Journal of Marine Science and Application 2010 No. 3
Bin-bin Li and Jin-ping Ou
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 3): 0
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The authors analyzed requirements for a new deepwater platform, from conceptual design to hydrodynamic analysis. The design incorporated Deep Draft Multi-Spar (DDMS) that allowed easy fabrication, reduced costs, and provided favorable motion performance. It also provided a dry tree system and other benefits. The conceptual design process included dimension estimation, general arrangements, weight estimation, weight distribution, stability analysis, etc. A high order boundary element method based on potential theory and the modified Morison equation was used to predict the hydrodynamic and viscous effects of this new concept platform. The response amplitude operators (RAOs) were acquired and compared with those of a typical Truss Spar. The response of the platform to the JONSWAP spectra of 3 different extreme ocean conditions was analyzed to evaluate the seakeeping ability of the new concept. The results revealed favorable motion performance due to all the degrees of freedom available.

Xing Zheng, Wen-yang Duan and Qing-Wei Ma
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 3): 223-230
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In the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method, a meshless interpolation scheme is needed for the unknown function in order to discretize the governing equation. A particle approximation method has so far been used for this purpose. Traditional particle interpolation (TPI) is simple and easy to do, but its low accuracy has become an obstacle to its wider application. This can be seen in the cases of particle disorder arrangements and derivative calculations. There are many different methods to improve accuracy, with the moving least square (MLS) method one of the most important meshless interpolation methods. Unfortunately, it requires complex matrix computing and so is quite time-consuming. The authors developed a simpler scheme, called higher-order particle interpolation (HPI). This scheme can get more accurate derivatives than the MLS method, and its function value and derivatives can be obtained simultaneously. Although this scheme was developed for the SPH method, it has been found useful for other meshless methods.

Bao-gang San; Pei-lin Zhou and David Clealand
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 3): 231
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Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) has been identified as an effective and clean alternative choice for marine power system. This paper emphasizes on the dynamic modeling of SOFC power system and its performance based upon marine operating circumstance. A SOFC power system model has been provided considering thermodynamic and electrochemical reaction mechanism. Subcomponents of lithium ion battery, power conditioning unit, stack structure and controller are integrated in the model. The dynamic response of the system is identified according to the inertia of its subcomponent and controller. Validation of the whole system simulation at steady state and transit period are presented, concerning the effects of thermo inertia, control strategy and seagoing environment. The simulation results show reasonable accuracy compare with lab test. The models can be used to predict performance of a SOFC power system and identify the system response when part of the component parameter is adjusted.

Zulfiqar Nazir, Yu-min Su and Zhao-li Wang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 3): 250-255
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The motion of the fins and control surfaces of underwater vehicles in a fluid is an interesting and challenging research subject. Typically the effect of fin oscillations on the fluid flow around such a body is highly unsteady, generating vortices and requiring detailed analysis of fluid-structure interactions. An understanding of the complexities of such flows is of interest to engineers developing vehicles capable of high dynamic performance in their propulsion and maneuvering. In the present study, a CFD based RANS simulation of a 3-D fin body moving in a viscous fluid was developed. It investigated hydrodynamic performance by evaluating the hydrodynamic coefficients (lift, drag and moment) at two different oscillating frequencies. A parametric analysis of the factors that affect the hydrodynamic performance of the fin body was done, along with a comparison of results from experiments. The results of the simulation were found in close agreement with experimental results and this validated the simulation as an effective tool for evaluation of the unsteady hydrodynamic coefficients of 3-D fins. This work can be further be used for analysis of the stability and maneuverability of fin actuated underwater vehicles.

Jun-yang Pan, Jin Han and Shi-e Yang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 3): 256-261
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Detection of weak underwater signals is an area of general interest in marine engineering. A weak signal detection scheme was developed; it combined nonlinear dynamical reconstruction techniques, radial basis function (RBF) neural networks and an extended Kalman filter (EKF). In this method chaos theory was used to model background noise. Noise was predicted by phase space reconstruction techniques and RBF neural networks in a synergistic manner. In the absence of a signal, prediction error stayed low and became relatively large when the input contained a signal. EKF was used to improve the convergence rate of the RBF neural network. Application of the scheme to different experimental data sets showed that the algorithm can detect signals hidden in strong noise even when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is less than ?40d B.

Chao Wang, Sheng Huang, Xin Chang and Miao He
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 3): 262-267
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Mathematical models of propellers were created that investigate the influence of periodic boundary conditions on predictions of a propeller’s performance. Thrust and torque coefficients corresponding to different advance coefficients of DTMB 4119, 4382, and 4384 propellers were calculated. The pressure coefficient distribution of the DTMB 4119 propeller at different sections was also physically tested. Comparisons indicated good agreement between the results of experiments and the simulation. It showed that the periodic boundary condition can be used to rationally predict the open water performance of a propeller. By analyzing the three established modes for the computation, it was shown that using the spline curve method to divide the grids can meet the calculation’s demands for precision better than using the rake cutting method.

Wen-hua Wang and Yan-ying Wang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 3): 268-273
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For solving water entry problems, a numerical method is presented, which is a CFD method based on free surface capturing method and Cartesian cut cell mesh. In this approach, incompressible Euler equations for a variable density fluid are numerically calculated by the finite volume method. Then artificial compressibility method, dual time-stepping technique and Roe’s approximate Riemann solver are adopted in the numerical scheme. Finally, some application cases are designed to show the ability of the current method to cope with water entry problems in ocean engineering.

Xiao-hui Luo; Jun-hua Hu Xiao-bin Wang and Zi-hua Niu
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 3): 274
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It can be beneficial to reduce vibrations in shipboard piping, so the authors designed a new kind of piping damper with a plunger-type accumulator. Special requirements for the piping damper included low impact displacement, low speed, as well as an appropriate locking speed. Inside the damper, a plunger-type accumulator was installed and on the outside of the piston rod, a tube with exposed corrugations was added. Between the piston and the cylinder, a clearance seal was added. Using mathematical modeling, the effects of the dynamic performance of the damper’s impact displacement on vibrations were observed. Changes to the clearance between the piston and the cylinder, the stiffness of the spring in the accumulator, the throttle valve size, and locking speed resistance of the damper were respectively simulated and studied. Based on the results of the simulation, dampers with optimal parameters were developed and tested with different accumulator spring stiffnesses and different throttles. The simulation and experimental results showed that parameters such as seal clearance between piston and cylinder, accumulator spring stiffness and throttle parameters have significant effects on the damper’s impact displacement, low speed resistance and locking speed.

Shu-zheng Sun, Ji-de Li, Xiao-dong Zhao, Jing-lei Luan and Chang-tao Wang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 3): 280-285
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Physical testing of large-scale ship models at sea is a new experimental method. It is a cheap and reliable way to research the environment adaptability of a ship in complex and extreme wave conditions. It is necessary to have a stable experimental system for the test. Since the experimental area is large, a remote control system and a telemetry system are essential, and were designed by the authors. An experiment was conducted on the Songhuajiang River to test the systems. The relationship between the model’s speed and its electromotor’s revolutions was also measured during the model test. The results showed that the two systems make it possible to carry out large-scale model tests at sea.

Guo-qing Feng, Gang Li, Zhi-hui Liu, Huai-lei Niu and Chen-feng Li
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 3): 286-291
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Sandwich plate systems (SPS) are advanced materials that have begun to receive extensive attention in naval architecture and ocean engineering. At present, according to the rules of classification societies, a mixture of shell and solid elements are required to simulate an SPS. Based on the principle of stiffness decomposition, a new numerical simulation method for shell elements was proposed. In accordance with the principle of stiffness decomposition, the total stiffness can be decomposed into the bending stiffness and shear stiffness. Displacement and stress response related to bending stiffness was calculated with the laminated shell element. Displacement and stress response due to shear was calculated by use of a computational code write by FORTRAN language. Then the total displacement and stress response for the SPS was obtained by adding together these two parts of total displacement and stress. Finally, a rectangular SPS plate and a double-bottom structure were used for a simulation. The results show that the deflection simulated by the elements proposed in the paper is larger than the same simulated by solid elements and the analytical solution according to Hoff theory and approximate to the same simulated by the mixture of shell-solid elements, and the stress simulated by the elements proposed in the paper is approximate to the other simulating methods. So compared with calculations based on a mixture of shell and solid elements, the numerical simulation method given in the paper is more efficient and easier to do.

Yu Cao; Bao-jun Yu and Jian-fang Wang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 3): 292
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The seakeeping performance of a luxury cruise ship was evaluated during the concept design phase. By comparing numerical predictions based on 3-D linear potential flow theory in the frequency domain with the results of model tests, it was shown that the 3-D method predicted the seakeeping performance of the luxury cruise ship well. Based on the model, the seakeeping features of the luxury cruise ship were analyzed, and then the influence was seen of changes to the primary design parameters (center of gravity, inertial radius, etc.). Based on the results, suggestions were proposed to improve the choice of parameters for luxury cruise ships during the concept design phase. They should improve seakeeping performance.

Chong Lü, Yong-jie Pang, Ye Li and Lei Zhang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 3): 301-306
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S surface controllers have been proven to provide effective motion control for an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). However, it is difficult to adjust their control parameters manually. Choosing the optimum parameters for the controller of a particular AUV is a significant challenge. To automate the process, a modified particle swarm optimization (MPSO) algorithm was proposed. It was based on immune theory, and used a nonlinear regression strategy for inertia weight to optimize AUV control parameters. A semi-physical simulation system for the AUV was developed as a platform to verify the proposed control method, and its structure was considered. The simulation results indicated that the semi-physical simulation platform was helpful, the optimization algorithm has good local and global searching abilities, and the method can be reliably used for an AUV.

Nian-qing Wu, Yao Zhao and Hua Yuan
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 3): 307-311
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Rectangular tiles can be laid on a ship’s hull for protection, but the sides of the tiles must be adjusted so adjacent tiles will conform to the curvature of the hull. A method for laying tiles along a reference line was proposed, and an allowable range of displacement for the four vertices of the tile was determined. Deformations of each tile on a specific reference line were then obtained. It was found that the least deformation was required when the tiles were laid parallel to a line with the least curvature. After calculating the mean curvature on the surface, the surface was divided into three layout areas. A set of discrete points following the least deformation of the principal curvatures was obtained. A NURBS interpolation curve was then plotted as the reference line for laying tiles. The optimum size of the tiles was obtained, given the allowable maximum deformation condition. This minimized the number of bolts and the amount of stuffing. A typical aft hull section was selected and divided into three layout areas based on the distribution of curvature. The optimum sizes of rectangular tiles were obtained for every layout area and they were then laid on the surface. In this way the layout of the rectangular tiles could be plotted.

An-ke Song, Li-ping Sun, Yong Luo and Qiang Wang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 3): 312-316
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This paper addresses the need for systematic evaluation of the station keeping systems of deepwater drilling semi-submersibles. Based on the selected drilling semi-submersible configuration, the mooring systems were analyzed and designed for a range of water depths using different mooring line materials. These were steel wire rope, polyester rope and HMPE (high modulus poly ethylene). The mooring analysis was carried out using the advanced fully coupled time domain analysis method in the computer software package HARP. Diffraction analysis was first applied to solve the hydrodynamic properties of the vessel and then the motion equations of the complete dynamic system including the drilling rig, the mooring lines and risers were developed and solved in the time domain. Applying the advanced analysis method, a matrix of mooring systems was developed for operating in water depths of 1 000 m, 1 500 m, and 2 000 m using various mooring materials. The development of mooring systems was conducted in accordance with the commonly adopted mooring design code, API RP 2SK and API RP 2SM. Fresh attempts were then made to comparatively evaluate the mooring system’s characteristics and global performance. Useful results have been obtained in terms of mooring materials, water depths, and key parameters of mooring configurations. The results provide in-depth insight for the design and operation of deepwater mooring systems in the South China Sea environment.

Pu-zhen Gao , Ting-hao Liu; Ting Yang and Si-chao Tan
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 3): 317
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Experiments were conducted to study characteristics of flow when flow is fluctuating. The experimental results showed a phase difference between the flow rate and the pressure drop fluctuations. This phase difference between the fluctuating flow rate and pressure drop was analyzed for laminar flow. Analysis showed that the phase difference changes with the period of the flow fluctuation, the pipe radius, the density and the dynamic viscosity of the liquid. Fluctuating pipe flow was then numerically simulated. Results of the numerical simulation were compared with theoretical values and experimental results. It was shown that, when the flow rate fluctuates with time as a sine wave, the pressure drop fluctuates with the same periodicity, and there is a phase difference between them.

Chun-yu Guo; Wen-ting Hu and Sheng Huang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 3): 323
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The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) method, along with the Fluent software package, was used to study the steady and unsteady interaction of propellers and rudders with additional thrust fins. The sliding mesh model was employed to simulate unsteady interactions between the blades, the rudder and the thrust fins. Based on the numerical results, the pressure distribution on the propeller and the efficiency of the fins were calculated as a function of the attack angle. The RANS results were compared with results calculated by the potential method. It was found that the results for the potential method and the RANS method have good consistency, but they yield maximum efficiencies for the fins, and thus corresponding attack angles, that are not identical.

Jun Zhang, Guo-ping Miao, Zi-wen Zhou, Hao Chen and Zhu-ming Lin
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 3): 328-333
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Hai Lan, Yun-yun Xiao and Li-jun Zhang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 3): 334-339
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Reconfigurability of the electrical network in a shipboard power system (SPS) after its failure is central to the restoration of power supply and improves survivability of an SPS. The navigational process creates a sequence of different operating conditions. The priority of some loads differs in changing operating conditions. After analyzing characteristics of typical SPS, a model was developed used a grade Ⅲ switchboard and an environmental prioritizing agent (EPA) algorithm. This algorithm was chosen as it is logically and physically decentralized as well as multi-agent oriented. The EPA algorithm was used to decide on the dynamic load priority, then it selected the means to best meet the maximum power supply load. The simulation results showed that higher priority loads were the first to be restored. The system satisfied all necessary constraints, demonstrating the effectiveness and validity of the proposed method.

Pei-liang Li, Juan Zhou, Lei Li, Wei Zhao and Chang-lin Chen
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 3): 340
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The spatial distribution of the energy flux, bottom boundary layer (BBL) energy dissipation, surface elevation amplitude and current magnitude of the major semidiurnal tidal constituents in the Bering Sea are examined in detail. These distributions are obtained from the results of a three-dimensional numerical simulation model (POM). Compared with observation data from seven stations, the root mean square errors of tidal height are 2.6 cm and 1.2 cm for M2 and N2 respectively, and those of phase-lag are 21.8° and 15.8° respectively. The majority of the tidal energy flux off the deep basin is along the shelf edge, although some of this flux crosses the shelf edge, especially in the southeast of the shelf break. The total M2 energy dissipation in the Bering Sea is 30.43 GW, which is about 10 times of that of N2 and S2. The semidiurnal tidal energy enters mainly to the Bering Sea by Samalga Pass, Amukta Pass and Seguam Pass, accounting more than 60% of the total energy entering the Being Sea from the Pacific.