Journal of Marine Science and Application 2020 1
Jianhua Wang, Decheng Wan
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2020(1): 1-16
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Complex flow around floating structures is a highly nonlinear problem, and it is a typical feature in ship and ocean engineering. Traditional experimental methods and potential flow theory have limitations in predicting complex viscous flows. With the improvement of high-performance computing and the development of numerical techniques, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has become increasingly powerful in predicting the complex viscous flow around floating structures. This paper reviews the recent progress in CFD techniques for numerical solutions of typical complex viscous flows in ship and ocean engineering. Applications to free-surface flows, breaking bow waves of high-speed ship, ship hull-propeller-rudder interaction, vortexinduced vibration of risers, vortex-induced motions of deep-draft platforms, and floating offshore wind turbines are discussed. Typical techniques, including volume of fluid for sharp interface, dynamic overset grid, detached eddy simulation, and fluid-structure coupling, are reviewed along with their applications. Some novel techniques, such as high-efficiency Cartesian grid method and GPU acceleration technique, are discussed in the last part as the future perspective for further enhancement of accuracy and efficiency for CFD simulations of complex flow in ship and ocean engineering.

S. Pongduang1, C. Chungchoo1, P. Iamraksa2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2020(1): 17-27
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This study aims to investigate the nonlinear added mass moment of inertia and damping moment characteristics of largeamplitude ship roll motion based on transient motion data through the nonparametric system identification method. An inverse problem was formulated to solve the first-kind Volterra-type integral equation using sets of motion signal data. However, this numerical approach leads to solution instability due to noisy data. Regularization is a technique that can overcome the lack of stability; hence, Landweber’s regularization method was employed in this study. The L-curve criterion was used to select regularization parameters (number of iterations) that correspond to the accuracy of the inverse solution. The solution of this method is a discrete moment, which is the summation of nonlinear restoring, nonlinear damping, and nonlinear mass moment of inertia. A zero-crossing detection technique is used in the nonparametric system identification method on a pair of measured data of the angular velocity and angular acceleration of a ship, and the detections are matched with the inverse solution at the same discrete times. The procedure was demonstrated through a numerical model of a full nonlinear free-roll motion system in still water to examine and prove its accuracy. Results show that the method effectively and efficiently identified the functional form of the nonlinear added moment of inertia and damping moment.

S. E. Belhenniche1, O. Imine2, O. K. Kinaci3,4
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2020(1): 28-40
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Despite their high manufacturing cost and structural deficiencies especially in tip regions, highly skewed propellers are preferred in the marine industry, where underwater noise is a significant design criterion. However, hydrodynamic performances should also be considered before a decision to use these propellers is made. This study investigates the trade-off between hydrodynamic and hydroacoustic performances by comparing conventional and highly skewed Seiun Maru marine propellers for a noncavitating case. Many papers in the literature focus solely on hydroacoustic calculations for the open-water case. However, propulsive characteristics are significantly different when propeller-hull interactions take place. Changes in propulsion performance also reflect on the hydroacoustic performances of the propeller. In this study, propeller-hull interactions were considered to calculate the noise spectra. Rather than solving the full case, which is computationally demanding, an indirect approach was adopted; axial velocities from the nominal ship wake were introduced as the inlet condition of the numerical approach. A hybrid method based on the acoustic analogy was used in coupling computational fluid dynamics techniques with acoustic propagation methods, implementing the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation. The hydrodynamic performances of both propellers were presented as a preliminary study. Propeller-hull interactions were included in calculations after observing good accordance between our results, experiments, and quasi-continuous method for the open-water case. With the use of the time-dependent flow field data of the propeller behind a nonuniform ship wake as an input, simulation results were used to solve the FW-H equation to extract acoustic pressure and sound pressure levels for several hydrophones located in the near field. Noise spectra results confirm that the highest values of the sound pressure levels are in the low-frequency range and the first harmonics calculated by the present method are in good accordance with the theoretical values. Results also show that a highly skewed propeller generates less noise even in noncavitating cases despite a small reduction in hydrodynamic efficiency.

Utku Cem Karabulut1, Yavuz Hakan ?zdemir2, Bar?? Barlas3
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2020(1): 41-52
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This study presents a simple numerical method that can be used to evaluate the hydrodynamic performances of antifouling paints. Steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations were solved through a finite volume technique, whereas roughness was modeled with experimentally determined roughness functions. First, the methodology was validated with previous experimental studies with a flat plate. Second, flow around the Kriso Container Ship was examined. Lastly, full-scale results were predicted using Granville’s similarity law. Results indicated that roughness has a similar effect on the viscous pressure resistance and frictional resistance around a Reynolds number of 107. Moreover, the increase in frictional resistance due to roughness was calculated to be approximately 3%-5% at the ship scale depending on the paint.

Yunsai Chen1,2, Liang Ma3, Wenyang Duan1, Peng Liu4
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2020(1): 53-63
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The launching and recovery process of a human-occupied vehicle (HOV) faces more complex wave effects than other types of submersible operations. However, due to the nonlinearity between the HOVand its mother ship, difficulties occur in theoretically simulating their coupled motion and hydrodynamics. The coupled motion responses and the load under different regular wave conditions are investigated experimentally in this study. The optimized design of the experimental scheme simulated the launching and recovery process of the mother ship and HOV in regular waves. The attitude sensor performed synchronous real-time measurement of the coupled motion between the mother ship and HOVas well as obtained the load data on the coupled motion under different cable lengths. The results show that models in heading waves mainly lead to the vertical motion of the hoisting point. In beam waves, the transverse and vertical motions of the hoisting point occur in a certain frequency of waves. Under the heading and beam wave conditions, the longer the hoisting cable is, the greater the movement amplitude of the submersible is. Moreover, compared with the condition of the beam waves, the hoisting submersible has less influence on the mother ship under the condition of the heading waves. The findings provide theoretical support for the design optimization of the launching and recovery operation.

Farideh Shahbazi1, Mahmood Mahmoodi1, Reza Ghasemi2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2020(1): 64-71
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The purpose of this study is to design a fractional-order super-twisting sliding-mode controller for a class of nonlinear fractionalorder systems. The proposed method has the following advantages:(1) Lyapunov stability of the overall closed-loop system, (2) output tracking error’s convergence to zero, (3) robustness against external uncertainties and disturbances, and (4) reduction of the chattering phenomenon. To investigate the performance of the method, the proposed controller is applied to an autonomous underwater robot and Lorenz chaotic system. Finally, a simulation is performed to verify the potential of the proposed method.

Oleksandr Cherednichenko, Vira Mitienkova
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2020(1): 72-82
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Enlarging the fleet of gas carriers would make it possible to respond to the growing demand for hydrocarbon gases, but it will increase carbon dioxide emissions. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has developed the energy efficiency design index (EEDI) with the objective of carbon emission reduction for new ships. In this paper, thirty gas carriers transporting liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and equipped with various types of main engines are considered. As shown by the calculation of the attained EEDI, 2 of the 13 LPG carriers and 6 of the 17 LNG carriers under study do not comply with the EEDI requirements. To meet the stringent EEDI requirements, applying thermochemical regenerators (TCRs) fed by main engine exhaust gases is suggested. Mathematical modeling is applied to analyze the characteristics of the combined gas-turbine-electric and diesel-electric power plant with thermochemical recuperation of the exhaust gas heat. Utilizing TCR on gas carriers with engines fueled by syngas produced from boil-off gas (BOG) reduces the carbon content by 35% and provides the energy efficiency required by IMO without the use of other technologies.

Rajae Gaamouche1, Abdelbari Redouane2, Imad El harraki2, Bouchra Belhorma3, Abdennebi El Hasnaoui2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2020(1): 83-95
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This paper presents a contribution related to the control of nonlinear variable-speed marine current turbine (MCT) without pitch operating below the rated marine current speed. Given that the operation of the MCT can be divided into several operating zones on the basis of the marine current speed, the system control objectives are different for each zone. To deal with this issue, we develop a new control approach based on a linear quadratic regulator with variable generator torque. Our proposed approach enables the optimization of the rotational speed of the turbine, which maximizes the power extracted by the MCT and minimizes the transient loads on the drivetrain. The novelty of our study is the use of a real profile of marine current speed from the northern coasts of Morocco. The simulation results obtained using MATLAB Simulink indicate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control approach on the electrical and mechanical parameters with the variations of marine current speed.

Yueyang Wang1, Jian Zhang1, Wenxian Tang1,2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2020(1): 96-100
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This study aims to experimentally and numerically examine the buckling performances of stainless steel spherical caps under uniform external pressure. Three laboratory-scale caps were fabricated, measured, and tested. The buckling behaviors of these caps were investigated through experiments and three numerical methods, namely, nonlinear Riks algorithm, nonlinear bifurcation, and linear elastic analysis. The buckling of equal-radius caps was numerically analyzed with different methods to identify their applicability under different wall thicknesses. The results obtained from the nonlinear Riks algorithm are in good agreement with the experimental results, which means the nonlinear Riks algorithm can accurately predict the buckling performances of spherical caps, including the magnitude of critical buckling loads and the deformation of post-buckling modes. The nonlinear bifurcation algorithm is only suitable for predicting the buckling loads of ultra-thin or large-span caps, and the linear buckling method is inappropriate for predicting the buckling of metal spherical caps.

Amir H. Nikseresht1,2, Harry B. Bingham1
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2020(1): 101-115
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The installation of plunger-type wave makers in experimental tanks will generally include a gap between the back of the wedge and the wall of the tank. In this study, we analyze the influence of this gap on the wave making performance of the plunger using two-dimensional (2D) CFD calculations for a range of nearly linear wave conditions and compare the results with both experimental measurements and linear potential flow theory. Three wedge-shaped profiles, all with the same submerged volume, are considered. Moreover, the generated waves are compared with the predictions of linear potential flow theory. The calculations are made using the commercial ANSYS FLUENT finite-volume code with dynamic meshes to solve the Navier-Stokes equations and the volume of fluid scheme to capture the air-water interface. Furthermore, the linear potential flow solution of Wu (J Hydraul Res 26:481-493, 1988) is extended to consider an arbitrary profile and serve as a reference solution. The amplitude ratios of the generated waves predicted by the CFD calculations compare well with the predictions of linear potential flow theory for a simple wedge, indicating that viscous effects do not influence this ratio for small-amplitude motions in 2D. By contrast, significant higher harmonic components are produced by larger amplitude motions. Also, the simple wedge is found to produce the smallest spurious higher harmonic content in the far-field wave.

Liping Zhu1,2, Tiejun Yang1, Xinhui Li1, Lihong Pang3, Minggang Zhu1
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2020(1): 116-126
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The vibration and noise produced by the powertrain and waves inside ship cabins limit working efficiency and crew and passengers’ accommodation quality. This paper simplifies ship cabins as cavities and explores active control techniques to attenuate sound transmission via multiple parallel-supported flexible subplates. The theoretical formulations of the interaction between multiple subplates and cavities were performed and the coupling relationships between them were analyzed. Based on the multiple subplates and the cavity coupling models, numerical simulations were performed using the derived optimal controller to minimize the transmission of sound into the cavities through two and nine parallel-supported subplates. The various control strategies were explored to minimize the coupling system’s acoustic potential energy, and the control performances were compared and discussed. The mechanism of reducing sound transmission through multiple supported subplates into a cavity is revealed. The simulation results showed that the vibration pattern of the controlled subplate is changed after it is regulated, which increases its radiation to subdue the other subplates’ radiation, while increasing vibration of the controlled subplate. The more subplates a cavity has, the more kinetic energy the controlled subplate possess. Furthermore, the noise reduction performance of a cavity with fewer subplates is better than that with more subplates.

Karan Sotoodeh
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2020(1): 127-132
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Modern processing plants use a variety of control loop networks to deliver a finished product to the market. Such control loops, like control valves, are designed to keep process variables such as pressure, temperature, speed, flow, etc. within the appropriate operating range and to ensure a quality product is produced. All control valves have a bypass so that production can proceed if maintenance is needed for the control valve as part of the control loop. The important point is that in both operation and maintenance situations, the bypass valve and the control valve should have approximately the same flow capacity to provide nearly the same amount of pressure. This paper presents a case study in seawater service on the selection of manual bypass valves for a 16″ control valve in class 150 and titanium material. A 16″ butterfly valve of class 150 was chosen for the control valve bypass, which provided a much higher flow capacity than the control valve. In this paper, four solutions are recommended to achieve the same coefficient value (Cv) for the control and bypass valve. Using the reduced size butterfly valve could be the cheapest and best solution. On the other hand, selecting the same control valve for bypass line is the most expensive but maybe the most reliable solution. Using a flow orifice for throttling could be ranked as the second expensive option and the second reliable one. Selection of butterfly valve for throttling is the second cheapest option, but it has the least reliability. Different parameters such as space and weight saving, cost as well as reliability have been considered in evaluation of different solutions.

Jo?o Pedro Santana1, Nuno Mathias1, Richelle Hoveling2, Hugo Alves1, Tiago Morais1
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2020(1): 133-147
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The colonization of underwater environments by exotic seaweeds is causing major ecological problems around the world. This project, referred to AMALIA, aims to transform this current ocean threat into an opportunity by adding value to the macroalgae present off the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula. To do so and to observe the presence of seaweeds in situ, an ocean modular submersible platform was developed. This platform was designed to be capable of detecting and surveying surges of invasive seaweeds while withstanding sea conditions. Conceptual designs followed by a screening process were performed, taking into consideration criteria such as operational range and modularity. An open-frame lander was considered and further developed using buckling criteria. In parallel, a state-of-the-art monitoring system was created using spectral imaging, allowing for the future creation of a macroalgae identification system. In addition, sensorial systems for characterizing growth conditions were introduced. Laboratory trials were executed to assess the capability of the system, and sea trials are currently being performed. Numerical simulations and laboratory trials indicate that the structure is fully capable of being deployed for shallow-water environments with a state-of-the-art invasive seaweed monitoring system while maintaining a high degree of modularity.

Jiao Zhang, Yaan Li, Wasiq Ali, Lian Liu
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2020(1): 148-154
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To detect weak underwater acoustic signals radiated by submarines and other underwater equipment, an effective line spectrum enhancement algorithm based on Kalman filter and FFT processing is proposed. The proposed algorithm first determines the frequency components of the weak underwater signal and then filters the signal to enhance the line spectrum, thereby improving the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This paper discussed two cases:one is a simulated signal consisting of a dual-frequency sinusoidal periodic signal and Gaussian white noise, and the signal is received after passing through a Rayleigh fading channel; the other is a ship signal recorded from the South China Sea. The results show that the line spectrum of the underwater acoustic signal could be effectively enhanced in both cases, and the filtered waveform is smoother. The analysis of simulated signals and ship signal reflects the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.