Journal of Marine Science and Application 2017 no. 3
Wilson Guachamin Acero1,2,3,4, Zhen Gao1,3,4, Torgeir Moan1,3,4
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017(No. 3): 243-260
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Current installation costs of offshore wind turbines (OWTs) are high and profit margins in the offshore wind energy sector are low, it is thus necessary to develop installation methods that are more efficient and practical. This paper presents a numerical study (based on a global response analysis of marine operations) of a novel procedure for installing the tower and Rotor Nacelle Assemblies (RNAs) on bottom-fixed foundations of OWTs. The installation procedure is based on the inverted pendulum principle. A cargo barge is used to transport the OWT assembly in a horizontal position to the site, and a medium-size Heavy Lift Vessel (HLV) is then employed to lift and up-end the OWT assembly using a special upending frame. The main advantage of this novel procedure is that the need for a huge HLV (in terms of lifting height and capacity) is eliminated. This novel method requires that the cargo barge is in the leeward side of the HLV (which can be positioned with the best heading) during the entire installation. This is to benefit from shielding effects of the HLV on the motions of the cargo barge, so the foundations need to be installed with a specific heading based on wave direction statistics of the site and a typical installation season. Following a systematic approach based on numerical simulations of actual operations, potential critical installation activities, corresponding critical events, and limiting (response) parameters are identified. In addition, operational limits for some of the limiting parameters are established in terms of allowable limits of sea states. Following a preliminary assessment of these operational limits, the duration of the entire operation, the equipment used, and weather-and water depth-sensitivity, this novel procedure is demonstrated to be viable.

Majed O. Alsaydalani1, Mohammed A. N. Saif1, Medhat M. Helal2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017(No. 3): 261-275
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In this study, we examine the hydrodynamic characteristics of three rows of vertical slotted wall breakwaters in which the front and middle walls are permeable and partially immersed in a water channel of constant depth, whereas the third wall is impermeable. The wave-structure interaction and flow behavior of this type of breakwater arrangement are complicated and must be analyzed before breakwaters can be appropriately designed. To study the hydrodynamic breakwater performance, we developed a mathematical model based on the eigenfunction expansion method and a least squares technique for predicting wave interaction with three rows of vertical slotted wall breakwaters. We theoretically examined the wave transmission, reflection, energy loss, wave runup, and wave force under normal regular waves. Comparisons with experimental measurements show that the mathematical model results adequately reproduce most of the important features. The results of this investigation provide a better understanding of the hydrodynamic performance of triple-row vertical slotted wall breakwaters.

Yamina Bakhti1, Nadji Chioukh1,2, Benameur Hamoudi1, Mohamed Boukhari1
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017(No. 3): 276-285
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In the present paper, we examine the performance of an efficient type of wave-absorbing porous marine structure under the attack of regular oblique waves by using a Multi-Domain Boundary Element Method (MDBEM). The structure consists of two perforated vertical thin barriers creating what can be called a wave absorbing chamber system. The barriers are surface piercing, thereby eliminating wave overtopping. The problem of the interaction of obliquely incident linear waves upon a pair of perforated barriers is first formulated in the context of linear diffraction theory. The resulting boundary integral equation, which is matched with far-field solutions presented in terms of analytical series with unknown coefficients, as well as the appropriate boundary conditions at the free surface, seabed, and barriers, is then solved numerically using MDBEM. Dissipation of the wave energy due to the presence of the perforated barriers is represented by a simple yet effective relation in terms of the porosity parameter appropriate for thin perforated walls. The results are presented in terms of reflection and transmission coefficients. The effects of the incident wave angles, relative water depths, porosities, depths of the walls, and other major parameters of interest are explored.

R. B. Kaligatla1, Manisha1, T. Sahoo2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017(No. 3): 286-297
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Trapping of oblique surface gravity waves by dual porous barriers near a wall is studied in the presence of step type varying bottom bed that is connected on both sides by water of uniform depths. The porous barriers are assumed to be fixed at a certain distance in front of a vertical rigid wall. Using linear water wave theory and Darcy’s law for flow past porous structure, the physical problem is converted into a boundary value problem. Using eigenfunction expansion in the uniform bottom bed region and modified mild-slope equation in the varying bottom bed region, the mathematical problem is handled for solution. Moreover, certain jump conditions are used to account for mass conservation at slope discontinuities in the bottom bed profile. To understand the effect of dual porous barriers in creating tranquility zone and minimum load on the sea wall, reflection coefficient, wave forces acting on the barrier and the wall, and surface wave elevation are computed and analyzed for different values of depth ratio, porous-effect parameter, incident wave angle, gap between the barriers and wall and slope length of undulated bottom. The study reveals that with moderate porosity and suitable gap between barriers and sea wall, using dual barriers an effective wave trapping system can be developed which will exert less wave force on the barriers and the rigid wall. The proposed wave trapping system is likely to be of immense help for protecting various facilities/infrastructures in coastal environment.

Mahmoud Salari, Amin Rava
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017(No. 3): 298-304
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Nowadays, Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are frequently used for exploring the oceans. The hydrodynamics of AUVs moving in the vicinity of the water surface are significantly different at higher depths. In this paper, the hydrodynamic coefficients of an AUV in non-dimensional depths of 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, and 4D are obtained for movement close to the free-surface. Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes Equations (RANS) are discretized using the finite volume approach and the water-surface effects modeled using the Volume of Fraction (VOF) method. As the operating speeds of AUVs are usually low, the boundary layer over them is not fully laminar or fully turbulent, so the effect of boundary layer transition from laminar to turbulent flow was considered in the simulations. Two different turbulence/transition models were used:1) a full-turbulence model, the k-ε model, and 2) a turbulence/transition model, Menter’s Transition-SST model. The results show that the Menter’s Transition-SST model has a better consistency with experimental results. In addition, the wave-making effects of these bodies are studied at different immersion depths in the sea-surface vicinity or at finite depths. It is observed that the relevant pitch moments and lift coefficients are non-zero for these axi-symmetric bodies when they move close to the sea-surface. This is not expected for greater depths.

Qingxin Zhao1, Chunyu Guo1, Yumin Su1,2, Tian Liu1, Xiangyin Meng3
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017(No. 3): 305-312
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The speed of a ship sailing in waves always slows down due to the decrease in efficiency of the propeller. So it is necessary and essential to analyze the unsteady hydrodynamic performance of propeller in waves. This paper is based on the numerical simulation and experimental research of hydrodynamics performance when the propeller is under wave conditions. Open-water propeller performance in calm water is calculated by commercial codes and the results are compared to experimental values to evaluate the accuracy of the numerical simulation method. The first-order Volume of Fluid (VOF) wave method in STAR CCM+ is utilized to simulate the three-dimensional numerical wave. According to the above prerequisite, the numerical calculation of hydrodynamic performance of the propeller under wave conditions is conducted, and the results reveal that both thrust and torque of the propeller under wave conditions reveal intense unsteady behavior. With the periodic variation of waves, ventilation, and even an effluent phenomenon appears on the propeller. Calculation results indicate, when ventilation or effluent appears, the numerical calculation model can capture the dynamic characteristics of the propeller accurately, thus providing a significant theory foundation for further studying the hydrodynamic performance of a propeller in waves.

Rutuja Chavan, Bimlesh Kumar
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017(No. 3): 313-322
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Experimental investigations have been carried out to study morpho-hydraulic characteristics such as scour geometry and turbulent flow properties around tandem piers in alluvial channels. Experiments were carried out in a plane sand bed with two circular piers of same diameter arranged in tandem manner under no seepage, 10% seepage and 20% seepage conditions. Downward seepage minimizes the scour depth around piers and restrains the development of scour depth with time. Strong reversal flow is found near the bed at upstream of piers and near free surface at downstream of piers where velocity and Reynolds shear stress are found to be negative which reduce in magnitude with downward seepage. The flow is more critical within the gap between two piers where velocity is lesser near free surface and gradually increasing towards bed. Quadrant analysis shows that contribution of each event to the total Reynolds shear stress increases with downward seepage. Sedimentation effect prevails within the scour hole whereas outside the scour hole erosive forces become more dominant. Reduced reversal flow at upstream of pier because of downward seepage results in decreasing higher order moments and turbulent kinetic energy. At downstream of piers, secondary currents are dominant due to wake vortices. Strouhal number decreases in case of seepage runs than no seepage condition.

Tatiana Pais1, Lorenzo Moro2, Dario Boote1, Marco Biot3
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017(No. 3): 323-333
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Comfort levels on modern superyachts have recently been the object of specific attention of the most important Classification Societies, which issued new rules and regulations for evaluating noise and vibration maximum levels. These rules are named "Comfort Class Rules" and set the general criteria for noise and vibration measurements in different vessels’ areas, as well as the maximum noise and vibration limit values. As far as the vibration assessment is concerned, the Comfort Class Rules follow either the ISO 6954:1984 standard or the ISO 6954:2000. After an introduction to these relevant standards, the authors herein present a procedure developed to predict the vibration levels on ships. This procedure builds on finite element linear dynamic analysis and is applied to predict the vibration levels on a 60 m superyacht considered as a case study. The results of the numerical simulations are then benchmarked against experimental data acquired during the sea trial of the vessel. This analysis also allows the authors to evaluate the global damping ratio to be used by designers in the vibration analysis of superyachts.

Tuyen Vu Van1, Ping Yang1,2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017(No. 3): 334-343
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This study aims to examine and analyze the effect of corrosion wastage on the ship hull of a double hull very large crude oil carrier. To calculate the ultimate bending moment capacity, along with the neutral axis position at the limit state, section modulus, and moment of inertia, the incremental-iterative method is employed. This paper also considered the residual strength checking criteria of ship hull and the ultimate stress behaviors of the representative structural elements. Then, Paik’s probabilistic corrosion, which employs two levels of corrosion rate and three different assumptions of coating life time, is applied to assess the corrosion effects. The calculation results obtained through relevant analyses are also presented.

Hongliang Yin1,2, Bo Xu3, Dezheng Liu3
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017(No. 3): 344-351
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In this study, we propose the use of the Degree of Alignment (DOA) in engineering applications for evaluating the precision of and identifying the transfer alignment on a moving base. First, we derive the statistical formula on the basis of estimations. Next, we design a scheme for evaluating the transfer alignment on a moving base, for which the attitude error cannot be directly measured. Then, we build a mathematic estimation model and discuss Fixed Point Smoothing (FPS), Returns to Scale (RTS), Inverted Sequence Recursive Estimation (ISRE), and Kalman filter estimation methods, which can be used when evaluating alignment accuracy. Our theoretical calculations and simulated analyses show that the DOA reflects not only the alignment time and accuracy but also differences in the maneuver schemes, and is suitable for use as an integrated evaluation index. Furthermore, all four of these algorithms can be used to identify the transfer alignment and evaluate its accuracy. We recommend RTS in particular for engineering applications. Generalized DOAs should be calculated according to the tactical requirements.

Maria Zetterdahl1, Kent Salo1, Erik Fridell1,2, Jonas Sjöblom3
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017(No. 3): 352-361
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The fuel sulfur content in marine fuels has been regulated in Sulfur Emission Control Areas (SECAs) since January 2015. However, other fuel characteristics are also believed to have an impact on particle emissions, particularly on the number of particles emitted. This study investigates the impact of the content of aromatics in fuel. To achieve fuel blends with concentrations of aromatics similar to those found in marine fuel oils, i.e. 20%-30% by volume (%vol.), normal diesel oil (4%-5% vol. aromatics) is doped with a mixture of aromatics. Emission measurements are conducted in test-bed engine facilities and particle emissions over a wide size range are analyzed. Results show a decreased number of particles emitted (or not change) with an increase in the aromatic concentration in fuel. This is because there is a reduction in the cetane number of the fuel with an increased aromatic content, which effects the combustion process and results in decreased particle formation. However, when ignition improver is used to increase the cetane number, particle emissions remain at a lower level than for normal diesel oil; thereby emphasizing the presence of other factors in the formation of particles.

Mohsen Badiey, Lin Wan, Jing Luo
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017(No. 3): 362-369
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Acoustic modal behavior is reported for an L-shape hydrophone array during the passage of a strong nonlinear internal wave packet. Acoustic track is nearly parallel to the front of nonlinear internal waves. Through modal decomposition at the vertical array, acoustic modes are identified. Modal evolution along the horizontal array then is examined during a passing internal wave. Strong intensity fluctuations of individual modes are observed before and during the internal waves packet passes the fixed acoustic track showing a detailed evolution of the waveguide modal behavior. Acoustic refraction created either uneven distribution of modal energy over the horizontal array or additional returns observable at the entire L-shape array. Acoustic ray-mode simulations are used to phenomenologically explain the observed modal behavior.

Zhi Li1,2, Hongjuan Chen1,2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017(No. 3): 370-374
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The Vector Hydrophone (VH) is widely used to remotely detect underwater targets. Accurately measuring the self-noise of the VH provides an important basis for evaluating the performance of the detection system in which it is utilized, since the ability to acquire weak signals is determined by the VH self-noise level. To accurately measure the VH self-noise level in actual working conditions, the Dual-channel Transfer Function Method (DTFM) is proposed to reduce ambient background noise interference. In this paper, the underlying principles of DTFM in reducing ambient background noise is analyzed. The numerical simulations to determine the influence of ambient background noise, and the sensitivity difference of the two VHs on the measurement results are studied. The results of measuring the VH self-noise level in a small laboratory water tank by using DTMF indicate that ambient background noise interference can be reduced effectively by employing DTMF, more accurate self-noise level can be obtained as well. The DTMF provides an effective method for accurately measuring the self-noise level of VHs and also provides technical support for the practical application of the VH in underwater acoustics.