Journal of Marine Science and Application 2011 no. 3
William C. Webster, Wenyang Duan and Binbin Zhao
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 3): 253-258
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In this work, Green-Naghdi (GN) equations with general weight functions were derived in a simple way. A wave-absorbing beach was also considered in the general GN equations. A numerical solution for a level higher than 4 was not feasible in the past with the original GN equations. The GN equations for shallow water waves were simplified here, which make the application of high level (higher than 4) equations feasible. The linear dispersion relationships of the first seven levels were presented. The accuracy of dispersion relationships increased as the level increased. Level 7 GN equations are capable of simulating waves out to wave number times depth . Numerical simulation of nonlinear water waves was performed by use of Level 5 and 7 GN equations, which will be presented in the next paper.

Hongde Qin, Jing Shen and Xiaobo Chen
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 3): 259-264
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The free-surface Green function method is widely used in solving the radiation or diffraction problems caused by a ship or ocean structure oscillating on the waves. In the context of inviscid potential flow, hydrodynamic problems such as multi-body interaction and tank side wall effect cannot be properly dealt with based on the traditional free-surface frequency domain Green function method, in which the water viscosity is omitted and the energy dissipation effect is absent. In this paper, an open-sea Green function with viscous dissipation was presented within the theory of visco-potential flow. Then the tank Green function with a partial reflection from the side walls in wave tanks was formulated as a formal sum of open-sea Green functions representing the infinite images between two parallel side walls of the source in the tank. The new far-field characteristics of the tank Green function is vitally important for improving the validity of side-wall effects evaluation, which can be used in supervising the tank model tests.

Yongxue Wang, Xiaozhong Ren and Guoyu Wang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 3): 265-271
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A three dimensional numerical model of nonlinear wave action on a quasi-ellipse caisson in a time domain was developed in this paper. Navier-Stokes equations were solved by the finite difference method, and the volume of fluid (VOF) method was employed to trace the free surface. The partial cell method was used to deal with the irregular boundary typical of this type of problem during first-time wave interaction with the structure, and a satisfactory result was obtained. The numerical model was verified and used to investigate the effects of the relative wave height H/d, relative caisson width kD, and relative length-width ratio B/D on the wave forces of the quasi-ellipse caisson. It was shown that the relative wave height H/d has a significant effect on the wave forces of the caisson. Compared with the non-dimensional inline wave force, the relative length-width ratio B/D was shown to have significant influence on the non-dimensional transverse wave force.

Li Sun and Deyu Wang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 3): 272-280
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A new multi-level analysis method of introducing the super-element modeling method, derived from the multi-level analysis method first proposed by O. F. Hughes, has been proposed in this paper to solve the problem of high time cost in adopting a rational-based optimal design method for ship structural design. Furthermore, the method was verified by its effective application in optimization of the mid-ship section of a container ship. A full 3-D FEM model of a ship, suffering static and quasi-static loads, was used as the analyzing object for evaluating the structural performance of the mid-ship module, including static strength and buckling performance. Research results reveal that this new method could substantially reduce the computational cost of the rational-based optimization problem without decreasing its accuracy, which increases the feasibility and economic efficiency of using a rational-based optimal design method in ship structural design.

M. A. Lotfollahi Yaghin, A. Mojtahedi1,M. M. Ettefagh and M. H. Aminfar
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 3): 281-288
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A new approach that models lift and drag hydrodynamic force signals operating over cylindrical structures was developed and validated. This approach is based on stochastic auto regressive moving average with exogenous (ARMAX) input and its time-varying form, TARMAX. Model structure selection and parameter estimation were discussed while considering the validation stage. In this paper, the cylindrical structure was considered as a dynamic system with an incoming water wave and resulting forces as the input and outputs, respectively. The experimental data, used in this study, were collected from a full-scale rough vertical cylinder at the Delft Hydraulics Laboratory. The practicality of the proposed method and also its efficiency in structural modeling were demonstrated through applying two hydrodynamic force components. For this purpose, an ARMAX model is first used to capture the dynamics of the process, relating in-line forces provided by water waves; secondly, the TARMAX model was applied to modeling and analysis of the lift forces on the cylinder. The evaluation of the lift force by the TARMAX model shows the model is successful in modeling the force from the surface elevation.

Hassan Ghasseni and Parviz Ghadimi
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 3): 289-299
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A numerical analysis based on the boundary element method (BEM) was presented for the hydrodynamic performance of a high skew propeller (HSP) which is employed by an underwater vehicle (UV). Since UVs operate at two different working conditions (surface and submerged conditions), the design of such a propeller is a cumbersome task. This is primarily due to the fact that the resistance forces as well as the vessel efficiency under these conditions are significantly different. Therefore, some factors are necessary for the design of the optimum propeller to utilize the power at the mentioned conditions. The design objectives of the optimum propeller are to obtain the highest possible thrust, minimum torque, and efficiency. In the current study, a 5-bladed HSP was chosen for running the UV. This propeller operated at the stern of the UV hull where the inflow velocity to the propeller was non-uniform. Some parameters of the propeller were predicted based on the UV geometrical hull and operating conditions. The computed results include the pressure distribution and the hydrodynamic characteristics of the HSP in open water conditions, and comparison of these results with those of the experimental data indicates good agreement. The propeller efficiency for both submerged and surface conditions was found to be 67% and 64%, respectively, which compared to conventional propellers is a significantly higher efficiency.

Wei Zhang, Chao Wu, Wenshan Yang, Shanshan Xu and Shaofei Ren
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 3): 300-306
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Due to the unique structural mode and material property of a composite sandwich plate, related research such as fragment impact resistance of a composite mast is short of publication and urgent in this field. In this paper, the commonly accepted sandwich core board theory was modified. Damage caused by a fragment attack was simulated onto a sandwich plate model built with solid and shell elements. It was shown that shear failure and vast matrix cracking are the main reasons for outer coat damage, and tension failure and partial matrix cracking are the cause for inner coat damage. Additionally, according to complexities in actual sea battles, different work conditions of missile attacks were set. Ballistic limit values of different fragment sizes were also obtained, which provides references for enhancing the fragment impact resistance of a composite mast.

Binbin Li, Kun Liu, Gongwei Yan and Jinping Ou
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 3): 306-314
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The South China Sea contains tremendous oil and gas resources in deepwater areas. However, one of the keys for deepwater exploration, the investigation of deepwater floating platforms, is very inadequate. In this paper, the authors studied and compared the hydrodynamics and global motion behaviors of typical deepwater platforms in the South China Sea environment. The hydrodynamic models of three main types of floating platforms, e.g. the Semi-submersible, tension leg platform (TLP), and Truss Spar, which could potentially be utilized in the South China Sea, were established by using the 3-D potential theory. Additionally, some important considerations which significantly influence the hydrodynamics were given. The RAOs in frequency domains as well as global motions in time domains under time-varying wind, random waves, and current in 100-y, 10-y, and 1-y return period environment conditions were predicted, compared, and analyzed. The results indicate that the heave and especially the pitch motion of the TLP are favorable. The heave response of the Truss Spar is perfect and comparable with that of the TLP when the peak period of random waves is low. However, the pitch motion of Truss Spar is extraordinarily larger than that of Semi-submersible and TLP.

Liping Sun, Qiang He and Shangmao Ai
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 3): 315-320
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In order to improve the safety properties of an offloading system with side-by-side (SBS) mooring in which the FPSO is moored by a yoke system in the field of BZ25-1, it is necessary to analyze those properties. According to the experience of similar projects, tow strategies of different offloading arrangements were discussed by using the 3-D radiation/diffraction theory and quasi-static time domain method to assess their respective safety properties. Through the safety assessment analysis of different arrangement comparisons, various ways to improve the safety properties of offloading systems with side-by-side mooring were verified by analyzing the tension in the mooring lines and the fender deflection. Through comparison it can be concluded that by enlarging the key factors properly, including the size of the fenders and the hawsers as well as the number of hawsers, a better safety performance can be achieved.

Qinghua Bao and Heng Feng
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 3): 321-324
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This paper proposes the finite element simplified fatigue analysis method for fatigue evaluation of the composite non-tubular joint structure of an offshore jacket subjected to wave loads. The skirt pile sleeve of the offshore jacket, which had been in service, was taken as an example of the non-tubular joint structure. SACS software was used for global analysis of multi-directional wave loads for the jacket platform, and ALGOR software was used to build a finite element model, perform finite element analysis, post-process stress results for acquiring the stress range, and perform fatigue evaluation. The analysis results indicate that the extreme stress range is within the allowable stress range and meets the requirements of DNV code. That means the simplified fatigue analysis method is effective and can be used in fatigue design for the non-tubular joint structure of an offshore jacket.

Khac Duc Do
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 3): 325-332
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A constructive method was presented to design a global robust and adaptive output feedback controller for dynamic positioning of surface ships under environmental disturbances induced by waves, wind, and ocean currents. The ship’s parameters were not required to be known. An adaptive observer was first designed to estimate the ship’s velocities and parameters. The ship position measurements were also passed through the adaptive observer to reduce high frequency measurement noise from entering the control system. Using these estimate signals, the control was then designed based on Lyapunov’s direct method to force the ship’s position and orientation to globally asymptotically converge to desired values. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control system. In conclusion, the paper presented a new method to design an effective control system for dynamic positioning of surface ships.

Jian Cao, Yumin Su and Jinxin Zhao
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 3): 333-339
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Underwater vehicles operating in complex ocean conditions present difficulties in determining accurate dynamic models. To guarantee robustness against parameter uncertainty, an adaptive controller for dive-plane control, based on Lyapunov theory and back-stepping techniques, was proposed. In the closed-loop system, asymptotic tracking of the reference depth and pitch angle trajectories was accomplished. Simulation results were presented which show effective dive-plane control in spite of the uncertainties in the system parameters.

Miao Chen, Duanfeng Han and Haipeng Zhang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 3): 340-346
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In order to enhance the authenticity and accuracy of passenger evacuation simulation in ships, a new multi-grid model was proposed on the basis of a traditional cellular automata model. In the new model finer lattices were used, interaction of force among pedestrians or between pedestrians and constructions was considered, and static floor fields in a multi-level exit environment were simplified into cabin and exit static floor fields. Compared with the traditional cellular automata model, the multi-grid model enhanced the continuity of the passengers’ track and the precision of the boundary qualifications. The functions of the dislocation distribution of passengers as well as partial overlap of tracks due to congestion were realized. Furthermore, taking the typical cabin environment as an example, the two models were used to analyze passenger evacuation under the same conditions. It was found that the laws of passenger evacuation simulated by the two models are similar, while the simulation’s authenticity and accuracy are enhanced by the multi-grid model.

Zhen Shang, Changhua Qiu and Shifan Zhu
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 3): 347-357
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Applying man-machine-environment system engineering (MMESE) in vessels is a method to improve the effectiveness of the interaction between equipment, environment, and humans for the purpose of advancing operating efficiency, performance, safety, and habitability of a vessel and its subsystems. In the following research, the life cycle of vessels was divided into 9 phases, and 15 research subjects were also identified from among these phases. The 15 subjects were systemized, and then the man-machine-environment engineering system application model for vessels was developed using the ICAM definition method 0 (IDEF0), which is a systematical modeling method. This system model bridges the gap between the data and information flow of every two associated subjects with the major basic research methods and approaches included, which brings the formerly relatively independent subjects together as a whole. The application of this systematic model should facilitate the application of man-machine-environment system engineering in vessels, especially at the conceptual and embodiment design phases. The managers and designers can deal with detailed tasks quickly and efficiently while reducing repetitive work.

Zhenhua Xu, Jianguo Huang, Hai Huang and Qunfei Zhang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 3): 358-363
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In order to solve the distributed detection fusion problem of underwater target detection, when the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the acoustic channel is low, a new strategy for united detection fusion and communication using multiple sensors was proposed. The performance of detection fusion was studied and compared based on the Neyman-Pearson principle when the binary phase shift keying (BPSK) and on-off keying (OOK) modes were used by the local sensors. The comparative simulation and analysis between the optimal likelihood ratio test and the proposed strategy was completed, and both the theoretical analysis and simulation indicate that using the proposed new strategy could improve the detection performance effectively. In theory, the proposed strategy of united detection fusion and communication is of great significance to the establishment of an underwater target detection system.

Danzhu Yu, Xiongliang Yao and Shaoshi Dai
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 3): 364-370
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Experiments involving a sonar platform with a sound absorption wedge were carried out for the purpose of obtaining the low frequency acoustic characteristics. Acoustic characteristics of a sonar platform model with a sound absorption wedge were measured, and the effects of different wedge laid areas on platform acoustic characteristic were tested. Vibration acceleration and self-noise caused by model vibration were measured in four conditions: 0%, 36%, 60%, and 100% of wedge laid area when the sonar platform was under a single frequency excitation force. An experiment was performed to validate a corresponding numerical calculation. The numerical vibration characteristics of platform area were calculated by the finite element method, and self-noise caused by the vibration in it was predicted by an experiential formula. The conclusions prove that the numerical calculation method can partially replace the experimental process for obtaining vibration and sound characteristics.

Tiedong Zhang, Wenjing Zeng and Lei Wan
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2011(No. 3): 371-376
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A method of underwater simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) based on forward-looking sonar was proposed in this paper. Positions of objects were obtained by the forward-looking sonar, and an improved association method based on an ant colony algorithm was introduced to estimate the positions. In order to improve the precision of the positions, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) was adopted. The presented algorithm was tested in a tank, and the maximum estimation error of SLAM gained was 0.25 m. The tests verify that this method can maintain better association efficiency and reduce navigation error.