Journal of Marine Science and Application 2015 No. 3
Chunyu Guo1, Qi Zhang1,2, Yu Shen1
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2015(No. 3): 225-233
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The scale effect leads to large discrepancies between the wake fields of model-scale and actual ships, and causes differences in cavitation performance and exciting forces tests in predicting the performance of actual ships. Therefore, when test data from ship models are directly applied to predict the performance of actual ships, test results must be subjected to empirical corrections. This study proposes a method for the reverse design of the hull model. Compared to a geometrically similar hull model, the wake field generated by the modified model is closer to that of an actual ship. A non-geometrically similar model of a Korean Research Institute of Ship and Ocean Engineering (KRISO)’s container ship (KCS) was designed. Numerical simulations were performed using this model, and its results were compared with full-scale calculation results. The deformation method of getting the wake field of full-scale ships by the non-geometrically similar model is applied to the KCS successfully.

Pu Liang1, Ming Hongand Zheng Wang1,2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2015(No. 3): 234-243
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In this paper, the vibration characteristics of the structure in the finite fluid domain are analyzed using a coupled finite element method. The added mass matrix is calculated with finite element method (FEM) by 8-node acoustic fluid elements. The vibration characteristics of the structure in the finite fluid domain are calculated combining structure FEM mass matrix. By writing relevant programs, the numerical analysis on vibration characteristics of a submerged cantilever rectangular plate in finite fluid domain and loaded ship model is performed. A modal identification experiment for the loaded ship model in air and in water is conducted and the experiment results verify the reliability of the numerical analysis. The numerical method can be used for further research on vibration characteristics and acoustic radiation problems of the structure in the finite fluid domain.

Md. Shamim Mahmud
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2015(No. 3): 244-249
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Centrifugal forces are commonly created when ships turn, which may cause a ship to capsize in a critical situation. A mathematical model has been developed to optimize the stability coefficients for ship, with the aim to prevent capsizing and to increase ship maneuverability in high-speed water craft. This model can be used to develop algorithms for control system improvement. The mathematical model presented in this paper optimized the use of multipurpose hydrofoils to reduce heeling and the trimming moment, maintaining an upright ship’s position and lessening the resistance via transverse force. Conventionally, the trimming and heeling of a ship are controlled using ballast water; however, under variable sea conditions it is sometimes difficult to control a ship’s motion using ballast water. In this case, a hydrofoil would be more stable and maneuverable than a ballast tank controlled vessel. A movable hydrofoil could theoretically be adapted from moveable aerofoil technology. This study proves the merit of further investigation into this possibility.

Arpan Kumar Mondal, Pankaj Biswas, Swarup Bag
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2015(No. 3): 250-260
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Submerged arc welding (SAW) is advantageous for joining high thickness materials in large structure due to high material deposition rate. The non-uniform heating and cooling generates the thermal stresses and subsequently the residual stresses and distortion. The longitudinal and transverse residual stresses and angular distortion are generally measured in large panel structure of submerged arc welded fillet joints. Hence, the objective of this present work is to quantify the amount of residual stress and distortion in and around the weld joint due to positioning of stiffeners tack. The tacking sequence influences the level of residual stress and proper controlling of tacking sequences is required to minimize the stress. In present study, an elasto-plastic material behavior is considered to develop the thermo mechanical model which predicts the residual stress and angular distortion with varying tacking sequences. The simulated result reveals that the tacking sequence heavily influences the residual stress and deformation pattern of the single sided fillet joint. The finite element based numerical model is calibrated by comparing the experimental data from published literature. Henceforth, the angular distortions are measured from an in-house developed experimental set-up. A fair agreement between the predicted and experimental results indicates the robustness of the developed numerical model. However, the most significant conclusion from present study states that tack weld position should be placed opposite to the fillet weld side to minimize the residual stress.

Reza Ghazangian1, Mehdi Shafieefar1, Roozbeh Panahi1, Mohammad R. Allahyar2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2015(No. 3): 261-269
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The objective of this paper is to introduce an appropriate unidirectional wave spectrum model for the Strait of Hormuz. The research is focused on assessing performance of standard wave spectrum models in the region. By evaluating such models based on valuable measurement data recently published, the calibration procedure has been conducted on such standard models to reach a better concordance between a modified standard spectral model and observed field spectra. The calibration is performed initially with respect to four distinct directions related to four available measurement stations. So, it results in four sets of coefficients for a nominated model. Next, it is continued to reach just one model insensitive to directions. Results clearly showed that the International Towing Tank Conference (ITTC) model is more appropriate than Joint North Sea Wave Project (JONSWAP) and Pierson and Moskowitz (PM) models in this area, even without any calibration. However, modifications have been successful on improving the conformity of the model.

Dilip Das
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2015(No. 3): 270-282
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There is a large class of problems in the field of fluid structure interaction where higher-order boundary conditions arise for a second-order partial differential equation. Various methods are being used to tackle these kind of mixed boundary-value problems associated with the Laplace’s equation (or Helmholtz equation) arising in the study of waves propagating through solids or fluids. One of the widely used methods in wave structure interaction is the multipole expansion method. This expansion involves a general combination of a regular wave, a wave source, a wave dipole and a regular wave-free part. The wave-free part can be further expanded in terms of wave-free multipoles which are termed as wave-free potentials. These are singular solutions of Laplace’s equation or two-dimensional Helmholz equation. Construction of these wave-free potentials and multipoles are presented here in a systematic manner for a number of situations such as two-dimensional non-oblique and oblique waves, three dimensional waves in two-layer fluid with free surface condition with higher order partial derivative are considered. In particular, these are obtained taking into account of the effect of the presence of surface tension at the free surface and also in the presence of an ice-cover modelled as a thin elastic plate. Also for limiting case, it can be shown that the multipoles and wave-free potential functions go over to the single layer multipoles and wave-free potential.

Qingchang Meng, Zhihong Zhang, Jubin Liu
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2015(No. 3): 283-289
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To deal with the effect of compressible fluids on the supercavitating flow over the subsonic disk cavitator of a projectile, a finite volume method is formulated based on the ideal compressible potential theory. By using the continuity equation and Tait state equation as well as Riabouchinsky closure model, an “inverse problem” solution is presented for the supercavitating flow. According to the impenetrable condition on the surface of supercavity, a new iterative method for the supercavity shape is designed to deal with the effect of compressibility on the supercavity shape, pressure drag coefficient and density field. By this method, the very low cavitation number can be computed. The calculated results agree well with the experimental data and empirical formula. At the subsonic condition, the fluid compressibility will make supercavity length and radius increase. The supercavity expands, but remains spheroid. The effect on the first 1/3 part of supercavity is not obvious. The drag coefficient of projectile increases as the cavitation number or Mach number increases. With Mach number increasing, the compressibility is more and more significant. The compressibility must be considered as far as the accurate calculation of supercavitating flow is concerned.

Zhaobing Jiang1, Luzhong Shao2, Fei Shao1
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2015(No. 3): 290-301
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To simulate the dynamic responses of the multibody system with a floating base when the upper parts spread with a certain sequence and relative speed, the homogeneous matrix method is employed to model and simulate a four-body system with a floating base and the motions are analyzed when the upper parts are spread sequentially or synchronously. The rolling, swaying and heaving temporal variations are obtained when the multibody system is under the conditions of the static water along with the wave loads and the mean wind loads or the single pulse wind loads, respectively. The moment variations of each joint under the single pulse wind load are also gained. The numerical results showed that the swaying of the floating base is almost not influenced by the spreading time or form when the upper parts spread sequentially or synchronously, while the rolling and the heaving mainly depend on the spreading time and forms. The swaying and heaving motions are influenced significantly by the mean wind loads. The single pulse wind load also has influences on the dynamic responses. The torque of joint 3 and joint 4 in the single pulse wind environment may be twice that in the windless environment when the system spreads with 60 s duration.

Seyed Shahab Emamzadeh1, Mohammad Taghi Ahmadi2, Soheil Mohammadi3, Masoud Biglarkhani4
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2015(No. 3): 302-315
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In this paper, an investigation into the propagation of far field explosion waves in water and their effects on nearby structures are carried out. For the far field structure, the motion of the fluid surrounding the structure may be assumed small, allowing linearization of the governing fluid equations. A complete analysis of the problem must involve simultaneous solution of the dynamic response of the structure and the propagation of explosion wave in the surrounding fluid. In this study, a dynamic adaptive finite element procedure is proposed. Its application to the solution of a 2D fluid-structure interaction is investigated in the time domain. The research includes: a) calculation of the far-field scatter wave due to underwater explosion including solution of the time-depended acoustic wave equation, b) fluid-structure interaction analysis using coupled Euler-Lagrangian approach, and c) adaptive finite element procedures employing error estimates, and re-meshing. The temporal mesh adaptation is achieved by local regeneration of the grid using a time-dependent error indicator based on curvature of pressure function. As a result, the overall response is better predicted by a moving mesh than an equivalent uniform mesh. In addition, the cost of computation for large problems is reduced while the accuracy is improved.

Liping Sun, Youwei Kang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2015(No. 3): 316-326
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A subsea flowline jumper (FJ) is a basic connected component for the wet oil tree, subsea pipeline and riser base, and it plays an irreplaceable role in the subsea production system. During the installation of FJ, collisions often happen between FJ and other equipment, which may cause serious damage. Besides, as the operating water depth increases, the demand for the installation equipments, such as the crane and winch, will increase. The research of deepwater FJ installation in China is still in the primary stage, thus an installation method for the deepwater FJ is proposed in this paper. Finite element models of a typical M-shaped FJ installation system are built to simulate the installation procedures. Analysis results show that the installation steps designed are feasible and valid for the deepwater FJ. In order to ensure the safety of the installation process, the collision-sensitive analysis for the FJ is conducted, and results show that it is necessary to set the pick up speed at a proper value, in order to avoid collision in the installation process. Besides, the mechanical characteristics of FJ during the installation are investigated under a range of environmental conditions and it is found that the maximum stress of the FJ always happens at its central position. The basic requirements for the installation equipment are also obtained through the analysis of the main installation steps.

Vahid Vahidpour, Amir Rastegarnia, Azam Khalili
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2015(No. 3): 327-333
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This paper proposes a new method for ship recognition and classification using sound produced and radiated underwater. To do so, a three-step procedure is proposed. First, the preprocessing operations are utilized to reduce noise effects and provide signal for feature extraction. Second, a binary image, made from frequency spectrum of signal segmentation, is formed to extract effective features. Third, a neural classifier is designed to classify the signals. Two approaches, the proposed method and the fractal-based method are compared and tested on real data. The comparative results indicated better recognition ability and more robust performance of the proposed method than the fractal-based method. Therefore, the proposed method could improve the recognition accuracy of underwater acoustic targets.

Parviz Ghadimi1, Alireza Bolghasi1, Mohammad A. Feizi Chekab1, Rahim Zamanian2
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2015(No. 3): 334-342
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It is the traditional belief that sound transmission from water to the air is very weak due to a large contrast between air and water impedances. Recently, the enhanced sound transmission and anomalous transparency of air-water interface have been introduced. Anomalous transparency of air-water interface states that the sound generated by a submerged shallow depth monopole point source localized at depths less than 1/10 sound wavelength, can be transmitted into the air with omni-directional pattern. The generated sound has 35 times higher power compared to the classical ray theory prediction. In this paper, sound transmission through air-water interface for a localized underwater shallow depth source is examined. To accomplish this, two-phase coupled Helmholtz wave equations in two-phase media of air-water are solved by the commercial finite element based COMSOL Multiphysics software. Ratios of pressure amplitudes of different sound sources in two different underwater and air coordinates are computed and analyzed against non-dimensional ratio of the source depth (D) to the sound wavelength (λ). The obtained results are compared with the experimental data and good agreement is displayed.