Journal of Marine Science and Application 2013 no. 2
Mingcai Xu, Y. Garbatov and C. Guedes Soares
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 2): 127-139
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A geometrically similar scaling was made from small-scale specimen to full-scale stiffened panels and then their collapse behaviour is investigated. It is considered that the stiffened panel compressive ultimate strength test was designed according to geometrical scaling laws so that the output of the test could be used as representative of the stiffened panels of the compressive zone of a tanker hull subjected to vertical bending moment. The ultimate strength of a tanker hull is analysed by a FE analysis using the experimentally developed master stress-strain curves which are obtained by the beam tension test and the compressive test of the stiffened panel, and are then compared with the result achieved by the progressive collapse method.

Dimitris Konovessis, Wenkui Cai and Dracos Vassalos
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 2): 140-151
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In the past fifteen years, the attention of ship safety treatment as an objective rather than a constraint has started to sweep through the whole maritime industry. The risk-based ship design (RBD) methodology, advocating systematic integration of risk assessment within the conventional design process has started to takeoff. Despite this wide recognition and increasing popularity, important factors that could potentially undermine the quality of the results come from both quantitative and qualitative aspects during the risk assessment process. This paper details a promising solution by developing a formalized methodology for risk assessment through effective storing and processing of historical data combined with data generated through first-principle approaches. This method should help to generate appropriate risk models in the selected platform (Bayesian networks) which can be employed for decision making at design stage.

Yang Liu, Mei Meng, Shuang Liu
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 2): 152-162
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The research study proposes to examine a three-dimensional visualization program, emphasizing on improving genetic algorithms through the optimization of a layout design-based standard and discrete shipbuilding workshop. By utilizing a steel processing workshop as an example, the principle of minimum logistic costs will be implemented to obtain an ideological equipment layout, and a mathematical model. The objectiveness is to minimize the total necessary distance traveled between machines. An improved control operator is implemented to improve the iterative efficiency of the genetic algorithm, and yield relevant parameters. The Computer Aided Tri-Dimensional Interface Application (CATIA) software is applied to establish the manufacturing resource base and parametric model of the steel processing workshop. Based on the results of optimized planar logistics, a visual parametric model of the steel processing workshop is constructed, and qualitative and quantitative adjustments then are applied to the model. The method for evaluating the results of the layout is subsequently established through the utilization of AHP. In order to provide a mode of reference to the optimization and layout of the digitalized production workshop, the optimized discrete production workshop will possess a certain level of practical significance.

Kangping Liao, Changhong Hu and Wenyang Duan
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 2): 163-169
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Hydroelastic behavior of an elastic wedge impacting on calm water surface was investigated. A partitioned approach by coupling finite difference method (FDM) and finite element method (FEM) was developed to analyze the fluid structure interaction (FSI) problem. The FDM, in which the Constraint Interpolation Profile (CIP) method was applied, was used for solving the flow field in a fixed regular Cartesian grid system. Free surface was captured by the Tangent of Hyperbola for Interface Capturing with Slope Weighting (THINC/SW) scheme. The FEM was applied for calculating the structural deformation. A volume weighted method, which was based on the immersed boundary (IB) method, was adopted for coupling the FDM and the FEM together. An elastic wedge water entry problem was calculated by the coupled FDM-FEM method. Also a comparison between the current numerical results and the published results indicate that the coupled FDM-FEM method has reasonably good accuracy in predicting the impact force.

Hassan Zakerdoost, Hassan Ghassemi and Mahmoud Ghiasi
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 2): 170-179
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This study presents a numerical method for optimizing hull form in calm water with respect to total drag which contains a viscous drag and a wave drag. The ITTC 1957 model-ship correlation line was used to predict frictional drag and the corrected linearized thin-ship theory was employed to estimate the wave drag. The evolution strategy (ES) which is a member of the evolutionary algorithms (EAs) family obtains an optimum hull form by considering some design constraints. Standard Wigley hull is considered as an initial hull in optimization procedures for two test cases and new hull forms were achieved at Froude numbers 0.24, 0.316 and 0.408. In one case the ES technique was ran for the initial hull form, where the main dimensions were fixed and the only variables were the hull offsets. In the other case in addition to hull offsets, the main dimensions were considered as variables that are optimized simultaneously. The numerical results of optimization procedure demonstrate that the optimized hull forms yield a reduction in total drag.

Yanhui Ai , Dakui Feng , Hengkui Ye and Lin Li
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 2): 180-184
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In this paper, 2-D computational analyses were conducted for unsteady high Reynolds number flows around a smooth circular cylinder in the supercritical and upper-transition flow regimes, i.e. 8.21×104 < Re<1.54×106. The calculations were performed by means of solving the 2-D Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations with a turbulence model. The calculated results, produced flow structure drag and lift coefficients, as well as Strouhal numbers. The findings were in good agreement with previous published data, which also supplied us with a good understanding of the flow across cylinders of different high Reynolds numbers. Meanwhile, an effective measure was presented to control the lift force on a cylinder, which points the way to decrease the vortex induced vibration of marine structure in future.

Qihu Sheng, Syed Shah Khalid, Zhimin Xiong, Ghazala Sahib and Liang Zhang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 2): 185-192
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In this paper, hydrodynamic analysis of vertical axis tidal turbine (both fixed pitch & variable pitch) is numerically analyzed. Two-dimensional numerical modeling & simulation of the unsteady flow through the blades of the turbine is performed using ANSYS CFX, hereafter CFX, which is based on a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model. A transient simulation is done for fixed pitch and variable pitch vertical axis tidal turbine using a Shear Stress Transport turbulence (SST) scheme. Main hydrodynamic parameters like torque T, combined moment CM, coefficients of performance CP and coefficient of torque CT, etc. are investigated. The modeling and meshing of turbine rotor is performed in ICEM-CFD. Moreover, the difference in meshing schemes between fixed pitch and variable pitch is also mentioned. Mesh motion option is employed for variable pitch turbine. This article is one part of the ongoing research on turbine design and developments. The numerical simulation results are validated with well reputed analytical results performed by Edinburgh Design Ltd. The article concludes with a parametric study of turbine performance, comparison between fixed and variable pitch operation for a four-bladed turbine. It is found that for variable pitch we get maximum CP and peak power at smaller revolution per minute N and tip sped ratio λ.

M. Kianian, A.A. Golafshani and E. Ghodrati
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 2): 193-199
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The development of damage detection techniques for offshore jacket structures is vital to prevent catastrophic events. This paper applies a frequency response based method for the purpose of structural health monitoring. In efforts to fulfill this task, concept of the minimum rank perturbation theory has been utilized. The present article introduces a promising methodology to select frequency points effectively. To achieve this goal, modal strain energy ratio of each member was evaluated at different natural frequencies of structure in order to identify the sensitive frequency domain for damage detection. The proposed methodology opens up the possibility of much greater detection efficiency. In addition, the performance of the proposed method was evaluated in relation to multiple damages. The aforementioned points are illustrated using the numerical study of a two dimensional jacket platform, and the results proved to be satisfactory utilizing the proposed methodology.

Xin’gang Zhou Kefei Li
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 2): 200-207
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In order to study the influence of parameters on durability of marine concrete structures, the parameter’s sensitivity analysis was studied in this paper. With the Fick’s 2nd law of diffusion and the deterministic sensitivity analysis method (DSA), the sensitivity factors of apparent surface chloride content, apparent chloride diffusion coefficient and its time dependent attenuation factor were analyzed. The results of the analysis show that the impact of design variables on concrete durability was different. The values of sensitivity factor of chloride diffusion coefficient and its time dependent attenuation factor were higher than others. Relative less error in chloride diffusion coefficient and its time dependent attenuation coefficient induces a bigger error in concrete durability design and life prediction. According to probability sensitivity analysis (PSA), the influence of mean value and variance of concrete durability design variables on the durability failure probability was studied. The results of the study provide quantitative measures of the importance of concrete durability design and life prediction variables. It was concluded that the chloride diffusion coefficient and its time dependent attenuation factor have more influence on the reliability of marine concrete structural durability. In durability design and life prediction of marine concrete structures, it was very important to reduce the measure and statistic error of durability design variables.

Antar M.M. Abdala, Qun Zheng, Fifi N.M. Elwekeel and Ping Dong
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 2): 208-218
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In the present work, computational simulations was made using ANSYS CFX to predict the improvements in film cooling performance with dual trench. Dual-trench configuration consists of two trenches together, one wider trench and the other is narrow trench that extruded from the wider one. Several blowing ratios in the range (0.5:5) were investigated. The pitch-to-diameter ratio of 2.775 is used. By using the dual trench configuration, the coolant jet impacted the trench wall two times allowing increasing the spreading of coolant laterally in the trench, reducing jet velocity and jet completely covered on the surface. The results indicate that this configuration increased adiabatic effectiveness as blowing ratio increased. The spatially averaged adiabatic effectiveness reached 57.6% for at M= 2. No observed film blow-off at all blowing ratios. The adiabatic film effectiveness of dual trench case outperformed the narrow trench case, laidback fan-shaped hole, fan-shaped hole and cylinder hole at different blowing ratios.

M.Morsy El-Gohary
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 2): 219-227
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In efforts to overcome an foreseeable energy crisis predicated on limited oil and gas supplies, reserves; economic variations facing the world, and of course the environmental side effects of fossil fuels, an urgent need for energy sources that provide sustainable, safe and economic supplies for the world is imperative. The current fossil fuel energy system must be improved to ensure a better and cleaner transportation future for the world. Despite the fact that the marine transportation sector consumes only 5% of global petroleum production; it is responsible for 15% of the world NOx and SOx emissions. These figures must be the engine that powers the scientific research worldwide to develop new solutions for a very old energy problem. In this paper, the most effective types of marine power plants were discussed. The history of the development of each type was presented first and the technical aspects were discussed second. Also, the fuel cells as a new type of power plants used in marine sector were briefed to give a complete overview of the past, present and future of the marine power plants development. Based on the increased worldwide concerns regarding harmful emissions, many researchers have introduced solutions to this problem, including the adoption of new cleaner fuels. This paper was guided using the same trend and by implementing the hydrogen as fuel for marine internal combustion engine, gas turbines, and fuel cells.

F.Y. Wu, Y.H. Zhou, F. Tong and R. Kastner
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 2): 228-234
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Underwater acoustic channels are recognized for being one of the most difficult propagation media due to considerable difficulties such as: multipath, ambient noise, time-frequency selective fading. The exploitation of sparsity contained in underwater acoustic channels provides a potential solution to improve the performance of underwater acoustic channel estimation. Compared with the classic l0 and l1 norm constraint LMS algorithms, the p-norm-like (lp) constraint LMS algorithm proposed in our previous investigation exhibits better sparsity exploitation performance at the presence of channel variations, as it enables the adaptability to the sparseness by tuning of p parameter. However, the decimal exponential calculation associated with the p-norm-like constraint LMS algorithm poses considerable limitations in practical application. In this paper, a simplified variant of the p-norm-like constraint LMS was proposed with the employment of Newton iteration method to approximate the decimal exponential calculation. Numerical simulations and the experimental results obtained in physical shallow water channels demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method compared to traditional norm constraint LMS algorithms.

Xiukun Li and Zhi Xia
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 2): 235-239
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The critical technical problem of underwater bottom object detection is founding a stable feature space for echo signals classification. The past literatures more focus on the characteristics of object echoes in feature space and reverberation is only treated as interference. In this paper, reverberation is considered as a kind of signal with steady characteristic, and the clustering of reverberation in frequency discrete wavelet transform (FDWT) feature space is studied. In order to extract the identifying information of echo signals, feature compression and cluster analysis are adopted in this paper, and the criterion of separability between object echoes and reverberation is given. The experimental data processing results show that reverberation has steady pattern in FDWT feature space which differs from that of object echoes. It is proven that there is separability between reverberation and object echoes.

Zhifei Chen, Hong Hou, Jianhua Yang, Jincai Sun and Qian Wang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 2): 240-244
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The double pulse sources method (DPS) is presented for linear track estimation in this work. In the field of noise identification of underwater moving target, the Doppler will distort the frequency and amplitude of the radiated noise. To eliminate this, the track estimation is necessary. In the DPS method, the bearings of two sinusoidal pulse sources installed in the moving target are estimated through baseline positioning method in the first step. Meanwhile, the emitted and recorded time of each pulse are also acquired. Then the linear track parameters will be achieved based on the geometry pattern with the help of double sources spacing. The simulated results confirm that the DPS improves the performance of the previously presented double source spacing method. The simulated experiments were carried out using a moving battery car to further evaluate its performance. When the target is 40~60m away, the experiment results show that biases of track azimuth and abeam distance of DPS are under 0.6o and 3.4m, respectively. And the average deviation of estimated velocity is around 0.25m/s.

Jie Gao, Zhenjiang Yu, Xiaohui Zhang, Dan Zhao, Fangbo Zhao
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2013(No. 2): 245-249
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The objective of this research was to examine if certain strains of Bacillus bacteria, could survive in dry powder products and if so, could the bacteria degrade organic contaminants in saline wastewater on a ship. As part of the study, we isolated 7 domesticated strains named NY1, NY2,…, and NY7, the strain NY6 showed to have the best performance for organic matter degradation and could survive in dry powder more than 3 months. NY6 was identified as Bacillus aerius, based on the morphological and physic-chemical properties. Its optimal growth conditions were as follows: salinity was 2%; temperature was 37℃; pH was in 6.5-7.0; best ratio of C: N: P was 100:5:1. The capability of its dry powder for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal was 800mg COD/g in synthesized marine wastewater with 2% salinity. The spores in the dry powder were 1.972×108 g -1.