Journal of Marine Science and Application 2015 No. 2
Parviz Ghadimi, Alireza Bolghasi and Mohammad A. Feizi Chekab
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2015(No. 2): 113-125
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In this paper, sound scattering from the sea surface in the Persian Gulf region is investigated. Chapman-Harris and Ogden-Erskine empirical relations coupled with perturbation theory are implemented. Based on the Ogden and Erskine’s experiments, sound scattering from the sea surface has three different regimes in which two mechanisms of surface roughness and subsurface bubble clouds are involved. Ogden-Erskine’s scattering relation which consists of perturbation theory and Chapman-Harris’s scattering terms are verified by the experimental data of Critical Sea Tests 7. Subsequently, wind speed in the Persian Gulf is provided based on three data bases of Arzanah station, ERA40, and PERGOS. Accordingly, surface scattering strength in the Persian Gulf region is calculated at different grazing angles, frequencies and provided wind speeds. Based on the resulted values of scattering strength, scattered intensity from the sea surface is also studied. These studies indicate that both scattering strength and scattered intensity generally increase as grazing angle, frequency and wind speed increase.

Rajdeep Maiti, Uma Basu and B. N. Mandal
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2015(No. 2): 126-137
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In this paper, a method to construct oblique wave-free potentials in the linearised theory of water waves for water with uniform finite depth is presented in a systematic manner. The water has either a free surface or an ice-cover modelled as a thin elastic plate. For the case of free surface, the effect of surface tension may be neglected or taken into account. Here, the wave-free potentials are singular solutions of the modified Helmholtz equation, having singularity at a point in the fluid region and they satisfy the conditions at the upper surface and the bottom of water region and decay rapidly away from the point of singularity. These are useful in obtaining solutions to oblique water wave problems involving bodies with circular cross-sections such as long horizontal cylinders submerged or half-immersed in water of uniform finite depth with a free surface or an ice-cover modelled as a floating elastic plate. Finally, the forms of the upper surface related to the wave-free potentials constructed here are depicted graphically in a number of figures to visualize the wave motion. The results for non-oblique wave-free potentials and the upper surface wave-free potentials are obtained. The wave-free potentials constructed here will be useful in the mathematical study of water wave problems involving infinitely long horizontal cylinders, either half-immersed or completely immersed in water.

Kang Ren and Shili Sun
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2015(No. 2): 146-155
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The free surface flow generated by twin-cylinders in forced motion submerged beneath the free surface is studied based on the boundary element method. Two relative locations, namely, horizontal and vertical, are examined for the twin cylinders. In both cases, the twin cylinders are starting from rest and ultimately moving with the same constant speed through an accelerating process. Assuming that the fluid is inviscid and incompressible and the flow to be irrotational, the integral Laplace equation can be discretized based on the boundary element method. Fully-nonlinear boundary conditions are satisfied on the unknown free surface and the moving body surface. The free surface is traced by a Lagrangian technique. Regriding and remeshing are applied, which is crucial to quality of the numerical results. Single circular cylinder and elliptical cylinder are calculated by linear method and fully nonlinear method for accuracy checking and then fully nonlinear method is conducted on the twin cylinder cases, respectively. The generated wave elevation and the resultant force are analysed to discuss the influence of the gap between the two cylinders as well as the water depth. It is found that no matter the kind of distribution, when the moving cylinders are close to each other, they suffer hydrodynamic force with large absolute value in the direction of motion. The trend of force varying with the increase of gap can be clearly seen from numerical analysis. The vertically distributed twin cylinders seem to attract with each other while the horizontally distributed twin cylinders are opposite when they are close to each other.

Smrutiranjan Mohapatra
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2015(No. 2): 156-162
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The scattering of oblique incident surface waves by the edge of a small cylindrical deformation on a porous bed in an ocean of finite depth, is investigated here within the framework of linearized water wave theory. Using perturbation analysis, the corresponding problem governed by modified Helmholtz equation is reduced to a boundary value problem for the first-order correction of the potential function. The first-order potential and, hence, the reflection and transmission coefficients are obtained by a method based on Green’s integral theorem with the introduction of appropriate Green’s function. Consideration of a patch of sinusoidal ripples shows that when the quotient of twice the component of the incident field wave number along x-direction and the ripple wave number approaches one, the theory predicts a resonant interaction between the bed and the free-surface, and the reflection coefficient becomes a multiple of the number of ripples. Again, for small angles of incidence, the reflected energy is more as compared to the other angles of incidence. It is also observed that the reflected energy is somewhat sensitive to the changes in the porosity of the ocean bed. From the derived results, the solutions for problems with impermeable ocean bed can be obtained as particular cases.

Shengtao Chen, Jingjun Zhong and Peng Sun
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2015(No. 2): 163-169
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The surface wave generated by flow around a ship hull moving near free surface of water is simulated numerically in this study. The three-dimensional implicit finite volume method (FVM) is applied to solve Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation. The realizable k-ε turbulence model has been implemented to capture turbulent flow around the ship hull in the free surface zone. The volume of fluid (VOF) method coupled with the Stokes wave theory has been used to determine the free surface effect of water. By using is a six degrees of freedom model, the ship hull’s movement is numerically solved with the Stokes wave together. Under the action of Stokes waves on the sea, the interface between the air and water waves at the same regular pattern and so does the pressure and the vertical velocity. The ship hull moves in the same way as the wave. The amplitude of the ship hull’s heave is less than the wave height because of the viscosity damping. This method could provide an important reference for the study of ships’ movement, wave and hydrodynamics.

Yong Zhao, Zhi Zong, Li Zou and Tianlin Wang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2015(No. 2): 170-174
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In this paper, a numerical study of flow in the turbulence boundary layer with adverse and pressure gradients (APGs) is conducted by using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. This research chooses six typical turbulence models, which are critical to the computing precision, and to evaluating the issue of APGs. Local frictional resistance coefficient is compared between numerical and experimental results. The same comparisons of dimensionless averaged velocity profiles are also performed. It is found that results generated by Wilcox (2006) k-ω are most close to the experimental data. Meanwhile, turbulent quantities such as turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds-stress are also studied.

Montasir Osman Ahmed, Anurag Yenduri and V. J. Kurian
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2015(No. 2): 189-195
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The dynamic responses of any floating platform are dependent on the mass, stiffness and damping characteristics of the body as well as mooring system. Therefore, it is very essential to study the effect of individual contributions to the system that can finally help to economise their cost. This paper focuses on the effect of mooring stiffness on the responses of a truss spar platform, obtained by different grouping of lines. The study is part of our present researches on mooring systems which include the effect of line pretension, diameter and azimuth angles. The platform is modelled as a rigid body with three degrees-of-freedom and its motions are analyzed in time-domain using the implicit Newmark Beta technique. The mooring lines restoring force-excursion relationship is evaluated using a quasi-static approach. It is observed that the mooring system with lines arranged in less number of groups exhibits better performance in terms of the restoring forces as well as mean position of platform. However, the dynamic motions of platform remain unaffected for different line groups.

Y. G. Chen, J. Liu, L. F. Zhu, Z. M. Tan and G. Karabelas
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2015(No. 2): 196-201
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This paper presents an analytical scheme for predicting the collapse strength of a flexible pipe, which considers the structural interaction between relevant layers. The analytical results were compared with a FEA model and a number of test data, and showed reasonably good agreement. The theoretical analysis showed that the pressure armor layer enhanced the strength of the carcass against buckling, though the barrier weakened this effect. The collapse strength of pipe was influenced by many factors such as the inner radius of the pipe, the thickness of the layers and the mechanical properties of the materials. For example, an increase in the thickness of the barrier will increase contact pressure and in turn reduce the critical pressure.

Xiukun Li, Mingye Liu and Shu Jiang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2015(No. 2): 202-207
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In this paper, a new method based on morphologic research named reconstruction cross-component removal(RCCR) is developed to analyze geometrical scattering waves of an underwater target. Combining the origin of the cross-component in Wigner-Ville distribution, the highlight model of target echoes and time-frequency features of linear frequency-modulated signal can remove cross-components produced by multiple component signals in Wigner-Ville distribution and recover the auto-components of output signals. This method is used in experimental data processing, which can strengthen the real geometric highlights, and restrain the cross components. It is demonstrated that this method is helpful to analyze the geometrical scattering waves, providingan effective solution to underwater target detection and recognition.