Journal of Marine Science and Application 2014 No. 4
Sandip Paul and Soumen De
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2014(No. 4): 355-361
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The scattering of plane surface waves by bottom undulations in channel flow consisting of two layers is investigated by assuming that the bed of the channel is composed of porous material. The upper surface of the fluid is bounded by a rigid lid and the channel is unbounded in the horizontal directions. There exists only one wave mode corresponding to an internal wave. For small undulations, a simplified perturbation analysis is used to obtain first order reflection and transmission coefficients in terms of integrals involving the shape function describing the bottom. For sinusoidal bottom undulations and exponentially decaying bottom topography, the first order coefficients are computed. In the case of sinusoidal bottom the first order transmission coefficient is found to vanish identically. The numerical results are depicted graphically in a number of figures.

Sandip Paul and Soumen De
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2014(No. 4): 355-361
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The scattering of plane surface waves by bottom undulations in channel flow consisting of two layers is investigated by assuming that the bed of the channel is composed of porous material. The upper surface of the fluid is bounded by a rigid lid and the channel is unbounded in the horizontal directions. There exists only one wave mode corresponding to an internal wave. For small undulations, a simplified perturbation analysis is used to obtain first order reflection and transmission coefficients in terms of integrals involving the shape function describing the bottom. For sinusoidal bottom undulations and exponentially decaying bottom topography, the first order coefficients are computed. In the case of sinusoidal bottom the first order transmission coefficient is found to vanish identically. The numerical results are depicted graphically in a number of figures.

Santu Das and Swaroop Nandan Bora
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2014(No. 4): 362-376
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Oblique ocean wave damping by a vertical porous structure placed on a multi-step bottom topography is studied with the help of linear water wave theory. Some portion of the oblique wave, incident on the porous structure, gets reflected by the multi-step bottom and the porous structure, and the rest propagates into the water medium following the porous structure. Two cases are considered: first a solid vertical wall placed at a finite distance from the porous structure in the water medium following the porous structure and then a special case of an unbounded water medium following the porous structure. In both cases, boundary value problems are set up in three different media, the first medium being water, the second medium being the porous structure consisting of p vertical regions-one above each step and the third medium being water again. By using the matching conditions along the virtualvertical boundaries, a system of linear equations is deduced. The behavior of the reflection coefficient and the dimensionless amplitude of the transmitted progressive wave due to different relevant parameters are studied. Energy loss due to the propagation of oblique water wave through the porous structure is also carried out. The effects of various parameters, such as number of evanescent modes, porosity, friction factor, structure width, number of steps and angle of incidence, on the reflection coefficient and the dimensionless amplitude of the transmitted wave are studied graphically for both cases. Number of evanescent modes merely affects the scattering phenomenon. But higher values of porosity show relatively lower reflection than that for lower porosity. Oscillation in the reflection coefficient is observed for lower values of friction factor but it disappears with an increase in the value of friction factor. Amplitude of the transmitted progressive wave is independent of the porosity of the structure. But lower value of friction factor causes higher transmission. The investigation is then carried out for the second case, i.e., when the wall is absent. The significant difference between the two cases considered here is that the reflection due to a thin porous structure is very high when the solid wall exists as compared to the case when no wall is present. Energy loss due to different porosity, friction factor, structure width and angle of incidence is also examined. Validity of our model is ascertained by matching it with an available one.

Norman Del Puppo
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2014(No. 4): 377-387
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The numerical simulation of wake and free-surface flow around ships is a complex topic that involves multiple tasks: the generation of an optimal computational grid and the development of numerical algorithms capable to predict the flow field around a hull. In this paper, a numerical framework is developed aimed at high-resolution CFD simulations of turbulent, free-surface flows around ship hulls. The framework consists in the concatenation of “tools”, partly available in the open-source finite volume library OpenFOAM?. A novel, flexible mesh-generation algorithm is presented, capable of producing high-quality computational grids for free-surface ship hydrodynamics. The numerical frame work is used to solve some benchmark problems, providing results that are in excellent agreement with the experimental measures.

Yong Zhao, Tianlin Wang and Zhi Zong
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2014(No. 4): 388-393
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As a basic problem in many engineering applications, transition from laminar to turbulence still remains a difficult problem in computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A numerical study of one transitional flow in two-dimensional is conducted by Reynolds averaged numerical simulation (RANS) in this paper. Turbulence model plays a significant role in the complex flows’ simulation, and four advanced turbulence models are evaluated. Numerical solution of frictional resistance coefficient is compared with the measured one in the transitional zone, which indicates that Wilcox (2006) k-ω model with correction is the best candidate. Comparisons of numerical and analytical solutions for dimensionless velocity show that averaged streamwise dimensionless velocity profiles correct the shape rapidly in transitional region. Furthermore, turbulence quantities such as turbulence kinetic energy, eddy viscosity, and Reynolds stress are also studied, which are helpful to learn the transition’s behavior.

Tao Zhang, Yong’ou Zhang, Huajiang Ouyang and Tao Guo
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2014(No. 4): 394-401
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The effect of a guide vane installed at the elbow on flow-induced noise and vibration is investigated in the range of Reynolds numbers from 1.70?105 to 6.81?105, and the position of guide vane is determined by publications. The turbulent flow in the piping elbow is simulated with large eddy simulation (LES). Following this, a hybrid method of combining LES and Lighthill’s acoustic analogy theory is used to simulate the hydrodynamic noise and sound sources are solved as volume sources in code Actran. In addition, the flow-induced vibration of the piping elbow is investigated based on a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) code. The LES results indicate that the range of vortex zone in the elbow without the guide vane is larger than the case with the guide vane, and the guide vane is effective in reducing flow-induced noise and vibration in the 90° piping elbow at different Reynolds numbers.

Parviz Ghadimi, Sasan Tavakoli, Abbas Dashtimanesh and Arya Pirooz
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2014(No. 4): 402-415
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Recently, Morabito (2010) has studied the water spray phenomena in planing hulls and presented new analytical equations. However, these equations have not been used for detailed parametric studies of water spray around planing hulls. In this paper, a straight forward analysis is conducted to apply these analytical equations for finding the spray geometry profile by developing a computer program based on presented computational process. The obtained results of the developed computer program are compared against existing data in the literature and favorable accuracy is achieved. Parametric studies have been conducted for different physical parameters. Positions of spray apex are computed and three dimensional profiles of spray are examined. It is concluded that spray height increases by an increase in the speed coefficient or the deadrise angle. Ultimately, a computational process is added to Savitsky’s method and variations of spray apex are computed for different velocities. It is shown that vertical, lateral, and longitudinal positions of spray increase as the craft speed increases. On the other hand, two new angles are defined in top view and it is concluded that they have direct relation with the trim angle. However, they show inverse relation with the deadrise angle.

Peng Zhang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2014(No. 4): 416-421
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The high-speed digital imaging technique is applied to observe the developing process of flash boiling spray of dimethyl ether at low ambient pressure, and the effects of nozzle opening pressure and nozzle hole diameter on the spray shape, spray tip penetration and spray angle during the injection are investigated. The experimental results show that the time when the vortex ring structure of flash boiling spray forms and its developing process are determined by the combined action of the bubble growth and breakup in the spray and the air drag on the leading end of spray; with the enhancement of nozzle opening pressure, the spray tip penetration increases and the spray angle decreases. The influence of nozzle hole diameter on the spray tip penetration is relatively complicated, the spray tip penetration is longer with a smaller nozzle hole diameter at the early stage of injection, while the situation is just opposite at the later stage of injection. This paper establishes that the variation of spray angle is consistent with that of nozzle hole diameter.

Hassan Bagheri and Hassan Ghassemi
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2014(No. 4): 422-429
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The research performed in this paper was carried out to investigate the computational procedure to design seakeeping optimized ship hull form. To reach the optimized hull form, four stages should be done, which consists of: generate alternative hull form, seakeeping calculations, objective functions and optimization techniques. There are many parameters that may be determined in ship hull form optimization. This paper deals with developed strip theory for determining the seakeeping performance, genetic algorithm (GA) as optimization method, high order equations for curve fitting of the hull form and finally reaching to the minimum bow vertical motion in regular head waves. The Wigley hull is selected as an initial hull and carried to be optimized. Two cases are considered. For the first case, the only form coefficients of the hull (CB, CM, CW, CP) are changed and main dimensions (L, B, T) are fixed. In the second case both hull form and main dimensions are varied simultaneously. Finally, optimized hull form and its seakeeping performances are presented. The results of optimization procedure demonstrate that the optimized hull forms yield a reduction in vertical motion and acceleration.

Yan Lin, Yanyun Yu and Guan Guan
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2014(No. 4): 430-436
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This paper describes the characteristics of liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers briefly. The LNG carrier includes power plant selection, vapor treatment, liquid cargo tank type, etc. Two parameters—fuel substitution rate and recovery of boil of gas (BOG) volume to energy efficiency design index (EEDI) formula are added, and EEDI formula of LNG carriers is established based on ship EEDI formula. Then, based on steam turbine propulsion device of LNG carriers, mathematical models of LNG carriers’ reference line value are established in this paper. By verification, the EEDI formula of LNG carriers described in this paper can provide a reference for LNG carrier EEDI calculation and green shipbuilding.

Hongyang Chen, Qi Li and Dejiang Shang
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2014(No. 4): 437-448
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In order to predict acoustic radiation from a structure in waveguide, a method based on wave superposition is proposed, in which the free-space Green’s function is used to match the strength of equivalent sources. In addition, in order to neglect the effect of sound reflection from boundaries, necessary treatment is conducted, which makes the method more efficient. Moreover, this method is combined with the sound propagation algorithms to predict the sound radiated from a cylindrical shell in waveguide. Numerical simulations show the effect of how reflections can be neglected if the distance between the structure and the boundary exceeds the maximum linear dimension of the structure. It also shows that the reflection from the bottom of the waveguide can be approximated by plane wave conditionally. The proposed method is more robust and efficient in computation, which can be used to predict the acoustic radiation in waveguide.

Jiayu Qian, Liping Sun and Linfeng Song
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2014(No. 4): 449-454
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In order to provide a theoretical guide for choosing the material for the hawsers for the FPSO side-by-side offloading system, which is moored by the yoke system, the 3D potential flow theory and full coupled time-domain analysis are presented to study the dynamic response of the offloading system. The MingZhu FPSO offloading system in the field BZ25-1 is simulated here; and four different characteristic fiber ropes are used as the material for the hawsers. To acquire an accurate hawser line tension, the polynomial fitting method is used to calculate the nonlinear stiffness of the hawsers. By comparing the hawser lines’ tension and the relative motion between the FPSO and the shuttle tanker, a suitable material for the hawser lines is chosen and discussed in this paper. The results indicate that the nonlinear stiffness characteristic of the fiber rope has a small effect on the relative motion of the vessels, but the hawser lines’ tension is greatly influenced by the different characteristics of the fiber ropes. The hawser lines’ tension with nonlinear stiffness is in accordance with the one with the upper and lower bound linear stiffness, which proves this method of fitting the fiber ropes’ nonlinear stiffness is reasonable and reliable.

S. Palraj, G. Subramanian and S. Palanichamy
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2014(No. 4): 455-461
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The galvanic corrosion behaviour of aluminium 3004 - ? brass with different area ratios was studied in the tropical marine atmosphere at Tuticorin harbour over a period of 426 days. The area ratios, viz. AAluminium:A? brass, studied were 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8. The galvanic corrosion behaviour of the metals was studied in terms of the relative increase in the corrosion rate of aluminium due to galvanic coupling with ? brass, the relative decrease in the corrosion rate of ? brass due to galvanic coupling with aluminium, and the susceptibility of aluminium to pitting owing to galvanic coupling with ? brass. The galvanic potential and galvanic current of the system were monitored. Pits of different dimensions ranging from mild etchings to perforations were experienced on the borders and the surfaces of the interface of aluminium in contact with ? brass. The corrosion products resulting from galvanic corrosion were analysed using XRD and the pitting on aluminium as a result of galvanic corrosion was highlighted in terms of pit depth, size and density of pit, using a high resolution microscope. The most favourable area ratio of aluminium - ? brass in marine atmosphere in terms of gravimetric corrosion rate is 8:1 and the most unfavourable area ratio of aluminium - ? brass is 1:4.

Hailong Chen, Ji Li, Conglai Long, Tong Wei, Guoqing Ning, Jun Yan and Zhuangjun Fan
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2014(No. 4): 462-466
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This work presents NiS/graphene/carbon nanotube (NiS/GNS/CNT) composites as electrode material for the supercapacitor application in sea flashing signal systems. NiS nanosheets were closely anchored on the conductive GNS-CNT networks. As a result, the NiS/GNS/CNT electrode showed a high specific capacitance of 2 377 F?g-1 at 2 mV?s-1 and good cycling stability compared with the pure NiS (1 599 F?g-1). The enhanced electrochemical performances are attributed to the synergetic effect between the conductive carbon and the pseudo-capacitive NiS. The high performance supercapacitor may provide application in the sea flashing signal system.

Ahmadreza Vasel-Be-Hagh, Rupp Carriveau and David S-K Ting
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2014(No. 4): 467-476
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An LES simulation of flow over an accumulator unit of an underwater compressed air energy storage facility was conducted. The accumulator unit consists of three touching underwater balloons arranged in a floral configuration. The structure of the flow was examined via three dimensional iso surfaces of the Q criterion. Vortical cores were observed on the leeward surface of the balloons. The swirling tube flows generated by these vortical cores were depicted through three dimensional path lines. The flow dynamics were visualized via time series snapshots of two dimensional vorticity contours perpendicular to the flow direction; revealing the turbulent swinging motions of the aforementioned shedding-swirling tube flows. The time history of the hydrodynamic loading was presented in terms of lift and drag coefficients. Drag coefficient of each individual balloon in the floral configuration was smaller than that of a single balloon. It was found that the total drag coefficient of the floral unit of three touching balloons, i.e. summation of the drag coefficients of the balloons, is not too much larger than that of a single balloon whereas it provides three times the storage capacity. In addition to its practical significance in designing appropriate foundation and supports, the instantaneous hydrodynamic loading was used to determine the frequency of the turbulent swirling-swinging motions of the shedding vortex tubes; the Strouhal number was found to be larger than that of a single sphere at the same Reynolds number.

Changzhong Man, Chong Wang and Jinyu Yao
Journal of Marine Science and Application,2014(No. 4): 477-483
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Heat transfer enhancement is used in many applications including heat exchangers, air conditioning, and refrigeration systems; hence many researchers have conducted experimental and numerical researches on heat transfer enhancement and have developed various techniques and methods. As a passive heat transfer technique, twisted tapes are widely used in various industries for their cost savings, lower maintenance requirements and the fact that they are easily set up. This paper introduces the principle of heat transfer enhancement of twisted tapes and reviews some of the experimental works done by researchers on this technique in recent years. The variously modified twisted tape inserts are widely researched and used to enhance heat transfer efficiency for heat exchangers. Twisted tapes perform better in low Re conditions and in square tubes. However, they could also cause higher pressure drops. Twisted tapes have great potential and profound implications if they can be used in traditional heat exchangers. Besides this, some correlations between the Nusselt number and friction factors are presented in this paper.