Journal of Marine Science and Application 2010 No. 1
Bin-bin Zhao and Wen-yang Duan
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 1): 1-7
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Green-Naghdi (G-N) theory is a fully nonlinear theory for water waves. Some researchers call it a fully nonlinear Boussinesq model. Different degrees of complexity of G-N theory are distinguished by “levels” where the higher the level, the more complicated and presumably more accurate the theory is. In the research presented here a comparison was made between two different levels of G-N theory, specifically level II and level III G-N restricted theories. A linear analytical solution for level III G-N restricted theory was given. Waves on a planar beach and shoaling waves were both simulated with these two G-N theories. It was shown for the first time that level III G-N restricted theory can also be used to predict fluid velocity in shallow water. A level III G-N restricted theory is recommended instead of a level II G-N restricted theory when simulating fully nonlinear shallow water waves.

Xi-zeng Zhao and Zhao-chen Sun
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 1): 8-13
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The influence of wave breaking on wave statistics for finite-depth random wave trains is investigated experimentally. This paper is to investigate the influence of wave breaking and water depth on the wave statistics for random waves on water of finite depth. Greater attention is paid to changes in wave statistics due to wave breaking in random wave trains. The results show skewness of surface elevations is independent of wave breaking and kurtosis is suppressed by wave breaking. Finally, the exceedance probabilities for wave heights are also investigated.

Pankaj Biswas, Nisith Ranjan Mandal and Om Prakash Sha
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 1): 14-21
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Line heating process is a very complex phenomenon as a variety of factors affects the amount of residual deformations. Numerical thermal and mechanical analysis of line heating for prediction of residual deformation is time consuming. In the present work dimensional analysis has been presented to obtain a new relationship between input parameters and resulting residual deformations during line heating process. The temperature distribution and residual deformations for 6 mm, 8 mm, 10 mm and 12 mm thick steel plates were numerically estimated and compared with experimental and published results. Extensive data generated through a validated FE model were used to find co-relationship between the input parameters and the resulting residual deformation by multiple regression analysis. The results obtained from the deformation equations developed in this work compared well with those of the FE analysis with a drop in the computation time in the order of 100 (computational time required for FE analysis is around 7 200 second to 9 000 seconds and where the time required for getting the residual deformation by developed equations is only 60 to 90 seconds). Keywords: dimensional analysis; 3-D finite element analysis; elasto-plastic analysis; residual deformations; multiple regression analysis; oxy-acetylene gas flame

Shi-e Yang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 1): 22-26
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The channel effect of bottom reverberation had been investigated by many authors (Bucker and Morris, 1968; Holland, 2006; Mackenzie, 1962; Zhou and Zhang, 1977), but in most of these researches, bottom reverberation had been described as the sound field formed by distributed secondary sources on boundary, and results obtained in such way sometimes will contradict with principle of reciprocity in bi-static cases (Wang and Shang, 1981). It is desirable to give a method for computation of reverberation, which directly using the scattering effect of stochastic characteristics of water channel, and can give results obeying the principle of reciprocity in any case. In this paper, the method of coupled mode is used for evaluation of bottom reverberation field caused by roughness of bottom interface, and multi-pole method is introduced for consideration of directional source.

Bo Gao, De-min Xu and Wei-sheng Yan
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 1): 27-33
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An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) must use an algorithm to plan its path to distant, mobile offshore objects. Because of the uneven distribution of obstacles in the real world, the efficiency of the algorithm decreases if the global environment is represented by regular grids with all of them at the highest resolution. The framed quadtree data structure is able to more efficiently represent the environment. When planning the path, the dynamic object is expressed instead as several static objects which are used by the path planner to update the path. By taking account of the characteristics of the framed quadtree, objects can be projected on the frame nodes to increase the precision of the path. Analysis and simulations showed the proposed planner could increase efficiency while improving the ability of the AUV to follow an object.

Xing Zheng and Wen-yang Duan
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 1): 34-41
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Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is a Lagrangian meshless particle method. It is one of the best method for simulating violent free surface flows in fluids and solving large fluid deformations. Dam breaking is a typical example of these problems. The basis of SPH was reviewed, including some techniques for governing equation resolution, such as the stepping method and the boundary handling method. Then numerical results of a dam breaking simulation were discussed, and the benefits of concepts like artificial viscosity and position correction were analyzed in detail. When compared with dam breaking simulated by the volume of fluid (VOF) method, the wave profile generated by SPH had good agreement, but the pressure had only reasonable agreement. Improving pressure results is clearly an important next step for research.

Sergio Perez
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 1): 42-47
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Simulation of the flow and deposition from a laboratory turbidity current, in which dense mixtures of sediment move down a narrow, sloping channel and flow into a large tank. SSIIM CFD software is used to model 3-D flow and deposition. SSIIM predicts the height of the accumulated mound to within 25% of experimental values, and the volume of the mound to 20%~50%, depending on the concentration of sediment and slope of the channel. The SSIIM predictions were consistently lower than experimental values. In simulations with initial sediment volumetric concentrations greater than 14%, SSIIM dumped some of the sediment load at the entry gate into the channel, which was not the case with the experimental runs. This is likely due to the fact that the fall velocity of sediment particles in SSIIM does not vary with sediment concentration. Further simulations of deposition from turbidity currents should be attempted when more complete experimental results are available, but it appears for now that SSIIM can be used to give approximate estimates of turbidity current deposition.

Jun-feng Lu and Yao Zhao
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 1): 48-53
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An improved spherical, movable transfer skirt for autonomous submersibles has been devised. It was designed to permit the transfer of equipment and personnel from a submersible to the pressure chamber of an oil storage sea-bed structure. It also allowed mating at large vertical angles while the submersible remained horizontal. Seal failure modes and procedures for analyzing the sealing ability of the mating flange of the hull transfer skirt were thoroughly analyzed using conservative estimation methods. In the analysis, sea currents and mating angles were considered. Results showed that when considering the effects of currents, spherical radius and mating angle, their influence on seal ring failure should be considered first. The critical mating depth for a seal ring failure was larger than for either sliding or rotational failure modes. The critical mating depth can be used to determine the mating method of the submersible. The analytical procedures and results can be used as a reference for the design of spherical hull transfer skirts.

Jia-qi Li, Ryuichi Shibasaki and Bo-wei Li
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 1): 54-62
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In the Pearl River Delta (PRD), there is severe competition between container ports, particularly those in Hong Kong, Shenzhen, and Guangzhou, for collecting international maritime container cargo. In addition, the second phase of the Nansha terminal in Guangzhou’s port and the first phase of the Da Chang Bay container terminal in Shenzhen opened last year. Under these circumstances, there is an increasing need to quantitatively measure the impact these infrastructure investments have on regional cargo flows. The analysis should include the effects of container terminal construction, berth deepening, and access road construction. The authors have been developing a model for international cargo simulation (MICS) which can simulate the movement of cargo. The volume of origin-destination (OD) container cargo in the East Asian region was used as an input, in order to evaluate the effects of international freight transportation policies. This paper focuses on the PRD area and, by incorporating a more detailed network, evaluates the impact of several infrastructure investment projects on freight movement.

Sheng Huang, Miao He, Chao Wang and Xin Chang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 1): 63-68
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In order to predict the effects of cavitation on a hydrofoil, the state equations of the cavitation model were combined with a linear viscous turbulent method for mixed fluids in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software FLUENT to simulate steady cavitating flow. At a fixed attack angle, pressure distributions and volume fractions of vapor at different cavitation numbers were simulated, and the results on foil sections agreed well with experimental data. In addition, at the various cavitation numbers, the vapor fractions at different attack angles were also predicted. The vapor region moved towards the front of the airfoil and the length of the cavity grew with increased attack angle. The results show that this method of applying FLUENT to simulate cavitation is reliable.

Jin-chao Zhao, Huan Qi and Yong-ming Zhang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 1): 69-74
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The authors developed a prototype of a warship maintenance system. The process started by defining the maintenance requirements of warship equipment. Next, a planning scheme was development for a maintenance network. An optimization target for the plan and indexes for assessment were established. Based on the above work, a simulation model was proposed with two layers: a base and a workshop. Dispatching rules were then formulated for the simulation. Experimental results proved the validity of the model and the dispatching algorithm. It was found that the model can solve the capacity evaluation problem for maintenance systems and provides a scientific basis for decision-maker to make decisions regarding equipment maintenance.

Tian Ma, Jian-guo Huang, Kai-zhuo Lei, Jian-feng Chen and Qun-fei Zhang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 1): 75-80
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Focused underwater plasma sound sources are being applied in more and more fields. Focusing performance is one of the most important factors determining transmission distance and peak values of the pulsed sound waves. The sound source’s components and focusing mechanism were all analyzed. A model was built in 3D Max and wave strength was measured on the simulation platform. Error analysis was fully integrated into the model so that effects on sound focusing performance of processing-errors and installation-errors could be studied. Based on what was practical, ways to limit the errors were proposed. The results of the error analysis should guide the design, machining, placement, debugging and application of underwater plasma sound sources.

Cheng Wang, Zong-de Fang and Hai-tao Jia
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 1): 81-86
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To reduce vibration and noise and increase transmission efficiency, a three segment method for modifying the pinion profile was proposed. Cutter surface equations were deduced by changing the shape of the cutter-edge, substituting three segment parabolas for the line. The influence of longitudinal tooth modifications on tooth surface load distributions was discussed. Transmission error minimization and uniformity of tooth surface load distribution were chosen as optimization goals and the modified parameters were obtained by applying the complex method. Finally, an experiment comparing the loaded transmission error, vibration, and noise both before and after modifications was carried out. The results indicate that the modified design is reliable.

Xiang-qin Cheng, Jing-yuan Qu, Zhe-ping Yan and Xin-qian Bian
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 1): 87-92
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In order to improve the security and reliability for autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) navigation, an H∞ robust fault-tolerant controller was designed after analyzing variations in state-feedback gain. Operating conditions and the design method were then analyzed so that the control problem could be expressed as a mathematical optimization problem. This permitted the use of linear matrix inequalities (LMI) to solve for the H∞ controller for the system. When considering different actuator failures, these conditions were then also mathematically expressed, allowing the H∞ robust controller to solve for these events and thus be fault-tolerant. Finally, simulation results showed that the H∞ robust fault-tolerant controller could provide precise AUV navigation control with strong robustness.

Hai Lan, Jiu-fang Li and Dian-hua Zhang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 1): 93-98
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The effect of line voltage drop is considered larger on loads, especially on asynchronous motor, transformers and other non-linear load parameters in power system of large ships. A novel power flow method based on improved node voltage method is proposed, and a typical ship power system, which has 2 power stations and 10 nodes, with closed-loop design but open-loop operation, is taken as an example. Simulation results show that the improved power flow calculation method has achieved higher accuracy and better convergence.

Yang Li, Si-chun Li, Sheng-chun Piao and Shi-jun Sun
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 1): 99-104
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After an aerial object enters the water, physical changes to sounds in the water caused by the accompanying bubbles are quite complex. As a result, traditional signal analyzing methods cannot identify the real physical object. In view of this situation, a novel method for analyzing the sounds caused by an aerial object’s entry into water was proposed. This method analyzes the vibrational mode of the bubbles by using empitical mode decomposition. Experimental results showed that this method can efficiently remove noise and extract the broadband pulse signal and low-frequency fluctuating signal, producing an accurate resolution of entry time and frequency. This shows the improved performance of the proposed method.

Wen-ming Shi
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2010(No. 1): 105-108
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The accuracy of parameter estimation is critical when digitally modeling a ship. A parameter estimation method with constraints was developed, based on the variational method. Performance functions and constraint equations in the variational method are constructed by analyzing input and output equations of the system. The problem of parameter estimation was transformed into a problem of least squares estimation. The parameter estimation equation was analyzed in order to get an optimized estimation of parameters based on the Lagrange multiplication operator. Simulation results showed that this method is better than the traditional least squares estimation, producing a higher precision when identifying parameters. It has very important practical value in areas of application such as system identification and parameter estimation.