Journal of Marine Science and Application 2017 no. 4
Carlos Guedes Soares, Wenyang Duan
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017(No. 4): 374-374
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All structures at sea are in contact with the water and thus the knowledge of the interaction effects between the fluid and the structure is essential. Depending on the characteristics of the structure, of the fluid and of the relative motion, different mechanisms may be in place and thus different mathematical models may be required for the computation of its interaction.
For structures at rest, hydrostatic forces are generated in the fluid and are responsible for the equilibrium position of the floaters. Pressures and forces associated with the passage of waves lead to the wave induced motions and loads typically at the wave frequency. However forces associated with violent motions and accelerations will generally induce vibrations in the structure and in turn these structural responses may be coupled with the fluid loading, leading to the so-called hydroelastic behaviour.
The designation of fluid structure interaction, although formally covering all types of responses indicated, is more concerned with the last group of responses and many of the papers included in this special issue deal with various methods of handling this type of problems, which very often require detailed numerical methods that are able to represent the complex problems being studied.

Hrvoje Jasak, Inno Gatin, Vuko Vukcevic
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017(No. 4): 375-381
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In Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) problems encountered in marine hydrodynamics, the pressure field and the velocity of the rigid body are tightly coupled. This coupling is traditionally resolved in a partitioned manner by solving the rigid body motion equations once per nonlinear correction loop, updating the position of the body and solving the fluid flow equations in the new configuration. The partitioned approach requires a large number of nonlinear iteration loops per time-step. In order to enhance the coupling, a monolithic approach is proposed in Finite Volume (FV) framework, where the pressure equation and the rigid body motion equations are solved in a single linear system. The coupling is resolved by solving the rigid body motion equations once per linear solver iteration of the pressure equation, where updated pressure field is used to calculate new forces acting on the body, and by introducing the updated rigid body boundary velocity in to the pressure equation. In this paper the monolithic coupling is validated on a simple 2D heave decay case. Additionally, the method is compared to the traditional partitioned approach (i.e. "strongly coupled" approach) in terms of computational efficiency and accuracy. The comparison is performed on a seakeeping case in regular head waves, and it shows that the monolithic approach achieves similar accuracy with fewer nonlinear correctors per time-step. Hence, significant savings in computational time can be achieved while retaining the same level of accuracy.

Chengping Rao, Youlin Zhang, Decheng Wan
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017(No. 4): 395-404
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Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) caused by fluid impacting onto a flexible structure commonly occurs in naval architecture and ocean engineering. Research on the problem of wave-structure interaction is important to ensure the safety of offshore structures. This paper presents the Moving Particle Semi-implicit and Finite Element Coupled Method (MPS-FEM) to simulate FSI problems. The Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method is used to calculate the fluid domain, while the Finite Element Method (FEM) is used to address the structure domain. The scheme for the coupling of MPS and FEM is introduced first. Then, numerical validation and convergent study are performed to verify the accuracy of the solver for solitary wave generation and FSI problems. The interaction between the solitary wave and an elastic structure is investigated by using the MPS-FEM coupled method.

Shan Wang, C. Guedes Soares
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017(No. 4): 405-416
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A hydroelastic analysis of a rectangular plate subjected to slamming loads is presented. An analytical model based on Wagner theory is used for calculations of transient slamming load on the ship plate. A thin isotropic plate theory is considered for determining the vibration of a rectangular plate excited by an external slamming force. The forced vibration of the plate is calculated by the modal expansion method. Analytical results of the transient response of a rectangular plate induced by slamming loads are compared with numerical calculations from finite element method. The theoretical slamming pressure based on Wagner model is applied on the finite element model of a plate. Good agreement is obtained between the analytical and numerical results for the structural deflection of a rectangular plate due to slamming pressure. The effects of plate dimension and wave profile on the structural vibration are discussed as well. The results show that a low impact velocity and a small wetted radial length of wave yield negligible effects of hydroelasticity.

Jung-Hyun Kim, Yonghwan Kim
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017(No. 4): 417-426
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In this paper, we present the results of our numerical seakeeping analyses of a 6750-TEU containership, which were subjected to the benchmark test of the 2nd ITTC-ISSC Joint Workshop held in 2014. We performed the seakeeping analyses using three different methods based on a 3D Rankine panel method, including 1) a rigid-body solver, 2) a flexible-body solver using a beam model, and 3) a flexible-body solver using the eigenvectors of a 3D Finite Element Model (FEM). The flexible-body solvers adopt a fully coupled approach between the fluid and structure. We consider the nonlinear Froude-Krylov and restoring forces using a weakly nonlinear approach. In addition, we calculate the slamming loads on the bow flare and stern using a 2D generalized Wagner model. We compare the numerical and experimental results in terms of the linear response, the time series of the nonlinear response, and the longitudinal distribution of the sagging and hogging moments. The flexible-body solvers show good agreement with the experimental model with respect to both the linear and nonlinear results, including the high-frequency oscillations due to springing and whipping vibrations. The rigid-body solver gives similar results except for the springing and whipping.

Shan Wang, C. Guedes Soares
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017(No. 4): 427-445
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The paper presents an overview of studies of slamming on ship structures. This work focuses on the hull slamming, which is one of the most important types of slamming problems to be considered in the ship design process and the assessment of the ship safety. There are three main research aspects related to the hull slamming phenomenon, a) where and how often a slamming event occurs, b) slamming load prediction and c) structural response due to slamming loads. The approaches used in each aspect are reviewed and commented, together with the presentation of some typical results. The methodology, which combines the seakeeping analysis and slamming load prediction, is discussed for the global analysis of the hull slamming of a ship in waves. Some physical phenomena during the slamming event are discussed also. Recommendations for the future research and developments are made.

Chenfang Yu1,2, Zhiqiang Hu3, Shisheng Wang4
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017(No. 4): 446-457
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Heave plates can be employed to control undesirable heave motion amplitudes of the deepwater octagonal Floating, Drilling, Production, Storage, and Offloading (FDPSO) platform. Numerical simulations and model tests were applied to analyze and investigate the hydrodynamic response and the feasibility of the heave plate configurations. The diameter and the depth below the free surface of a single-layer heave plate, as well as the spacing of two-layer heave plates, were considered as the primary variables when studying the effect of heave plates on FDPSO hydrodynamics. The analysis results indicate that the heave plate diameter significantly affects the heave hydrodynamics, and heave performance could be improved with an increased diameter. In addition, increasing the depth below the free surface of a single-layer heave plate does not effectively suppress the heave motion within the range of draft depths tested. The target FDPSO obtained better heave characteristics with increased spacing between the two-layer heave plates. Furthermore, the global performances of the octagonal FDPSO with these typical heave plate configurations were comparatively analyzed. The results indicate that from a hydrodynamic point of view, the single-layer heave plate configuration has an advantage over the two-layer heave plate configuration.

Nabanita Datta
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017(No. 4): 458-464
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This paper studies the application of mathematical models to analyze the vortex-induced vibrations of the tendons of a given TLP along the Indian coastline, by using an analytical approach, using MATLAB. The tendon is subjected to a steady current load, which causes vortex-shedding downstream, leading to cross-flow vibrations. The magnitude of the excitation (lift and drag coefficients) depends on the vortex-shedding frequency. The resulting vibration is studied for possible resonant behavior. The excitation force is quantified empirically, the added mass by potential flow hydrodynamics, and the vibration by normal mode summation method. Non-linear viscous damping of the water is considered. The non-linear oscillations are studied by the phase-plane method, investigating the limit-cycle oscillations. The stable/unstable regions of the dynamic behavior are demarcated. The modal contribution to the total deflection is studied to establish the possibility of resonance of one of the wet modes with the vortex-shedding frequency.

Guilherme Rosa Franzini, Rebeca Caramêz Saraiva Santos, Celso Pupo Pesce
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017(No. 4): 465-472
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This paper aims to numerically investigate the effects of parametric instability on piezoelectric energy harvesting from the transverse galloping of a square prism. A two degrees-of-freedom reduced-order model for this problem is proposed and numerically integrated. A usual quasi-steady galloping model is applied, where the transverse force coefficient is adopted as a cubic polynomial function with respect to the angle of attack. Time-histories of nondimensional prism displacement, electric voltage and power dissipated at both the dashpot and the electrical resistance are obtained as functions of the reduced velocity. Both, oscillation amplitude and electric voltage, increased with the reduced velocity for all parametric excitation conditions tested. For low values of reduced velocity, 2:1 parametric excitation enhances the electric voltage. On the other hand, for higher reduced velocities, a 1:1 parametric excitation (i.e., the same as the natural frequency) enhances both oscillation amplitude and electric voltage. It has been also found that, depending on the parametric excitation frequency, the harvested electrical power can be amplified in 70% when compared to the case under no parametric excitation.

Bowen Fu, Lu Zou, Decheng Wan
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017(No. 4): 473-479
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In this paper, numerical simulations of vortex-induced vibrations in a vertical top-tension riser with a length-to-diameter ratio of 500 using our in-house code viv-FOAM-SJTU are presented. The time-dependent hydrodynamic forces on two-dimensional strips are obtained by solving the Navier-Stokes equations, which are, in turn, integrated into a finite-element structural model to obtain the riser deflections. The riser is discretized into 80 elements with its two ends set as pinned and 20 strips are located equidistant along the risers. Flow and structure are coupled by hydrodynamic forces and structural displacements. In order to study the effects of the shear rate, of the current profiles on the vortex-induced vibrations in the riser, vibrations, with varying shear rates, in both the in-line and cross-flow directions, are simulated. In addition to the time domain analysis, spectral analysis was conducted in both the temporal and spatial domains. Multi-mode vibration characteristics were observed in the riser. The relationship between dominant vibration mode number and the shear rate of current profiles is discussed. In general, the overall vibrations in the riser pipe include contributions from several modes and each mode persists over a range of shear rates. Moreover, the results suggest that with a larger shear rate the position of the maximum in-line time-averaged displacement will move closer to the end where the largest velocity is located.

Jørgen Dokken, John Grue, Lars Petter Karstensen
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017(No. 4): 480-489
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The wave diffraction-radiation problem of a porous geometry of arbitrary shape located in the free surface of a fluid is formulated by a set of integral equations,assuming a linear resistance law at the geometry. The linear forces, the energy relation and the mean horizontal drift force are evaluated for non-porous and porous geometries. A geometry of large porosity has an almost vanishing added mass. The exciting forces are a factor of 5-20 smaller compared to a solid geometry. In the long wave regime, the porous geometry significantly enhances both the damping and the mean drift force, where the latter grows linearly with the wavenumber. The calculated mean drift force on a porous hemisphere and a vertical truncated cylinder, relevant to the construction of fish cages, is compared to available published results.

Santanu Koley1, Trilochan Sahoo2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017(No. 4): 490-501
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The effectiveness of a vertical partial flexible porous membrane wave barrier located near a rigid vertical impermeable seawall for trapping obliquely incident surface gravity waves are analyzed in water of uniform depth under the assumption of linear water wave theory and small amplitude membrane barrier response. From the general formulation of the submerged membrane barrier, results for bottom-standing and surface-piercing barriers are computed and analyzed in special cases. Using the eigenfunction expansion method, the boundary-value problems are converted into series relations and then the required unknowns are obtained using the least squares approximation method. Various physical quantities of interests like reflection coefficient, wave energy dissipation, wave forces acting on the membrane barrier and the seawall are computed and analyzed for different values of the wave and structural parameters. The study will be useful in the design of the membrane wave barrier for the creation of tranquility zone in the lee side of the barrier to protect the seawall.