1): 55-61
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Global strength is a significant item for floating production storage and offloading (FPSO) design, and steel weight plays an important role in the building costs of FPSO. It is the main task to consider and combine these two aspects by optimizing hull dimensions. There are many optional methods for the global strength analysis. A common method is to use the ABS FPSO Eagle software to analyze the global strength including the rule check and direct strength analysis. And the same method can be adopted for the FPSO hull optimization by changing the depth. After calculation and optimization, the results are compared and analyzed. The results can be used as a reference for the future design or quotation purpose.

G.Q. Feng, Y. Garbatov and C. Guedes Soares
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 4): 413-421
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The objective of this work is to analyse fatigue reliability of deck structures subjected to correlated crack growth. The stress intensity factors of the correlated cracks are obtained by finite element analysis and based on which the geometry correction functions are derived. The Monte Carlo simulations are applied to predict the statistical descriptors of correlated cracks based on the Paris-Erdogan equation. A probabilistic model of crack growth as a function of time is used to analyse the fatigue reliability of deck structures accounting for the crack propagation correlation. A deck structure is modelled as a series system of stiffened panels, where a stiffened panel is regarded as a parallel system composed of plates and are longitudinal. It has been proven that the method developed here can be conveniently applied to perform the fatigue reliability assessment of structures subjected to correlated crack growth.

Mingcai Xu, Y. Garbatov and C. Guedes Soares
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 2): 127-139
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A geometrically similar scaling was made from small-scale specimen to full-scale stiffened panels and then their collapse behaviour is investigated. It is considered that the stiffened panel compressive ultimate strength test was designed according to geometrical scaling laws so that the output of the test could be used as representative of the stiffened panels of the compressive zone of a tanker hull subjected to vertical bending moment. The ultimate strength of a tanker hull is analysed by a FE analysis using the experimentally developed master stress-strain curves which are obtained by the beam tension test and the compressive test of the stiffened panel, and are then compared with the result achieved by the progressive collapse method.

Junchen Xu, Ming Hong and Xiaobing Liu
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 1): 38-44
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A ship is operated under an extremely complex environment, and waves and winds are assumed to be the stochastic excitations. Moreover, the propeller, host and mechanical equipment can also induce the harmonic responses. In order to reduce structural vibration, it is important to obtain the modal parameters information of a ship. However, the traditional modal parameter identification methods are not suitable since the excitation information is difficult to obtain. Natural excitation technique-eigensystem realization algorithm (NExT-ERA) is an operational modal identification method which abstracts modal parameters only from the response signals, and it is based on the assumption that the input to the structure is pure white noise. Hence, it is necessary to study the influence of harmonic excitations while applying the NExT-ERA method to a ship structure. The results of this research paper indicate the practical experiences under ambient excitation, ship model experiments were successfully done in the modal parameters identification only when the harmonic frequencies were not too close to the modal frequencies.

Weidong Chen and Yanchun Yu
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 4): 478-485
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The examination of an unstructured finite volume method for structural dynamics is assessed for simulations of systematic impact dynamics. A robust display dual-time stepping method is utilized to obtain time accurate solutions. The study of impact dynamics is a complex problem that should consider strength models and state equations to describe the mechanical behavior of materials. The current method has several features. 1) Discrete equations of unstructured finite volume method naturally follow the conservation law. 2) Display dual-time stepping method is suitable for the analysis of impact dynamic problems of time accurate solutions. 3) The method did not produce grid distortion when large deformation appeared. The method is validated by the problem of impact dynamics of an elastic plate with initial conditions and material properties. The results validate the finite element numerical data.

Zhiying Zhang, Yinfang Dai and Zhen Li
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 3): 311-320
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Dimensional control is one of the most important challenges in the shipbuilding industry. In order to predict assembly dimensional variation in hull flat block construction, a variation stream model based on state space was presented in this paper which can be further applied to accuracy control in shipbuilding. Part accumulative error, locating error, and welding deformation were taken into consideration in this model, and variation propagation mechanisms and the accumulative rule in the assembly process were analyzed. Then, a model was developed to describe the variation propagation throughout the assembly process. Finally, an example of flat block construction from an actual shipyard was given. The result shows that this method is effective and useful.

Tuohan Chen, Jianli Zheng and Dong-Myung Bae
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 2): 184-190
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Fatigue cracks and fatigue damage have been important issues for ships and offshore structures for a long time. However, in the last decade, with the introduction of higher tensile steel in hull structures and increasingly large ship dimensions, the greater attention should be paid to fatigue problems. Most research focuses on how to more easily access the fatigue strength of ships. Also, the major classification societies have already released their fatigue assessment notes. However, due to the complexity of factors influencing fatigue performances, such as wave load and pressure from cargo, the combination of different stress components, stress on concentration of local structure details, means stress, and the corrosive environments, there are different specifications with varying classification societies, leading to the different results from different fatigue assessment methods. This paper established the Det Norske Veritas(DNV) classification notes “fatigue assessment of ship structures” that explains the process of fatigue assessment and simplified methods. Finally, a fatigue analysis was performed by use data of a real ship and the reliability of the result was assessed.

Weijun Xu, Kazuhiro Iijima, Ryota Wada and Masahiko Fujikubo
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 1): 34-43
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Experimental investigations into the collapse behavior of a box-shape hull girder subjected to extreme wave-induced loads are presented. The experiment was performed using a scaled model in a tank. In the middle of the scaled model, sacrificial specimens with circular pillar and trough shapes which respectively show different bending moment-displacement characteristics were mounted to compare the dynamic collapse characteristics of the hull girder in waves. The specimens were designed by using finite element (FE)-analysis. Prior to the tank tests, static four-point-bending tests were conducted to detect the load-carrying capacity of the hull girder. It was shown that the load-carrying capacity of a ship including reduction of the capacity after the ultimate strength can be reproduced experimentally by employing the trough type specimens. Tank tests using these specimens were performed under a focused wave in which the hull girder collapses under once and repetitive focused waves. It was shown from the multiple collapse tests that the increase rate of collapse becomes higher once the load-carrying capacity enters the reduction path while the increase rate is lower before reaching the ultimate strength.

Feng Chen, Ming Hong, Meiting Song and Hongyu Cui
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 1): 44-51
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Because of its light weight, broadband, and adaptable properties, smart material has been widely applied in the active vibration control (AVC) of flexible structures. Based on a first-order shear deformation theory, by coupling the electrical and mechanical operation, a 4-node quadrilateral piezoelectric composite element with 24 degrees of freedom for generalized displacements and one electrical potential degree of freedom per piezoelectric layer was derived. Dynamic characteristics of a beam with discontinuously distributed piezoelectric sensors and actuators were presented. A linear quadratic regulator (LQR) feedback controller was designed to suppress the vibration of the beam in the state space using the high precise direct (HPD) integration method.

Guoqing Feng, Hao Sun, Dongping Liu and Hui Li
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 1): 68-74
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The stress combination method for the fatigue assessment of the hatch corner of a bulk carrier was investigated based on equivalent waves. The principles of the equivalent waves of ship structures were given, including the determination of the dominant load parameter, heading, frequency, and amplitude of the equivalent regular waves. The dominant load parameters of the hatch corner of a bulk carrier were identified by the structural stress response analysis, and then a series of equivalent regular waves were defined based on these parameters. A combination method of the structural stress ranges under the different equivalent waves was developed for the fatigue analysis. The combination factors were obtained by least square regression analysis with the stress ranges derived from spectral fatigue analysis as the target value. The proposed method was applied to the hatch corner of another bulk carrier as an example. This shows that the results from the equivalent wave approach agree well with those from the spectral fatigue analysis. The workload is reduced substantially. This method can be referenced in the fatigue assessment of the hatch corner of a bulk carrier.

Pankaj Biswas, D. Anil Kumar, N. R. Mandal and M. M. Mahapatra
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 4): 429-436
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Welding sequence has a significant effect on distortion pattern of large orthogonally stiffened panels normally used in ships and offshore structures. These deformations adversely affect the subsequent fitup and alignment of the adjacent panels. It may also result in loss of structural integrity. These panels primarily suffer from angular and buckling distortions. The extent of distortion depends on several parameters such as welding speed, plate thickness, welding current, voltage, restraints applied to the job while welding, thermal history as well as sequence of welding. Numerical modeling of welding and experimental validation of the FE model has been carried out for estimation of thermal history and resulting distortions. In the present work an FE model has been developed for studying the effect of welding sequence on the distortion pattern and its magnitude in fabrication of orthogonally stiffened plate panels.

Li Sun and Deyu Wang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 3): 272-280
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A new multi-level analysis method of introducing the super-element modeling method, derived from the multi-level analysis method first proposed by O. F. Hughes, has been proposed in this paper to solve the problem of high time cost in adopting a rational-based optimal design method for ship structural design. Furthermore, the method was verified by its effective application in optimization of the mid-ship section of a container ship. A full 3-D FEM model of a ship, suffering static and quasi-static loads, was used as the analyzing object for evaluating the structural performance of the mid-ship module, including static strength and buckling performance. Research results reveal that this new method could substantially reduce the computational cost of the rational-based optimization problem without decreasing its accuracy, which increases the feasibility and economic efficiency of using a rational-based optimal design method in ship structural design.

Hassan Ghasseni and Parviz Ghadimi
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 3): 289-299
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A numerical analysis based on the boundary element method (BEM) was presented for the hydrodynamic performance of a high skew propeller (HSP) which is employed by an underwater vehicle (UV). Since UVs operate at two different working conditions (surface and submerged conditions), the design of such a propeller is a cumbersome task. This is primarily due to the fact that the resistance forces as well as the vessel efficiency under these conditions are significantly different. Therefore, some factors are necessary for the design of the optimum propeller to utilize the power at the mentioned conditions. The design objectives of the optimum propeller are to obtain the highest possible thrust, minimum torque, and efficiency. In the current study, a 5-bladed HSP was chosen for running the UV. This propeller operated at the stern of the UV hull where the inflow velocity to the propeller was non-uniform. Some parameters of the propeller were predicted based on the UV geometrical hull and operating conditions. The computed results include the pressure distribution and the hydrodynamic characteristics of the HSP in open water conditions, and comparison of these results with those of the experimental data indicates good agreement. The propeller efficiency for both submerged and surface conditions was found to be 67% and 64%, respectively, which compared to conventional propellers is a significantly higher efficiency.

Wei Zhang, Chao Wu, Wenshan Yang, Shanshan Xu and Shaofei Ren
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 3): 300-306
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Due to the unique structural mode and material property of a composite sandwich plate, related research such as fragment impact resistance of a composite mast is short of publication and urgent in this field. In this paper, the commonly accepted sandwich core board theory was modified. Damage caused by a fragment attack was simulated onto a sandwich plate model built with solid and shell elements. It was shown that shear failure and vast matrix cracking are the main reasons for outer coat damage, and tension failure and partial matrix cracking are the cause for inner coat damage. Additionally, according to complexities in actual sea battles, different work conditions of missile attacks were set. Ballistic limit values of different fragment sizes were also obtained, which provides references for enhancing the fragment impact resistance of a composite mast.

Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 2): 215-219
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In considering the theory of structural dynamic optimization design, a design method of the structural style of ship composite brace with rigid vibration isolation mass was studied. Two kinds of structural dynamic optimization formulations minimizing the vibration acceleration of the non-pressure hull on the restraining condition of the gross weight of the ship cabin were established: 1) dynamic optimization of the sectional dimensions of the rigid vibration isolation mass in the composite brace; 2) dynamic optimization of the arranging position of the rigid vibration isolation mass. Through the optimization results, sectional dimensions and the arranging position of the rigid vibration isolation mass with better performance in reducing vibration were gained, and some reference was provided for practical engineering designs as well as enrichment of the design method of a novel ship vibration-isolation brace.

Wei Zhang, Wenyong Tang, Nianzhong Chen and Shengkun Zhang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 1): 1-6
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The effects of stochastic characteristics of materials on the reliability of ship hulls made of composite materials under longitudinal moment were extensively studied using reliability and sensitivity calculations of a composite ship hull which was sagging. The reliability indices and failure probabilities of the ship in three kinds of failure modes (buckling, material failure, and ultimate collapse) were calculated by the surface response method and JC method. The importance factors of random variables in stochastic models, such as the model errors in predicting the ultimate longitudinal strength of ship and the longitudinal bending moment that the ship withstands, as well as the stochastic characteristics of materials in the models used, were calculated. Then, the effects of these random variables, including the stochastic characteristics of materials on the reliability index and the failure probability of ships which were sagging, were discussed with their importance factors. The results show that the effects of stochastic characteristics of materials on the reliability of ship hulls made of composite materials should be considered during the reliability assessment of composite ships. Finally, some conclusions and recommendations were given for high-speed ship design and safety assessment.

Qing Wang and Jing-zheng Yao
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 4): 386-392
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Several algorithms were proposed relating to the development of a framework of the perturbation-based stochastic finite element method (PSFEM) for large variation nonlinear dynamic problems. For this purpose, algorithms and a framework related to SFEM based on the stochastic virtual work principle were studied. To prove the validity and practicality of the algorithms and framework, numerical examples for nonlinear dynamic problems with large variations were calculated and compared with the Monte-Carlo Simulation method. This comparison shows that the proposed approaches are accurate and effective for the nonlinear dynamic analysis of structures with random parameters.

Guo-qing Feng, Gang Li, Zhi-hui Liu, Huai-lei Niu and Chen-feng Li
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 3): 286-291
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Sandwich plate systems (SPS) are advanced materials that have begun to receive extensive attention in naval architecture and ocean engineering. At present, according to the rules of classification societies, a mixture of shell and solid elements are required to simulate an SPS. Based on the principle of stiffness decomposition, a new numerical simulation method for shell elements was proposed. In accordance with the principle of stiffness decomposition, the total stiffness can be decomposed into the bending stiffness and shear stiffness. Displacement and stress response related to bending stiffness was calculated with the laminated shell element. Displacement and stress response due to shear was calculated by use of a computational code write by FORTRAN language. Then the total displacement and stress response for the SPS was obtained by adding together these two parts of total displacement and stress. Finally, a rectangular SPS plate and a double-bottom structure were used for a simulation. The results show that the deflection simulated by the elements proposed in the paper is larger than the same simulated by solid elements and the analytical solution according to Hoff theory and approximate to the same simulated by the mixture of shell-solid elements, and the stress simulated by the elements proposed in the paper is approximate to the other simulating methods. So compared with calculations based on a mixture of shell and solid elements, the numerical simulation method given in the paper is more efficient and easier to do.

Zhen Liu1, Bin Teng1*, De-zhi Ning1,2 and Liang Sun1
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 2): 156-162
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To study wave-current actions on 3-D bodies a time-domain numerical model was established using a higher-order boundary element method (HOBEM). By assuming small flow velocities, the velocity potential could be expressed for linear and higher order components by perturbation expansion. A 4th-order Runge-Kutta method was applied for time marching. An artificial damping layer was adopted at the outer zone of the free surface mesh to dissipate scattering waves. Validation of the numerical method was carried out on run-up, wave exciting forces, and mean drift forces for wave-currents acting on a bottom-mounted vertical cylinder. The results were in close agreement with the results of a frequency-domain method and a published time-domain method. The model was then applied to compute wave-current forces and run-up on a Seastar mini tension-leg platform.

Ping-jian Ming1,3*, Yang-zhe Sun2, Wen-yang Duan3 and Wen-ping Zhang1
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 2): 181-186
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This paper presents an improved unstructured grid immersed boundary method. The advantages of both immersed boundary method and body fitted grids which are generated by unstructured grid technology are used to enhance the computation efficiency of fluid structure interaction in complex domain. The Navier-Stokes equation was discretized spacially with collocated finite volume method and Euler implicit method in time domain. The rigid body motion was simulated by immersed boundary method in which the fluid and rigid body interface interaction was dealt with VOS (volume of solid) method. A new VOS calculation method based on graph was presented in which both immersed boundary points and cross points were collected in arbitrary order to form a graph. The method is verified with flow past oscillating cylinder.

Ling Hou1,2*, Ren-qing Zhu 1and Quan Wang1
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 2): 192-199
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Sloshing phenomenon in the liquid cargo carriers has caught the attention of researchers as the interaction between the sloshing waves and structure is one of the key point and difficulty in the study of sloshing. In this paper, we captured the free surface with a volume of fluid (VOF) method and then calculated the motions and responses of the structure by adopting the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations for the whole fluid domain. With the use of user defined functions (UDF) in Fluent, the interaction between fluid and structure was then simulated. As a reasonable simplification, the authors studied the response of a single cantilever in a tank under sloshing loads; Further study should pay more attention to the mechanisms of interaction between sloshing waves and elastic structures.

Xi Zhang, Yu-min Su, Liang Yang and Zhao-li Wang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 2): 213-219
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Fish are able to make good use of vortices. In a complex flow field, many fish continue to maintain both efficient cruising and maneuverability. Traditional man-made propulsion systems perform poorly in complex flow fields. With fish-like propulsion systems, it is important to pay more attention to complex flow fields. In this paper, the influence of vortices on the hydrodynamic performance of 2-D flapping-foils was investigated. The flapping-foil heaved and pitched under the influence of inflow vortices generated by an oscillating D-section cylinder. A numerical simulation was run based the finite volume method, using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software FLUENT with Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations applied. In addition, dynamic mesh technology and post processing systems were also fully used. The calculations showed four modes of interaction. The hydrodynamic performance of flapping-foils was analyzed and the results compared with experimental data. This validated the numerical simulation, confirming that flapping-foils can increase efficiency by absorbing energy from inflow vortices.

Pankaj Biswas, Nisith Ranjan Mandal and Om Prakash Sha
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 1): 14-21
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Line heating process is a very complex phenomenon as a variety of factors affects the amount of residual deformations. Numerical thermal and mechanical analysis of line heating for prediction of residual deformation is time consuming. In the present work dimensional analysis has been presented to obtain a new relationship between input parameters and resulting residual deformations during line heating process. The temperature distribution and residual deformations for 6 mm, 8 mm, 10 mm and 12 mm thick steel plates were numerically estimated and compared with experimental and published results. Extensive data generated through a validated FE model were used to find co-relationship between the input parameters and the resulting residual deformation by multiple regression analysis. The results obtained from the deformation equations developed in this work compared well with those of the FE analysis with a drop in the computation time in the order of 100 (computational time required for FE analysis is around 7 200 second to 9 000 seconds and where the time required for getting the residual deformation by developed equations is only 60 to 90 seconds). Keywords: dimensional analysis; 3-D finite element analysis; elasto-plastic analysis; residual deformations; multiple regression analysis; oxy-acetylene gas flame

Jun-feng Lu and Yao Zhao
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 1): 48-53
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An improved spherical, movable transfer skirt for autonomous submersibles has been devised. It was designed to permit the transfer of equipment and personnel from a submersible to the pressure chamber of an oil storage sea-bed structure. It also allowed mating at large vertical angles while the submersible remained horizontal. Seal failure modes and procedures for analyzing the sealing ability of the mating flange of the hull transfer skirt were thoroughly analyzed using conservative estimation methods. In the analysis, sea currents and mating angles were considered. Results showed that when considering the effects of currents, spherical radius and mating angle, their influence on seal ring failure should be considered first. The critical mating depth for a seal ring failure was larger than for either sliding or rotational failure modes. The critical mating depth can be used to determine the mating method of the submersible. The analytical procedures and results can be used as a reference for the design of spherical hull transfer skirts.

DENG Zhong-chao*, YAO Xiong-liang and ZHANG Da-gang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2009(No. 4): 291-297
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Isolator systems on ships should ideally be able to simultaneously reduce low frequency vibration response and high frequency shock response. Conventional isolator systems are unable to do so. To solve the problem, a new style isolator system was created. This isolator system consists of a steel coil spring component and a magnetorheological (MR) damper component working in parallel. Experiments on this isolator system were carried out, including tests of vibration reduction and shock resistance. The vibration load frequencies were set from 1-15 Hz, and force amplitudes from 2.94~11.76 kN. The maximum shock input acceleration was 20 g, and impulse width was 10ms. Both the vibration and shock loads were applied using MTS Systems Corporation’s hydraulic actuators. The experimental results indicated that the isolator system performs well on system vibration response, with resonance humps of the vibration response obviously reduced after using the MR damper. For the shock experiment, the attenuation of shock response was much faster with increased MR damping. The MR damper’s effect on shock moments was very different from its performance in vibration mode. The correlation between MR force and control current was not as evident as it was during vibration loads.

XU Shan-shan*, LIU Shi-ming, GUO Shao-jing and ZHANG A-man
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2009(No. 4): 316-322
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A submodel method was proposed that works from computational models of marine gear cases to verify that the proposed bolts will give it sufficient structural integrity. Calculations for marine equipment using this system accorded well with conventional results. As an example, an anti-shock computation was processed for a gear case, and the submodel was then employed to check the strength of individual components. The results showed that the gear case connecting structure can satisfy relative anti-shock requirements, and the dynamic response characteristics seen in the bolt structures had a close relationship with the method used for attaching the bolt. This provides a new means for checking the strength of connecting structures on large-scale equipment and thus has significant reference value.

XU Jun-ling and ZHU Ren-qing*
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2009(No. 3): 237-245
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With the development of the offshore deep water oil industry many researchers are focusing on the vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of deep risers. In the present work, Reynolds–averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations were combined with the SST turbulent model to simulate the stream-wise and transverse motion of an elastically mounted cylinder with a low mass-ratio, a natural frequency ratio of and an Re number between 5 300 and 32 000. The four-order Runge–Kutta method was applied to solve the oscillating equation of the cylinder. The relationship between reduced velocity and parameters of the cylinder, including the lift coefficient, the drag coefficient, displacement and the vortex structure were then compared with recent experimental results and discussed in detail. The present numerical simulation reproduced effects have been observed in experiments, such as the lock-in phenomenon, the hysteretic phenomenon and beating behavior.

MA Wen-jun1* and TANG Li-qiang2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2009(No. 3): 252-258
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A mechanical model of the quasi-static interface of a mode I crack between a rigid and a pressure-sensitive viscoelastic material was established to investigate the mechanical characteristic of ship-building engineering bi-materials. In the stable growth stage, stress and strain have the same singularity, ie . The variable-separable asymptotic solutions of stress and strain at the crack tip were obtained by adopting Airy’s stress function and the numerical results of stress and strain in the crack-tip field were obtained by the shooting method. The results showed that the near-tip fields are mainly governed by the power-hardening exponent n and the Poisson ratio of the pressure-sensitive material. The fracture criterion of mode I quasi-static crack growth in pressure-sensitive materials, according to the asymptotic analyses of the crack-tip field, can be viewed from the perspective of strain.

LIANG Li-fu*, LIU Zong-min and GUO Qing-yong
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2009(No. 1): 40-45
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The fluid-solid coupling theory, an interdisciplinary science between hydrodynamics and solid mechanics, is an important tool for response analysis and direct design of structures in naval architecture and ocean engineering. By applying the corresponding relations between generalized forces and generalized displacements, convolutions were performed between the basic equations of elasto-dynamics in the primary space and corresponding virtual quantities. The results were integrated and then added algebraically. In light of the fact that body forces and surface forces are both follower forces, the generalized quasi-complementary energy principle with two kinds of variables for an initial value problem is established in non-conservative systems. Using the generalized quasi-complementary energy principle to deal with the fluid-solid coupling problem and to analyze the dynamic response of structures, a method for using two kinds of variables simultaneously for calculation of force and displacement was derived.

HUANG Hai-yan* and WANG De-yu
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2009(No. 1): 77-82
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The goal of this effort was to provide a static and dynamic collaborative optimization (CO) model for the design of ship hull structure. The CO model integrated with static, mode and dynamic analyses. In the system-level optimization model, a new objective function was advised, integrating all the subsystem-levels’ objective functions, so as to eliminate the effects of dimensions and magnitude order. The proposed CO architecture enabled multi-objectives of the system and subsystem-level to be considered at both levels during optimization. A bi-level optimization strategy was advised, using the multi-island genetic algorithm. The proposed model was demonstrated with a deck optimization problem of container ship stern. The analysis progress and results of example show that the CO strategy is not only feasible and reliable, but also well suited for use in actual optimization problems of ship design.

YAO Xiong-liang TIAN Zheng-dong SHEN Zhi-hua GUO Shao-jing
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2008(No. 4): 0
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A new isolator composed of a steel rope spring and a magneto-rheological (MR) damper was designed and a study on low-frequency mechanical characteristics of MR dampers in isolators was carried out. It used the characteristics of the MR damper,such as fast response,controllable damping,small energy consumption,wide dynamic scope,and great adaptation. The relationships between MR damping forces and influencing factors were analyzed based on experimental data. The results show that damping force is not only related to structural dimensions,but also closely related to controllable current and vibration frequency. Finally,the empirical formula for damping forces was corrected,and the relationship between correction coefficients and factors analyzed.

JIA Xiao-jun FAN Shi-dong
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2008(No. 3): 0
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A ship’s tail shaft has serious flexural vibration due to the cantilevered nature of the propeller’s blades. Analysis of the nature frequency of flexural vibration is vital to be able to provide effective shock absorption for a ship’s tail shaft. A mathematic model of tail shaft flexural vibrations was built using the transfer matrix method. The nature frequency of flexural vibration for an electrically propelled ship’s tail shaft was then analyzed, and an effective method for calculating it was proposed: a genetic algorithm (GA), which calculates the nature frequency of vibration of a system. Sample calculations, with comparisons by the Prohl method under conditions bearing isotropic support, showed this method to be practical. It should have significant impact on engineering design theory.

WU Xiang-guo HAN Sang-mook
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2008(No. 3): 0
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Fracture behavior is one of the most important, yet still little understood properties of ultra-high performance cementitious composites (UHPCC), a new marine structural engineering material.Research on the fracture and direct tension behavior of UHPCC was carried out. The constitution law of UHPCC was divided into three phases: pre-partial debonding, partial debonding, and pullout phases. A direct tension constitution law was constructed based on the proposed fiber reinforcing parameter as a function of fiber volume fraction, fiber diameter and length, and fiber bonding strength. With the definition of linear crack shape, the energy release rate of UHPCC was derived and the R-curve equation was calculated from this. Loading tests of UHPCC using a three-point bending beam with an initial notch were carried out. The predictions from the proposed R-curve were in good agreement with the test results,indicating that the proposed R-curve accurately describes the fracture resistance of UHPCC. Introductionof a fiber reinforcement parameter bridges the fracture property R-curve and micro-composites mechanics parameters together. This has laid the foundation for further research into fracture properties based on micro-mechanics. The proposed tension constitution law and R-curve can be references for future UHPCC fracture evaluation.

LIU Xiang-dong YAO Xiong-liang PANG Fu-zhen
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2008(No. 2): 0
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In this paper,in order to predict the residual deformation of thick spherical structure,a welding program is compiled in APDL language based on Ansys and a numerical welding experiment of a welding example is carried out.The temperature field of welding was simulated firstly, then a thermal-structure coupling analysis was carried out,and at last the residual stress and deformation after welding were got.After that,the numerical experiment result was compared with physical experiment one.The comparative analysis shows that the numerical simulation fits well with physical experiment.On the basis of that,a three-dimensional numerical experiment of a thick spherical shell structure was carried out to get the changing rule of stress and deformation of a thick spherical shell structure during welding. The research is of great value to the prediction of residual deformation and high precision machining.

AI Shang-mao SUN Li-ping
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2008(No. 2): 0
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Underwater cylindrical shell structures have been found a wide of application in many engineering fields,such as the element of marine,oil platforms,etc.The coupled vibration analysis is a hot issue for these underwater structures.The vibration characteristics of underwater structures are influenced not only by hydrodynamic pressure but also by hydrostatic pressure corresponding to different water depths.In this study,an acoustic finite element method was used to evaluate the underwater structures.Taken the hydrostatic pressure into account in terms of initial stress stiffness,an acoustical fluid-structure coupled analysis of underwater cylindrical shells has been made to study the effect of hydrodynamic pressures on natural frequency and sound radiation.By comparing with the frequencies obtained by the acoustic finite element method and by the added mass method based on the Bessel function,the validity of present analysis was checked.Finally,test samples of the sound radiation of stiffened cylindrical shells were acquired by a harmonic acoustic analysis.The results showed that hydrostatic pressure plays an important role in determining a large submerged body motion,and the characteristics of sound radiation change with water depth. Furthermore,the analysis methods and the results are of significant reference value for studies of other complicated submarine structures.

Journal of Marine Science and Application,2008(No. 2): 0
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Study on the dynamic response,and especially the nonlinear dynamic response of stiffened plates is complicated by their discontinuity and inhomogeneity.The finite element method (FEM) and the finite strip method are usually adopted in their analysis.Although many useful conclusions have been obtained,the computational cost is enormous.Based on some assumptions,the dynamic plastic response of damped stiffened plates with large deflections was theoretically investigated herein by a singly symmetric beam model.Firstly,the deflection conditions that a plastic string must satisfy were obtained by the linearized moment-axial force interaction curve for singly symmetric cross sections and the associated plastic flow rule.Secondly,the possible motion mechanisms of the beam under different load intensity were analysed in detail.For structures with plastic deformations,a simplified method was then given that the arbitrary impact load can be replaced equivalently by a rectangular pulse.Finally,to confirm the validity of the proposed method,the dynamic plastic response of a one-way stiffened plate with four fully clamped edges was calculated.The theoretical results were in good agreement with those of FEM.It indicates that the present calculation model is easy and feasible,and the equivalent substitution of load almost has no influence on the final deflection.

LIU Chang-hai MA Li-juan TANG Li-qiang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2008(No. 2): 0
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Low fatigue samples were obtained from the outer edges of rotor steel (30CrlMolV) which had operated under different temperatures conditions.Based on this data,the effects of temperature on fatigue crack growth rates were investigated.This paper presents a derivation of the superposition expression of two natural logarithms governing crack growth rates and also discusses the relationship between a material’s constants and temperature.These results can provide experimental and theoretical references for fatigue life design of root steel in steam turbines.

YAO Xiong-liang ZHOU Qi-xin ZHANG A-man FENG Lin-han
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2008(No. 1): 111
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Both sea battles and testing of ship in underwater explosions reveal unacceptably poor anti-shock performance of important shipboard equipment. Anti-shock performance of shipboard equipment is a significant factor determining fighting strength and survivability. The anti-shock performance of a shipboard gear case based on BV043/85 was investigated using numerical simulation. A geometric model of the gear case was built using MDT software and meshed in HyperMesh software, and then the finite element model of the gear case was formed. Using ABAQUS software, the anti-shock performance of the gear case was simulated. First, shock response of typical regions of gear case was determined. Next, some generalizations were made about the anti-shock performance of the gear case by analyzing the Mises stress of typical regions varied with shock inputs. Third, weak regions were determined from simulation results. The threshold values of shock resistance of the gear case at different impulse widths were obtained through interpolating the numerical simulation results selected from the most dangerous spot. This research provides a basis for further optimization of the design of gear cases.

NIE Wu ZHOU Su-lian PENG Hui
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2008(No. 1): 0
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In naval architectures, the structure of prismatic shell is used widely. But there is no suitable method to analyze this kind of structure. Stiffened prismatic shell method (SPSM) presented in this paper, is one of the harmonic semi-analytic methods. Theoretically, strong stiffened structure can be analyzed economically and accurately. SPSM is based on the analytical solution of the governing differential equations for orthotropic cylindrical shells. In these differential equations, the torsional stiffness, bending stiffness and the exact position of each stiffener are taken into account with the Heaviside singular function. An algorithm is introduced, in which the actions of stiffeners on shells are replaced by external loads at each stiffener position. Stiffened shells can be computed as non-stiffened shells. Eventually, the displacement solution of the equations is acquired by the introduction of Green function. The stresses in a corrugated transverse bulkhead without pier base of an oil tanker are computed by using SPSM.