Journal of Marine Science and Application 2010 No. 4
Dilip Das and B. N. Mandal
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 4): 347-354
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Various water wave problems involving an infinitely long horizontal cylinder floating on the surface water were investigated in the literature of linearized theory of water waves employing a general multipole expansion for the wave potential. This expansion involves a general combination of a regular wave, a wave source, a wave dipole and a regular wave-free part. The wave-free part can be further expanded in terms of wave-free multipoles which are termed as wave-free potentials. These are singular solutions of Laplace’s equation (for non-oblique waves in two dimensions) or two-dimensional Helmholz equation (for oblique waves) satisfying the free surface condition and decaying rapidly away from the point of singularity. The method of constructing these wave-free potentials is presented here in a systematic manner for a number of situations such as deep water with a free surface, neglecting or taking into account the effect of surface tension, or with an ice-cover modelled as a thin elastic plate floating on water.

Rui Li, Yu-jun Liu and Kunihiro Hamada
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 4): 355-362
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Manufacturing of ship piping systems is one of the major production activities in shipbuilding. The schedule of pipe production has an important impact on the master schedule of shipbuilding. In this research, the ITOC concept was introduced to solve the scheduling problems of a piping factory, and an intelligent scheduling system was developed. The system, in which a product model, an operation model, a factory model, and a knowledge database of piping production were integrated, automated the planning process and production scheduling. Details of the above points were discussed. Moreover, an application of the system in a piping factory, which achieved a higher level of performance as measured by tardiness, lead time, and inventory, was demonstrated.

Xi-zeng Zhao
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 4): 363-371
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A numerical approach was performed to predict the propagation and transformation of nonlinear water waves. A numerical wave flume was developed based on the non-periodic high-order spectral (HOS) method. The flume was applied to analyze the effect of wave steepness and wavelength on the propagation of nonlinear waves. The results show that for waves of low steepness, the wave profile and the wave energy spectrum are stable, and that the propagation can be predicted by the linear wave theory. For waves of moderate steepness and steep waves, the effects associated with the interactions between waves in a wave group become significant and a train of initially sinusoidal waves may drastically change its form within a short distance from its original position.

Jia-wen Sun, Shu-xiu Liang, Zhao-chen Sunand Xi-zeng Zhao
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 4): 372-378
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A numerical model was established for simulating wave impact on a horizontal deck by an improved incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (ISPH). As a grid-less particle method, the ISPH method has been widely used in the free-surface hydrodynamic flows with good accuracy. The improvement includes the employment of a corrective function for enhancement of angular momentum conservation in a particle-based calculation and a new estimation method to predict the pressure on the horizontal deck. The simulation results show a good agreement with the experiment. The present numerical model can be used to study wave impact load on the horizontal deck.

Fang Wang, Lei Wan, Yu-min Su and Yu-ru Xu
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 4): 379-385
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To provide a suitable model for AUV simulation and control purposes, a general nonlinear dynamic model including a novel thruster hydrodynamics model was derived. Based on the modeling method, the “AUV-XX” simulation platform was established to carry out fundamental tests on its motion characteristics, stability, and controllability. A motion control strategy consisting of both position and speed control in a horizontal plane was designed for different task assignments of underwater vehicles. Combined control of heave and pitch was adopted to compensate for the reduction of vertical tunnel thrusters when the vehicle is moving at a high speed. An improved S-surface controller based on the capacitor plate model was developed with flexible gain selections made possible by different forms of restricting the error and changing the rate of the error. Simulation results show that the derived general mathematical model together with simulation platform can provide a test bed for fundamental tests of motion control. Additionally, the capacitor plate model S-surface control shows a good performance in guiding the vehicle to achieve the desired position and speed with sufficient accuracy.

Qing Wang and Jing-zheng Yao
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 4): 386-392
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Several algorithms were proposed relating to the development of a framework of the perturbation-based stochastic finite element method (PSFEM) for large variation nonlinear dynamic problems. For this purpose, algorithms and a framework related to SFEM based on the stochastic virtual work principle were studied. To prove the validity and practicality of the algorithms and framework, numerical examples for nonlinear dynamic problems with large variations were calculated and compared with the Monte-Carlo Simulation method. This comparison shows that the proposed approaches are accurate and effective for the nonlinear dynamic analysis of structures with random parameters.

Guo-yong Jin, Hao Chen, Jin-tao Du, Tie-jun Yang and Wan-you Li
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 4): 393-402
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This paper presents an analytical study on the influence of edge restraining stiffness on the transverse vibrations of rectangular plate structure. An improved Fourier series method was employed to analyze the transverse vibration of plate structure with general elastically restrained boundary conditions. A linear combination of a double Fourier series and eight auxiliary terms was sought as the admissible function of the flexural displacement of the plate, each term being a combination of a polynomial function and a single cosine series expansion. The auxiliary terms were introduced to ensure and improve the smoothness of the original displacement function and its derivatives at the boundaries. Several numerical examples were given to demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the current solution. The influences of translational and rotational stiffness on the natural frequencies and mode shapes of plate were analyzed by numerical results. The results show that the translational stiffness has bigger influence on the natural frequencies than the rotational stiffness. It is generally well known that little change of the rotational stiffness has little influence on the mode shapes of plate. However, the current work shows that a very little change of rotational stiffness value may lead to a large change of the mode shapes of a square plate structure.

Hui-xiong Wan, Jun Fang and Hui Huang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 4): 403-409
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Hydraulic butterfly valves have been widely applied in marine engineering because of their large switching torque, low pressure loss and suitability for large and medium diameter pipelines. Due to control problems resulting from switching angular speeds of the hydraulic butterfly valve, a throttle-governing control mode has been widely adopted, and detailed analysis has been carried out worldwide on the structural principle concerning speed-regulation and the load torque on the shaft while opening or closing a hydraulic butterfly valve. However relevant reports have yet been published on the change law, the error and the influencing factors of the rotational angular velocity of the hydraulic butterfly valve while opening and closing. In this article, research was based on some common specifications of a hydraulic butterfly valve with a symmetrical valve flap existing in a marine environment. The throttle governing system supplied by the accumulator to achieve the switching of the hydraulic control valve was adopted, and the mathematical models of the system were established in the actual conditions while the numerical simulations took place. The simulation results and analysis show that the rotational angular velocity and the error of the hydraulic butterfly valve while switching is influenced greatly by the drainage amount of the accumulator, resulting in pressure loss in the pipeline, the temperature of hydraulic medium and the load of the hydraulic butterfly valve. The simulation results and analysis provide a theoretical basis for the choice of the total capacity of the accumulator and pipeline diameters in a throttle governing system with a hydraulic butterfly valve.It also determines the type and specification of the hydraulic butterfly valve and the design of motion parameters of the transported fluid.

You Liu, Zhi-guo Yuan, Li-yun Fan and Bin-qi Tian
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 4): 410-418
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The electronic in-line pump (EIP) is a complex system consisting of mechanical, hydraulic, and electromagnetic parts. Experimental study showed that the fuel pressure of the plunger and the fuel drainage of the pressure system after fuel injection could result in fuel pressure fluctuation in the low pressure system. Such fluctuation exhibited pulsating cycle fluctuation as the amplitude rose with the increase of the injection pulse width. The time domain analysis found that the pressure time history curve and injection cylinders corresponded with a one-to-one relationship. By frequency domain analysis, the result was that with the increase of the working cylinder number, the high frequency amplitude gradually increased and the basic frequency amplitude gradually decreased. The conclusion was that through wavelet transformation, the low pressure signal simultaneously moved towards low frequency as the high frequency of the wavelet transformation signal with the working cylinder number increased. Lastly, by using the numerical model, the study investigated the simulation research concerning the relationship of the fluctuation dynamic characteristic in the low pressure system and the fuel injection characteristic of the high pressure system, completing the conclusions obtained by the experimental study.

Yue-yang Ben, Yong-li Chai, Wei Gao and Feng Sun
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 4): 419-424
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The error equation of a rotating inertial navigation system was introduced. The effect of the system’s main error source (constant drift of gyro and zero bias of accelerometer) under rotating conditions for the system was analyzed. Validity of theoretical analysis was shown via simulation, and that provides a theoretical foundation for a rotating strap-down inertial navigation system during actual experimentation and application.

Lei Yuanand Han-song Wu
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 4): 425-430
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A terminal sliding mode fuzzy control based on multiple sliding surfaces was proposed for ship course tracking steering, which takes account of rudder characteristics and parameter uncertainty. In order to solve the problem, the controller was designed by employing the universal approximation property of fuzzy logic system, the advantage of Nussbaum function, and using multiple sliding mode control algorithm based on the recursive technique. In the last step of designing, a nonsingular terminal sliding mode was utilized to drive the last state of the system to converge in a finite period of time, and high-order sliding mode control law was designed to eliminate the chattering and make the system robust. The simulation results showed that the controller designed here could track a desired course fast and accurately. It also exhibited strong robustness peculiarly to system, and had better adaptive ability than traditional PID control algorithms. Keywords: ship course control; unmatched uncertainty; multiple sliding mode control; nonsingular terminal sliding mode control; robustness

Jun-jie Zhang, Tian-yun Li, Wen-bing Ye and Xiang Zhu
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 4): 431-438
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The insertion loss of acoustic radiation of damped cylindrical shell described by 3-D elasticity Navier equations under radial harmonic applied load in fluid is presented. The classical integral transform technique, potential theory and Lamè resolution are used to derive the solutions of Navier equations. The higher precision inversion computation is introduced to solve the linear equations. Comparing with acoustic radiation of one-layer cylindrical shell, the influence of thickness, mass density, dilatational wave loss factor and Young’s modulus of damping material and circumferential mode number of the cylindrical shell on the insertion loss is concluded. The theoretical model in the paper can be used to deal with the arbitrary thickness and any frequency of the coated layer in dynamic problem. The conclusions may be of theoretical reference to the application of damping material to noise and vibration control of submarines and underwater pipes.

Guan-cheng Lin,Ya-an Li and Bei-li Jin
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 4): 439-444
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An approach was proposed for optimizing beamforming that was based on Support Vector Regression (SVR). After studying the mathematical principal of the SVR algorithm and its primal cost function, the modified cost function was first applied to uniform array beamforming, and then the corresponding parameters of the beamforming were optimized. The framework of SVR uniform array beamforming was then established. Simulation results show that SVR beamforming can not only approximate the performance of conventional beamforming in the area without noise and with small data sets, but also improve the generalization ability and reduce the computation burden. Also, the side lobe level of both linear and circular arrays by the SVR algorithm is improved sharply through comparison with the conventional one. SVR beamforming is superior to the conventional method in both linear and circular arrays, under single source or double non-coherent sources.

Zhi-fei Chen, Jin-cai Sun and Hong Hou
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 4): 445-450
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The phase difference method (PDM) is presented for the direction of arrival (DOA) estimation of the narrowband source. It estimates the DOA by measuring the reciprocal of the phase range of the sensor output spectra at the interest frequency bin. The peak width and variance of the PDM are presented. The PDM can distinguish closely spaced sources with different and unknown center frequencies as long as they are separated with at least one frequency bin. The simulation results show that the PDM has a better resolution than that of the conventional beamforming.

Ru-jian Yan, Shuo Pang, Han-bing Sun and Yong-jie Pang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 4): 451-457
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The navy and other Department of Defense organizations are increasingly interested in the use of unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) for a variety of missions and applications. The term USV refers to any vehicle that operates on the surface of the water without a crew. USVs have the potential, and in some cases the demonstrated ability, to reduce risk to manned forces, provide the necessary force multiplication to accomplish military missions, perform tasks which manned vehicles cannot, and do so in a way that is affordable for the navy. A survey of USV activities worldwide as well as the general technical challenges of USVs was presented below. A general description of USVs was provided along with their typical applications. The technical challenges of developing a USV include its intelligence level, control, high stability, and developmental cost reduction. Through the joint efforts of researchers around the world, it is believed that the development of USVs will enter a new phase in the near future, as USVs could soon be applied widely both in military and civilian service.