Journal of Marine Science and Application 2017 No. 1
Drazen Polic1, Sören Ehlers1,2, Vilmar Æsøy3
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017(No. 1 ): 1-9
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Ships use propulsion machinery systems to create directional thrust. Sailing in ice-covered waters involves the breaking of ice pieces and their submergence as the ship hull advances. Sometimes, submerged ice pieces interact with the propeller and cause irregular fluctuations of the torque load. As a result, the propeller and engine dynamics become imbalanced, and energy propagates through the propulsion machinery system until equilibrium is reached. In such imbalanced situations, the measured propeller shaft torque response is not equal to the propeller torque. Therefore, in this work, the overall system response is simulated under the ice-related torque load using the Bond graph model. The energy difference between the propeller and propeller shaft is estimated and related to their corresponding mechanical energy. Additionally, the mechanical energy is distributed among modes. Based on the distribution, kinetic and potential energy are important for the correlation between propeller torque and propeller shaft response.

S. Mohapatra, M. R. Sarangi
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017(No. 1 ): 10-19
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The solution of water wave scattering problem involving small deformation on a porous bed in a channel, where the upper surface is bounded above by an infinitely extent rigid horizontal surface, is studied here within the framework of linearized water wave theory. In such a situation, there exists only one mode of waves propagating on the porous surface. A simplified perturbation analysis, involving a small parameterε(<<1), which measures the smallness of the deformation, is employed to reduce the governing Boundary Value Problem (BVP) to a simpler BVP for the first-order correction of the potential function. The first-order potential function and, hence, the first-order reflection and transmission coefficients are obtained by the method based on Fourier transform technique as well as Green’s integral theorem with the introduction of appropriate Green’s function. Two special examples of bottom deformation:the exponentially damped deformation and the sinusoidal ripple bed, are considered to validate the results. For the particular example of a patch of sinusoidal ripples, the resonant interaction between the bed and the upper surface of the fluid is attained in the neighborhood of a singularity, when the ripples wavenumbers of the bottom deformation become approximately twice the components of the incident field wavenumber along the positive x-direction. Also, the main advantage of the present study is that the results for the values of reflection and transmission coefficients are found to satisfy the energy-balance relation almost accurately.

Razieh Zangeneh1, Mahmood Ghiasi2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017(No. 1 ): 20-26
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Making an exact computation of added resistance in sea waves is of high interest due to the economic effects relating to ship design and operation. In this paper, a B-spline based method is developed for computation of added resistance. Based on the potential flow assumption, the velocity potential is computed using Green’s formula. The Kochin function is applied to compute added resistance using Maruo’s far-field method, the body surface is described by a B-spline curve and potentials and normal derivation of potentials are also described by B-spline basis functions and B-spline derivations. A collocation approach is applied for numerical computation, and integral equations are then evaluated by applying Gauss-Legendre quadrature. Computations are performed for a spheroid and different hull forms; results are validated by a comparison with experimental results. All results obtained with the present method show good agreement with experimental results.

Tabeshpour Mohammad Reza1, Fatemi Dezfouli Mani2, Dastan Diznab Mohammad Ali1, Mohajernasab Saied1, Seif Mohammad Saied1
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017(No. 1 ): 27-32
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Response spectra of fixed offshore structures impacted by extreme waves are investigated based on the higher order components of the nonlinear drag force. In this way, steel jacket platforms are simplified as a mass attached to a light cantilever cylinder and their corresponding deformation response spectra are estimated by utilizing a generalized single degree of freedom system. Based on the wave data recorded in the Persian Gulf region, extreme wave loading conditions corresponding to different return periods are exerted on the offshore structures. Accordingly, the effect of the higher order components of the drag force is considered and compared to the linearized state for different sea surface levels. When the fundamental period of the offshore structure is about one third of the main period of wave loading, the results indicate the linearized drag term is not capable of achieving a reliable deformation response spectrum.

Khodayar Javadi1, Mohammad Mortezazadeh Dorostkar2, Ali Katal2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017(No. 1 ): 33-41
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This paper introduces a new idea of controlling cavitation around a hydrofoil through a passive cavitation controller called artificial cavitation bubble generator (ACG). Cyclic processes, namely, growth and implosion of bubbles around an immersed body, are the main reasons for the destruction and erosion of the said body. This paper aims to create a condition in which the cavitation bubbles reach a steady-state situation and prevent the occurrence of the cyclic processes. For this purpose, the ACG is placed on the surface of an immersed body, in particular, the suction surface of a 2D hydrofoil. A simulation was performed with an implicit finite volume scheme based on a SIMPLE algorithm associated with the multiphase and cavitation model. The modified k-ε RNG turbulence model equipped with a modification of the turbulent viscosity was applied to overcome the turbulence closure problem. Numerical simulation of water flow over the hydrofoil equipped with the ACG shows that a low-pressure recirculation area is produced behind the ACG and artificially generates stationary cavitation bubbles. The location, shape, and size of this ACG are the crucial parameters in creating a proper control. Results show that the cavitation bubble is controlled well with a well-designed ACG.

Yanuar1, Ibadurrahman1, Kurniawan T. Waskito1, S. Karim2, M. Ichsan2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017(No. 1 ): 42-47
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An experimental investigation is performed to assess the relation of interference performance on the total resistance of a pentamaran model advancing in calm water. For this motivation, the total drag of the ship is performed for several values of asymmetric outrigger configuration and hull separation, altering the Froude number in the range 0.3-0.9. Our results indicate that remarkable changes in resistance require notable changes in transverse distance values (hull separation) when wave interference may occur. In addition, there is no single configuration that consistently outperforms the other configurations across the entire speed range and the optimum interference factor -0.2 appears at a Froude number of 0.45 in S/L=0.33 with the outrigger outer position:asymmetric outboard for A3 configuration.

Dagang Zhao1, Chunyu Guo1, Yumin Su1, Pengfei Dou1,2, Tao Jing1
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017(No. 1 ): 48-59
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Experimental tests were conducted to evaluate the hydrodynamic performance of an L-type podded propulsor in straight-ahead motion and off-design conditions using an open-water measuring instrument developed by the authors for podded propulsors, a ship model towing tank, and under water particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement systems. Under the three types of conditions, the main parameters of an L-type podded propulsor were measured, including the propeller thrust and torque, as well as the thrust, side force, and moment of the whole pod unit. In addition, the flow field on the section between the propeller and the strut was analyzed. Experimental results demonstrate that the dynamic azimuthing rate and direction and the turning direction affect the forces on the propeller and the whole pod unit. Forces are asymmetrically distributed between the left and right azimuthing directions because of the effect of propeller rotation. The findings of this study provide a foundation for further research on L-type podded propulsors.

Rutuja Chavan, Anurag Sharma, Bimlesh Kumar
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017(No. 1 ): 60-72
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In this work, experimental investigations have been pursued to analyse the influence of downward seepage on the turbulent characteristics of flow and corresponding changes in vortex structure around circular bridge pier in alluvial channel. Experiments were conducted in sand bed channel with circular piers of different sizes for no seepage, 10% seepage and 20% seepage cases. The measurement of turbulent flow statistics such as velocity and Reynolds stresses is found to be negative within the scour hole at upstream of the pier whereas application of downward seepage retards the reversal of the flow causing a decrement in the velocity and Reynolds stresses. Higher Reynolds shear stress prevails at the downstream side because of the production of wake vortices. Contribution of all bursting events to the total Reynolds shear stress production has been observed to increase with downward seepage. The analysis of integral scale suggest that size of eddies increases with seepage, which is responsible for increase in particle mobility. Initially rate of scouring is more which abatements gradually with expanding time as well as with the increased of downward seepage. Presence of downward seepage reduces the depth and length of vortex and shifts towards downstream side of the pier.

Mohamed Taher Bouzaher1,2, Belhi Guerira1, Mohamed Hadid1
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017(No. 1 ): 73-80
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In this study, a vertical axis tidal turbine with flexible blades is investigated. The focus is on analyzing the effect of flexible airfoils types and blade flexibility on turbine net output power. To this end, five different flexible airfoils (Symmetric and Non-symmetric) are employed. The results show that the use of a thick flexible symmetric airfoil can effectively increase output power compared to that achievable with a conventional rigid blade. Moreover, the use of highly flexible blades, as opposed to less flexible or rigid blades, is not recommended.

Fatemeh Namazi-saleh1, Velluruzhathil John Kurian1, Zahiraniza Mustaffa1, Mohammadreza Tahan2, Dokyun Kim1
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017(No. 1 ): 81-86
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The effect of rigid bed proximity on flow parameters and hydrodynamic loads in offshore pipelines exposed to turbulent flow is investigated numerically. The Galerkin finite volume method is employed to solve the unsteady incompressible 2D Navier-Stokes equations. The large eddy simulation turbulence model is solved using the artificial compressibility method and dual time-stepping approach. The proposed algorithm is developed for a wide range of turbulent flows with Reynolds numbers of 9500 to 1.5×104. Evaluation of the developed numerical model shows that the proposed technique is capable of properly predicting hydrodynamic forces and simulating the flow pattern. The obtained results show that the lift and drag coefficients are strongly affected by the gap ratio. The mean drag coefficient slightly increases as the gap ratio increases, although the mean lift coefficient rapidly decreases. The vortex shedding suppression happen at the gap ratio of less than 0.2.

Yongjun Chen, Dagang Zhang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017(No. 1 ): 87-92
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The typical industry practice for Tension Leg Platform (TLP) design focuses on a conventional short-term design recipe, which assumes that an N-year design environment leads to an N-year response. In the response-based design method, the TLP is designed to withstand N-year responses rather than respond to N-year environmental conditions. In this paper, we present an overview and a general procedure for the response-based design method and use a case study to compare the critical TLP responses between the two methods. The results of our comparison show that the conventional short-term design method often contains an element of conservatism and that the response-based design method can reduce the design conditions and thereby achieve cost savings.

Mei Yang1,2, Xiukun Li1,2, Yang Yang1,2, Xiangxia Meng1,2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017(No. 1 ): 93-101
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Underwater acoustic scattering echoes have time-space structures and are aliasing in time and frequency domains. Different series of echoes properties are not identified when incident angle is unknown. This article investigates variations in target echoes of monostatic sonar to address this problem. The mother wavelet with similar structures has been proposed on the basis of preprocessing signal waveform using matched filter, and the theoretical expressions between delay factor and incident angle are derived in the wavelet domain. Analysis of simulation data and experimental results in free-field pool show that this method can effectively separate geometrical scattering components of target echoes. The time delay estimation obtained from geometrical echoes at a single angle is consistent with target geometrical features, which provides a basis for object recognition without angle information. The findings provide valuable insights for analyzing elastic scattering echoes in actual ocean environment.

A. P. I. Popoola1, A. A. Daniyan2,3, L. E. Umoru2, O. S. I Fayomi1,4
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017(No. 1 ): 102-109
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In this study, for marine application purposes, we evaluated the effect of process parameter and particle loading on the microstructure, mechanical reinforcement and corrosion resistance properties of a Zn-TiO2-WO3 nanocomposite produced via electrodeposition. We characterized the morphological properties of the composite coatings with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS). We carried out mechanical examination using a Dura Scan hardness tester and a CERT UMT-2 multi-functional tribological tester. We evaluated the corrosion properties by linear polarization in 3.5% NaCl. The results show that the coatings exhibited good stability and the quantitative particle loading greatly enhanced the structural and morphological properties, hardness behavior and corrosion resistance of the coatings. We observed the precipitation of this alloy on steel is greatly influenced by the composite characteristics.