Journal of Marine Science and Application 2018 3
C. Guedes Soares1, Wenyang Duan2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2018(3): 281-283
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Odd M. Faltinsen1,2, Yugao Shen1,2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2018(3): 284-296
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The paper is partly a review on hydrodynamic and structural aspects of fish farms. In addition, new numerical results are presented on the stochastic behavior of bending stresses in the floater of a realistic net cage in extreme wave conditions. The behavior of traditional-type fish farms with net cages and closed fish farms in waves and currents is discussed. Hydroelasticity can play a significant role for net cages and closed membrane-type fish farms. The many meshes in a net cage make CFD and complete structural modeling impracticable. As an example, a hydrodynamic screen model and structural truss elements are instead used to represent the hydrodynamic loading and the structural deformation of the net. In addition, the wake inside the net due to current plays an important role. The described simplified numerical method has been validated by comparing with model tests of mooring loads on a single net cage with two circular elastic floaters and bottom weight ring in waves and currents. It is discussed which parts of the complete system play the most important roles in accurately determining the mooring loads. Many realizations of a sea state are needed to obtain reliable estimates of extreme values in a stochastic sea. In reality, many net cages operate in close vicinity, which raises questions about spatial variations of the current and wave environment as well as hydrodynamic interaction between the net cages. Live fish touching the netting can have a non-negligible influence on the mooring loads. It is demonstrated by numerical calculations in waves and currents that a well boat at a net cage can have a significant influence on the mooring loads and the bending stresses in the floater. The latter results provide a rational way to obtain operational limits for a well boat at a fish farm. Sloshing has to be accounted for in describing the behavior of a closed fish farm when important wave frequencies are in the vicinity of natural sloshing frequencies. The structural flexibility has to be considered in determining the natural sloshing frequencies for a membrane-type closed fish farm. Free-surface non-linearities can matter for sloshing and can, for instance, result in swirling in a certain frequency domain for a closed cage with a vertical symmetry axis.

Ronald W. Yeung, Lu Wang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2018(3): 297-311
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A highly efficient "hybrid integral-equation method" for computing hydrodynamic added-mass, wave-damping, and waveexciting force of general body geometries with a vertical axis of symmetry is presented. The hybrid method utilizes a numerical inner domain and a semi-infinite analytical outer domain separated by a vertical cylindrical matching boundary. Eigenfunction representation of velocity potential is used in the outer domain; the three-dimensional potential in the inner domain is solved using a "two-dimensional" boundary element method with ring sources and ring dipoles to exploit the body symmetry for efficiency. With proper solution matching at the common boundary, both radiation and diffraction potentials can be solved efficiently while satisfying the far-field radiation condition exactly. This method is applied to compute the hydrodynamic properties of two different body geometries:a vertical-walled moonpool with a bottom plate that restricts the opening and a spar-like structure with a diverging bottom opening inspired by designs of floating Oscillating Water Columns. The effects of the size of the bottom opening on the hydrodynamic properties of the body are investigated for both geometries. The heave motion of the floater as well as the motion of the internal free surface under incident wave excitation are computed and studied for the spar-like structure.

Jai Ram Saripilli1,2, Debabrata Sen2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2018(3): 312-329
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The effect of coupling between sloshing and ship motions in the evaluation of slosh-induced interior pressures is studied. The coupling between sloshing loads and ship motions is modelled through a hybrid algorithm which combines a potential flow solution based on transient Green function for the external ship hydrodynamics with a viscous flow solution based on a multiphase interface capturing volume of fluid (VOF) technique for the interior sloshing motion. The coupled algorithm accounts for full nonlinear slosh forces while the external forces on the hull are determined through a blended scheme of linear radiationdiffraction with nonlinear Froude-Krylov and restoring forces. Consideration of this level of nonlinearities in ship motions is found to have non-negligible effects on the slosh-coupled responses and slosh-induced loads. A scheme is devised to evaluate the statistical measure of the pressures through long-duration simulation studies in extreme irregular waves. It is found that coupling significantly influences the tank interior pressures, and the differences in the pressures between coupled and uncoupled cases can be as much as 100% or more. To determine the RAO over the frequency range needed for the simulation studies in irregular waves, two alternative schemes are proposed, both of which require far less computational time compared to the conventional method of finding RAO at each frequency, and the merits of these are discussed.

Muhammad Zahir Ramli1, P. Temarel2, M. Tan2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2018(3): 330-340
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The numerical modelling of the interactions between water waves and floating structures is significant for different areas of the marine sector, especially seakeeping and prediction of wave-induced loads. Seakeeping analysis involving severe flow fluctuations is still quite challenging even for the conventional RANS method. Particle method has been viewed as alternative for such analysis especially those involving deformable boundary, wave breaking and fluid fragmentation around hull shapes. In this paper, the weakly compressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (WCSPH), a fully Lagrangian particle method, is applied to simulate the symmetric radiation problem for a stationary barge treated as a flexible body. This is carried out by imposing prescribed forced simple harmonic oscillations in heave, pitch and the two-and three-node distortion modes. The resultant, radiation force predictions, namely added mass and fluid damping coefficients, are compared with results from 3-D potential flow boundary element method and 3-D RANS CFD predictions, in order to verify the adopted modelling techniques for WCSPH. WCSPH were found to be in agreement with most results and could predict the fluid actions equally well in most cases.

Bin Teng, Peiwen Cong, Ying Gou
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2018(3): 341-352
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Nonlinear wave loads can induce low-frequency and high-frequency resonance motions of a moored platform in deep water. For the analysis of the nonlinear response of an offshore platform under the action of irregular waves, the most widely used method in practice is the Cummins method, in which the second-order exciting forces in the time domain are computed by a two-term Volterra series model based on incident waves, first-order body motion response, and quadratic transfer functions (QTFs). QTFs are bichromatic waves acting on a body and are computed in the frequency domain in advance. For moving bodies, QTFs are related to the first-order body response, which is to be determined in the simulation process of body motion response but is unknown in the computation procedure of QTFs. In solving this problem, Teng and Cong (2017) proposed a method to divide the QTFs into different components, which are unrelated to the body response. With the application of the new QTF components, a modified Cummins method can be developed for the simulation of the nonlinear response of a moored floating platform. This paper presents a review of the theory.

Jikang Chen1, Lijia Wang2, Wenyang Duan1
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2018(3): 353-361
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A novel numerical model based on the image Green function and first-order Taylor expansion boundary element method (TEBEM), which can improve the accuracy of the hydrodynamic simulation for the non-smooth body, was developed to calculate the side wall effects on first-order motion responses and second-order drift loads upon offshore structures in the wave tank. This model was confirmed by comparing it to the results from experiments on hydrodynamic coefficients, namely the first-order motion response and second-order drift load upon a hemisphere, prolate spheroid, and box-shaped barge in the wave tank. Then, the hydrodynamics of the KVLCC2 model were also calculated in two wave tanks with different widths. It was concluded that this model can predict the hydrodynamics for offshore structures effectively, and the side wall has a significant impact on the firstorder quantities and second-order drift loads, which satisfied the resonant rule.

Dezhi Ning, Xiang Li, Chongwei Zhang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2018(3): 362-370
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In this study, we numerically investigated the nonlinear focused wave group action on a truncated surface-piercing structure, and developed a two-dimensional fully nonlinear numerical tank using the higher-order boundary element method. We determined the amplitude of the wave components of the focused wave group based on the JONSWAP wave spectrum. We discuss the effects of the presence of a surface-piercing structure on the characteristics of the focused wave group and find that the location of the structure does not evidently change the focal location or focal time of the focused wave group. The largest amplitudes of the run-up and horizontal force on the structure occur when the front surface of the structure is at the focal location. The critical draught and breadth of the structure occur when the wave run-up reaches its maximum along the structure.

Zhengke Wang, Guanghua He, Zhigang Zhang, Yanghan Meng
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2018(3): 371-379
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The hydrodynamic analysis of multi-floating bodies is important and widely used in marine engineering. In this study, we systematically simulated the wave diffraction problem of a fixed vertical four-cylinder structure in regular waves in the time domain in a viscous numerical wave tank. The hydrodynamic interaction of waves with a bottom-mounted structure consisting of four vertical cylinders arranged at the corners of a square shows a complicated interference phenomenon. In this paper, we illustrate and analyze the run-up around the structure and the corresponding wave forces. To investigate the viscous effect on the near-trapping phenomenon, we pay particular attention to investigating the waves near-trapped inside the four-cylinder structure, and make a comparative study of the viscous-and inviscid-flow solutions with the experimental measurements. The results show that the maximum wave elevation occurs on the inner side of the leeside cylinder, and that the wave elevations on the outer side of the cylinders are lower than those on the inner side. We can conclude that viscosity has an obvious damping effect on wave elevations inside the structure. The cylinders show a tendency to drift apart from each other when the near-trapping phenomenon occurs.

Yiwen Wang1,2, Weiguo Wu1, C. Guedes Soares2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2018(3): 380-388
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The ship motions and wave-induced loads of a new type of river-to-sea ship are investigated experimentally and numerically. A river-to-sea ship is an unconventional type of container ship characterized by high breadth to draft ratio and low length to breadth ratio, which makes it more prone to hydroelasticity than conventional ships of the same size. A segmented model was tested under two loading conditions, namely, ballast and loaded conditions, to determine the vertical motions and wave-induced loads under each condition. Results are compared with numerical simulations in the frequency domain. The wave-induced responses are calculated by a nonlinear time domain code at each time step. The response amplitude operators of vertical ship responses in regular waves are analyzed, and the wave-induced responses are consistent with the experimental results.

A. Mikuli?1, J. Parunov1, C. Guedes Soares2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2018(3): 389-405
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The wave-induced vertical ship motions and bending moments of a double hull-oil tanker in realistic flooding conditions are studied. The scenarios investigated are represented by water ingress into the starboard ballast tanks for collision damage cases and both starboard and portside ballast tanks for grounding situations. Seakeeping computations are performed for eight damage scenarios and for the intact condition, each corresponding to different changes in displacement, trim, and heel. For each of the damage conditions, transfer functions of vertical motions and loads are calculated using a potential linear 3D panel hydrodynamic code in the frequency domain that includes effect of the motion of the water in flooded tanks. A MATLAB code is developed to facilitate automated hydrodynamic simulation of many damage scenarios. Verification of seakeeping results is performed by comparing transfer functions with results of the previous study. Wave-induced vertical responses of damaged ship are then compared to those of intact ship using two spectral-based methods originating from uncertainty analysis of wave loads, which are convenient tools to assess consequences of damage on short-term ship responses. Generally, observed trend is that vertical wave-induced responses of damaged ship converge toward those of intact ship with increasing wave period. Fairly small differences between responses of asymmetrically damaged ship with respect to the symmetrical incoming wave directions are found. The results of the study are an efficient method for seakeeping assessment of damaged oil tankers and the framework for evaluating consequences of damage scenarios, heading angles, and sea conditions on seakeeping responses of damaged ships. The results can be used to decide if the intact ship model can be used instead of the damaged one for the emergency response procedure or for the risk assessment studies when modeling and computational time represent important limitations.

Yuan Lin1,2, Ning Ma1,2, Xiechong Gu1,2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2018(3): 406-413
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Since the research of flare slamming prediction is seldom when parametric rolling happens, we present an efficient approximation method for flare slamming analysis of large container ships in parametric rolling conditions. We adopt a 6-DOF weakly nonlinear time domain model to predict the ship motions of parametric rolling conditions. Unlike previous flare slamming analysis, our proposed method takes roll motion into account to calculate the impact angle and relative vertical velocity between ship sections on the bow flare and wave surface. We use the Wagner model to analyze the slamming impact forces and the slamming occurrence probability. Through numerical simulations, we investigate the maximum flare slamming pressures of a container ship for different speeds and wave conditions. To further clarify the mechanism of flare slamming phenomena in parametric rolling conditions, we also conduct real-time simulations to determine the relationship between slamming pressure and 3-DOF motions, namely roll, pitch, and heave.

Sharad Dhavalikar, Prasada N. Dabbi, Deepti Poojari, Ramkumar Joga, Sachin Awasare
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2018(3): 414-431
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The paper presents an empirical method to calculate bow flare slamming pressure and the green water load. Many empirical formulae for various types of vessels have been provided by rules of ship classification societies. In the present work, attempt is made to develop generalized formulations for all types of displacement vessels. Extreme sea conditions are considered. Bow flare pressure is derived in terms of flare and waterline angles. Specific condition for limiting waterline angle is derived based on 2D numerical simulations. Deck wetness is derived in terms of static and dynamic swell-up and the relative motion. Variation of static swell along the length is determined based on potential solution based analyses considering variation in vessels’ hull. 2D wedge simulations are carried out to validate the formulation of dynamic swell-up. Results of the calculated bow flare and deck pressures are compared with various ship classification society formulations and the trends are found to be in good agreement in general barring at bow flare where lower pressure is found in most of the presented cases. Also IACS UR S21A (2018) governing minimum pressure for deck scantlings is found to be conservative in few of the presented cases. Although scantlings assessment is not performed, the presented new formulations may help in realistic assessment of scantlings.

Sumit Kumar Pal1, Ravindra Babu Kudupudi1, Mohammed Rabius Sunny1,2, Ranadev Datta1
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2018(3): 432-442
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In this paper, the effect of green water impact on a flexible structure is studied based on three-step computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-boundary element method (BEM)-finite element method (FEM) approach. The impact due to shipping of water on the deck of the vessel is computed using commercial CFD software and used as an external force in coupled BEM-FEM solver. Other hydrodynamic forces such as radiation, diffraction, and Froude-Krylov forces acting on the structure are evaluated using 3D time domain panel method. To capture the structural responses such as bending moment and shear force, 1D finite element method is developed. Moreover, a direct integration scheme based on the Newmark-Beta method is employed to get the structural velocity, displacement, etc., at each time step. To check the effect of the green water impact on the structure, a rectangular barge without forward speed is taken for the analysis. The influence is studied in terms of bending moment, shear force, etc. Results show that the effect of green water impact on the bow region can be severe in extreme seas and lead to various structural damages. Similarly, it is also verified that vessel motion affects green water loading significantly and therefore one must consider its effect while designing a vessel.

Jianhua Wang, Decheng Wan
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2018(3): 443-458
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Ship maneuvering in waves includes the performance of ship resistance, seakeeping, propulsion, and maneuverability. It is a complex hydrodynamic problem with the interaction of many factors. With the purpose of directly predicting the behavior of ship maneuvering in waves, a CFD solver named naoe-FOAM-SJTU is developed by the Computational Marine Hydrodynamics Lab (CMHL) in Shanghai Jiao Tong University. The solver is based on open source platform OpenFOAM and has introduced dynamic overset grid technology to handle complex ship hull-propeller-rudder motion system. Maneuvering control module based on feedback control mechanism is also developed to accurately simulate corresponding motion behavior of free running ship maneuver. Inlet boundary wavemaker and relaxation zone technique is used to generate desired waves. Based on the developed modules, unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computations are carried out for several validation cases of free running ship maneuver in waves including zigzag, turning circle, and course keeping maneuvers. The simulation results are compared with available benchmark data. Ship motions, trajectories, and other maneuvering parameters are consistent with available experimental data, which indicate that the present solver can be suitable and reliable in predicting the performance of ship maneuvering in waves. Flow visualizations, such as free surface elevation, wake flow, vortical structures, are presented to explain the hydrodynamic performance of ship maneuvering in waves. Large flow separation can be observed around propellers and rudders. It is concluded that RANS approach is not accurate enough for predicting ship maneuvering in waves with large flow separations and detached eddy simulation (DES) or large eddy simulation (LES) computations are required to improve the prediction accuracy.