Journal of Marine Science and Application 2012 No. 3
Xueqian Zhou, Serge Sutulo and C. Guedes Soares
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 3): 265-275
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A computer code based on the double-body potential flow model and the classic source panel method has been developed to study various problems of hydrodynamic interaction between ships and other objects with solid boundaries including the seabed. A peculiarity of the proposed implementation is the application of the so-called “moving-patch” method for simulating steady boundaries of large extensions. The method is based on an assumption that at any moment just the part of the boundary (“moving patch”) which lies close to the interacting ship is significant for the near-field interaction. For a specific case of the flat bottom, comparative computations were performed to determine optimal dimensions of the patch and of the constituting panels based on the trade-off between acceptable accuracy and reasonable efficiency. The method was applied to estimate the sway force on a ship hull moving obliquely across a dredged channel. The method was validated for a case of ship-to-ship interaction when tank data were available. This study also contains a description of a newly developed spline approximation algorithm necessary for creating consistent discretizations of ship hulls with various degrees of refinement.

Smrutiranjan Mohapatra and Swaroop Nandan Bora
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 3): 276-285
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The problem of oblique wave (internal wave) propagation over a small deformation in a channel flow consisting of two layers was considered. The upper fluid was assumed to be bounded above by a rigid lid, which is an approximation for the free surface, and the lower one was bounded below by an impermeable bottom surface having a small deformation; the channel was unbounded in the horizontal directions. Assuming irrotational motion, the perturbation technique was employed to calculate the first-order corrections of the velocity potential in the two fluids by using Green’s integral theorem suitably with the introduction of appropriate Green’s functions. Those functions help in calculating the reflection and transmission coefficients in terms of integrals involving the shape function representing the bottom deformation. Three-dimensional linear water wave theory was utilized for formulating the relevant boundary value problem. Two special examples of bottom deformation were considered to validate the results. Consideration of a patch of sinusoidal ripples (having the same wave number) shows that the reflection coefficient is an oscillatory function of the ratio of twice the x-component of the wave number to the ripple wave number. When this ratio approaches one, the theory predicts a resonant interaction between the bed and the interface, and the reflection coefficient becomes a multiple of the number of ripples. High reflection of incident wave energy occurs if this number is large. Similar results were observed for a patch of sinusoidal ripples having different wave numbers. It was also observed that for small angles of incidence, the reflected energy is greater compared to other angles of incidence up to . These theoretical observations are supported by graphical results.

Shahid Mahmood and Debo Huang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 3): 286-294
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Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) plays a major role in predicting the flow behavior of a ship. With the development of fast computers and robust CFD software, CFD has become an important tool for designers and engineers in the ship industry. In this paper, the hull form of a ship was optimized for total resistance using CFD as a calculation tool and a genetic algorithm as an optimization tool. CFD based optimization consists of major steps involving automatic generation of geometry based on design parameters, automatic generation of mesh, automatic analysis of fluid flow to calculate the required objective/cost function, and finally an optimization tool to evaluate the cost for optimization. In this paper, integration of a genetic algorithm program, written in MATLAB, was carried out with the geometry and meshing software GAMBIT and CFD analysis software FLUENT. Different geometries of additive bulbous bow were incorporated in the original hull based on design parameters. These design variables were optimized to achieve a minimum cost function of “total resistance”. Integration of a genetic algorithm with CFD tools proves to be effective for hull form optimization.

Miao He, Chao Wang, Xin Chang and Sheng Huang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 3): 295-300
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The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method is used to numerically simulate a propeller wake flow field in open water. A sub-domain hybrid mesh method was adopted in this paper. The computation domain was separated into two sub-domains, in which tetrahedral elements were used in the inner domain to match the complicated geometry of the propeller, while hexahedral elements were used in the outer domain. The mesh was locally refined on the propeller surface and near the wake flow field, and a size function was used to control the growth rate of the grid. Sections at different axial location were used to study the spatial evolution of the propeller wake in the region ranging from the disc to one propeller diameter (D) downstream. The numerical results show that the axial velocity fluctuates along the wake flow; radial velocity, which is closely related to vortices, attenuates strongly. The trailing vortices interact with the tip vortex at the blades’ trailing edge and then separate. The strength of the vortex shrinks rapidly, and the radius decreases 20% at one diameter downstream.

Yanuar, Gunawan, Sunaryo and A. Jamaluddin
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 3): 301-304
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Ship hull form of the underwater area strongly influences the resistance of the ship. The major factor in ship resistance is skin friction resistance. Bulbous bows, polymer paint, water repellent paint (highly water-repellent wall), air injection, and specific roughness have been used by researchers as an attempt to obtain the resistance reduction and operation efficiency of ships. Micro-bubble injection is a promising technique for lowering frictional resistance. The injected air bubbles are supposed to somehow modify the energy inside the turbulent boundary layer and thereby lower the skin friction. The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of injected micro bubbles on a navy fast patrol boat (FPB) 57 m type model with the following main dimensions: L=2 450 mm, B=400 mm, and T=190 mm. The influence of the location of micro bubble injection and bubble velocity was also investigated. The ship model was pulled by an electric motor whose speed could be varied and adjusted. The ship model resistance was precisely measured by a load cell transducer. Comparison of ship resistance with and without micro-bubble injection was shown on a graph as a function of the drag coefficient and Froude number. It was shown that micro bubble injection behind the mid-ship is the best location to achieve the most effective drag reduction, and the drag reduction caused by the micro-bubbles can reach 6%–9%.

Ling Hou, Fangcheng Li and Chunliang Wu
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 3): 305-310
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In this research, liquid sloshing behavior in a 2-D rectangular tank was simulated using ANSYS-FLUENT software subject to single or multiple-coupled external excitations (such as sway coupled with roll, and sway and roll coupled with heave). The volume of fluid (VOF) method was used to track the free surface of sloshing. External excitation was imposed through the motion of the tank by using the dynamic mesh technique. The study shows that if the tank is subjected to multiple coupled excitations and resonant excitation frequencies, liquid sloshing will become violent and sloshing loads, including impact on the top wall, will be intensified.

Zhiying Zhang, Yinfang Dai and Zhen Li
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 3): 311-320
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Dimensional control is one of the most important challenges in the shipbuilding industry. In order to predict assembly dimensional variation in hull flat block construction, a variation stream model based on state space was presented in this paper which can be further applied to accuracy control in shipbuilding. Part accumulative error, locating error, and welding deformation were taken into consideration in this model, and variation propagation mechanisms and the accumulative rule in the assembly process were analyzed. Then, a model was developed to describe the variation propagation throughout the assembly process. Finally, an example of flat block construction from an actual shipyard was given. The result shows that this method is effective and useful.

Qiang Wang, Hu Zhou and Decheng Wan
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 3): 321-327
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Numerical simulations of wind turbine blade-tower interaction by using the open source OpenFOAM tools coupled with arbitrary mesh interface (AMI) method were presented. The governing equations were the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) which were solved by the pimpleDyMFoam solver, and the AMI method was employed to handle mesh movements. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) phase VI wind turbine in upwind configuration was selected for numerical tests with different incoming wind speeds (5, 10, 15, and 25 m/s) at a fixed blade pitch and constant rotational speed. Detailed numerical results of vortex structure, time histories of thrust, and pressure distribution on the blade and tower were presented. The findings show that the wind turbine tower has little effect on the whole aerodynamic performance of an upwind wind turbine, while the rotating rotor will induce an obvious cyclic drop in the front pressure of the tower. Also, strong interaction of blade tip vortices with separation from the tower was observed.

Jing Zhao, Liang Zhang and Haitao Wu
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 3): 328-334
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The development of offshore wind farms was originally carried out in shallow water areas with fixed (seabed mounted) structures. However, countries with limited shallow water areas require innovative floating platforms to deploy wind turbines offshore in order to harness wind energy to generate electricity in deep seas. The performances of motion and mooring system dynamics are vital to designing a cost effective and durable floating platform. This paper describes a numerical model to simulate dynamic behavior of a new semi-submersible type floating offshore wind turbine (FOWT) system. The wind turbine was modeled as a wind block with a certain thrust coefficient, and the hydrodynamics and mooring system dynamics of the platform were calculated by SESAM software. The effect of change in environmental conditions on the dynamic response of the system under wave and wind loading was examined. The results indicate that the semi-submersible concept has excellent performance and SESAM could be an effective tool for floating wind turbine design and analysis.

Salma Sherbaz and Wenyang Duan
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 3): 335-340
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Environmental issues and rising fuel prices necessitate better energy-efficiency in all sectors. The shipping industry is one of the major stakeholders, responsible for 3% of global CO2 emissions, 14%–15% of global NOX emissions, and 16% of global SOX emissions. In addition, continuously rising fuel prices are also an incentive to focus on new ways for better energy-effectiveness. The green ship concept requires exploring and implementing technology on ships to increase energy-efficiency and reduce emissions. Ship operation is an important topic with large potential to increase cost-and-energy-effectiveness. This paper provided a comprehensive review of basic concepts, principles, and potential of operational options for green ships. The key challenges pertaining to ship crew i.e. academic qualifications prior to induction, in-service training and motivation were discussed. The author also deliberated on remedies to these challenges.

Dagang Zhang, Weiying Sun and Zhixia Fan
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 3): 341-350
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Transportation of tension leg platform (TLP) structures for a long distance has always been associated with the use of a heavy semi-transport vessel. The requirements of this type of vessel are always special, and their availability is limited. To prepare for the future development of South China Sea deepwater projects, the China Offshore Oil Engineering Corporation has recently built a heavy lift transport vessel–Hai Yang Shi You 278. This semi-submersible vessel has a displacement capacity of 50k DWT, and a breath of 42 meters. Understanding the vessel’s applicability and preparing it for use in future deepwater projects are becoming imminent needs. This paper reviews the current critical issues associated with TLP transportation and performs detailed analysis of the designed TLP during load-out and transportation. The newly built COOEC transportation vessel HYSY 278 was applied to dry transport of the TLP structure from the COOEC fabrication yard in Qingdao to an oil field in South China Sea. The entire process included the load-out of the TLP structure from the landsite of the fabrication yard, the offloading and float-on of the platform from the vessel, the dry transport of the TLP over a long distance, and the final offloading of the platform. Both hydrodynamic and structure analysis were performed to evaluate the behavior of the transport vessel and TLP structure. Special attention was paid to critical areas associated with the use of this new vessel, along with any potential limitations. The results demonstrate that HYSY 278 can effectively be used for transporting the structure with proper arrangement and well-prepared operation. The procedure and details were presented on the basis of the study results. Special attention was also given to discussion on future use based on the results from the analysis.

Zhuang Kang, Lusheng Jia, Liping Sun and Wenzhou Liang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 3): 351-360
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The method for design and analysis of a buoyancy tank riser tensioner system (BTRTS) was put forward in this paper, taking the free standing hybrid riser’s top buoyancy tank as an example. The design procedure was discussed and was also illustrated in a flowchart, after a short description of the global arrangement, structure configuration, and the function of different types of buoyancy tanks (BT). The objective of this paper is to describe a way of developing a BT with minimal hydro force, maximal net lift, and no redundancy of compartments. The method of determining the main dimensions of the BT, namely the length and the outer diameter, was outlined. A series of investigations was conducted for a West Africa FSHR BT design, and the effect of the ratio of the length to the outer diameter (L/D) on the hydrodynamics and the weight of the BT was discussed. The methodology of designing the internal structure of the BT was presented. The effects of the number of compartments and the dimension of the inner stem on the BT weight and strength were compared. The relationship between inner structure and the number one index of the BT as well as the riser’s top tension factor (TTF) were illustrated for normal operating conditions and conditions with one or more compartments (or inner stem) damaged. A design instance was given in this paper, when L/D is 4–6, the BT weight and the drag force are compromised. When the BT is divided into 10 compartments, the riser TTF will reach the maximum value, and the ratio of the stem OD to shell OD is about 0.3. A global strength analysis method of the BT and the main load case matrix was also included in the paper, together with the local strength analysis of the buoyancy tank’s pad-eye assembly.

Hongli Chen, Lei Wan, Fang Wang and Guocheng Zhang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 3): 361-367
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This paper researches how to apply the advanced control technology of model predictive control (MPC) to the design of the dynamic positioning system (DPS) of a semi-submersible platform. First, a linear low-frequency motion model with three degrees of freedom was established in the context of a semi-submersible platform. Second, a model predictive controller was designed based on a model which took the constraints of the system into account. Third, simulation was carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of the controller. The results show that the model predictive controller has good performance and good at dealing with the constraints of the system.

Xiangang Ren, Yong Bai and Lusheng Jia
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 3): 368-377
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The jack-up unit is one of the best drilling platforms in offshore oil fields with water depth shallower than 150 meters. As the most pivotal component of the jack-up unit, the leg system can directly affect the global performance of a jack-up unit. Investigation shows that there are three kinds of leg structure forms in the world now: the reverse K, X, and mixing types. In order to clarify the advantage and defects of each one, as well as their effect on the global performance of the jack-up unit, this paper commenced to study performance targets of a deepwater jack-up unit with different leg systems (X type, reverse K type, and mixing type). In this paper a typical leg scantling dimension and identical external loads were selected, detailed finite element snalysis (FEA) models were built to simulate the jack-up unit’s structural behavior, and the multi-point constraint (MPC) element together with the spring element was used to deal with the boundary condition. Finally, the above problems were solved by comparative analysis of their main performance targets (including ultimate static strength, dynamic response, and weight).

Mohammad Pourmahmood Aghababa, Mohammad Hossein Amrollahi and Mehdi Borjkhani
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 3): 378-386
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In this paper, an underwater vehicle was modeled with six dimensional nonlinear equations of motion, controlled by DC motors in all degrees of freedom. Near-optimal trajectories in an energetic environment for underwater vehicles were computed using a numerical solution of a nonlinear optimal control problem (NOCP). An energy performance index as a cost function, which should be minimized, was defined. The resulting problem was a two-point boundary value problem (TPBVP). A genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithms were applied to solve the resulting TPBVP. Applying an Euler-Lagrange equation to the NOCP, a conjugate gradient penalty method was also adopted to solve the TPBVP. The problem of energetic environments, involving some energy sources, was discussed. Some near-optimal paths were found using a GA, PSO, and ACO algorithms. Finally, the problem of collision avoidance in an energetic environment was also taken into account.

H. K. Narang, M. M. Mahapatra, P. K. Jha and P. Biswas
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2012(No. 3): 387-391
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A fuzzy model was presented to predict the weldment shape profile of submerged arc welds (SAW) including the shape of heat affected zone (HAZ). The SAW bead-on-plates were welded by following a full factorial design matrix. The design matrix consisted of three levels of input welding process parameters. The welds were cross-sectioned and etched, and the zones were measured. A mapping technique was used to measure the various segments of the weld zones. These mapped zones were used to build a fuzzy logic model. The membership functions of the fuzzy model were chosen for the accurate prediction of the weld zone. The fuzzy model was further tested for a set of test case data. The weld zone predicted by the fuzzy logic model was compared with the experimentally obtained shape profiles and close agreement between the two was noted. The mapping technique developed for the weld zones and the fuzzy logic model can be used for on-line control of the SAW process. From the SAW fuzzy logic model an estimation of the fusion and HAZ can also be developed.