|Table of Contents|

 Tatiana Pais,Marco Gaiotti,Cesare Mario Rizzo.A Quick and Practical Approach for Concept-design of Submerged Thin-walled Stiffened Cylinders[J].Journal of Marine Science and Application,2022,(3):138-154.[doi:10.1007/s11804-022-00280-z]
Click and Copy

A Quick and Practical Approach for Concept-design of Submerged Thin-walled Stiffened Cylinders


A Quick and Practical Approach for Concept-design of Submerged Thin-walled Stiffened Cylinders
Tatiana Pais Marco Gaiotti Cesare Mario Rizzo
Tatiana Pais Marco Gaiotti Cesare Mario Rizzo
University of Genova, Polytechnic School, DITEN, via Montallegro, I-16145 Genova, Italy
Submarines|Hull scantling|Concept/preliminary design|Limit state design|Buckling|Optimization|Thin-walled cylinders
Goal based and limit state design is nowadays a well-established approach in many engineering fields. Ship construction rules started introducing such concepts since early 2000. However, classification societies’ rules do not provide hints on how to verify limit states and to determine the structural layout of submerged thin-walled stiffened cylinders, whose most prominent examples are submarines. Rather, they generally offer guidance and prescriptive formulations to assess shell plating and stiffening members. Such marine structures are studied, designed and built up to carry payloads below the sea surface. In the concept-design stage, the maximum operating depth is the governing hull scantling parameter. Main dimensions are determined based on the analysis of operational requirements. This study proposes a practical concept-design approach for conceptual submarine design, aimed at obtaining hull structures that maximize the payload capacity in terms of available internal volume by suitably adjusting structural layout and stiffening members’ scantling, duly accounting for robustness and construction constraints as well as practical fabrication issues. The proposed scantling process highlights that there is no need of complex algorithms if sound engineering judgment is applied in setting down rationally the hull scantling problem. A systematic approach based on a computer-coded procedure developed on purpose was effectively implemented and satisfactorily applied in design practice.


Aguiari M, Gaiotti M, Rizzo CM (2021) A design approach to reduce hull weight of naval ships. Ship Technology Research 69(2):89-104. DOI:10.1080/09377255.2021.1947666
American Bureau of Shipping (2021) Rules for building and classing, Underwater vehicles, systems and hyperbaric facilities. American Bureau of Shipping, New York
ANEP (2012) Naval submarine code. International Naval Safety Association
Bijlaard PP (1957) Buckling under external pressure of cylindrical shells evenly stiffened by rings only. J. Aeronaut. Sci. 24(6):437-447.DOI:10.2514/8.3874
Bryant AR (1954) Hydrostatic pressure buckling of a ring-stiffened tube. Naval Construction Research Establishment (NCRE), Report No. 306
BSI 5500 (2009) British standard specification for unfired fusion welded pressure vessels. British Standards Institution
Bureau V (2016) Rules for the Classification of Naval Submarines. n.NR 535 DT R00 E, Paris
de Freitas ASN, Alvarez AA, Ramos R, de Barros EA (2020) Buckling analysis of an AUV pressure vessel with sliding stiffeners Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 8(7):515. DOI:10.3390/jmse8070515
Ding HX, Shen YC (2004) Approximate goal programming model for optimization design of submarine pressure hull structure. Chuan Bo Li Xue/Journal of Ship Mechanics 8(2):79-85
DNV (2018) Rules for classification naval vessels. Edition January 2018, Part 4 Sub-surface ships, Chapter 1 Submarines, Høvik, Norway
Dow R, Ashe G, Broekhuijsen J, Doig R, Fredriksen A, Imakita A, Jeon WS, Leguin JF, Liu JH, Pegg N, Silva S, Truelock DW, Viejo F (2012) ISSC Committee V.5:Naval Vessels, 2012. Proceedings of the 18th International Ship and offshore Structures Congress, Volume 2, Schiahrts-Verlag "Hansa" GmbH & Co. KG, Hamburg
ECCS (1988) Buckling of steel shells:European Recommendations. European Convention for Constructional Steelwork (ECCS), Brussels
Gaiotti M, Ghelardi S, Rizzo CM (2019) Dynamic buckling of composite mast panels of sail ships. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Marine Structures, Dubrovnik, Croatia, 391-399
Gaiotti M, Rizzo CM (2014) Dynamic buckling of masts of large sail ships. Ship & Offshore Structures 10(3):290-301.DOI:10.1080/17445302.2014.887175
Gannon L (2010) SSP74:Design of submarine structures. Defence Procurement Agency, Technical Memorandum Defence R&D Canada-Atlantic, TM 2010-246, Canada Ministry of National Defence
Graham D (2007) Predicting the collapse of externally pressurised ring-stiffened cylinders using finite element analysis. Marine Structures 20(4):202-217. DOI:10.1016/j.marstruc.2007.09.002
Hughes O, Paik JK (2010) Ship structural analysis and design. The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, Jersey City, NJ, United States
IMO (2015) Focus paper on GBS. International Maritime Organization, Available from https://fdocuments.net/document/focus-paperon-gbs.html[Accessed on Jun 22, 2022]
IMO (2013) Maritime Committee (MSC) document 78/6/2. International Maritime Organization, Available from www.imo.org[Accessed on Jun 22, 2022]
Kendrick S (1982) Design for external pressure using general criteria. International Journal of Mechanical Science 24(4), 209-218. DOI:10.1016/0020-7403(82)90075-3
Lloyds Register of Shipping (2021) Submarine assurance framework.
London, United Kingdom Mackay JR (2010) Experimental investigation of the strength of damaged pressure hulls-Phase 1. Available from https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/pdfs/ADA475270.pdf[Accessed on Jun 22, 2022]
MacKay JR, Smith MJ, van Keulen F, Bosman TN, Pegg NG (2010) Experimental investigation of the strength and stability of submarine pressure hulls with and without artificial corrosion damage. Marine Structures 23(3):339-359. DOI:10.1016/j.marstruc.2010.06.001
MacKay JR, van Keulen F, Smith MJ (2011) Quantifying the accuracy of numerical collapse predictions for the design of submarine pressure hulls. Thin-Walled Structures, 49(1):145-156. DOI:10.1016/j.tws.2010.08.015
Mansour A, Liu D (2008) The principles of naval architecture series. The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, Jersey City, NJ, United States
NASA (2019) Buckling of thin-Walled circular cylinders, national aeronautics and space administration. NASA Technical Report No SP-8007-2019 (REV). Langley Research Center, Virginia, United States
Pulos JG, Salerno VL (1961) Axisymmetric elastic deformations and stresses in a ring-stiffened, perfectly circular cylinrical shell under external hydrostatic pressure. David Taylor Model Basin Report
Putelat T, Triantafyllidis N (2014) Dynamic stability of externally pressurized elastic rings subjected to high rates of loading. International Journal of Solids and Structures 51(1):1-12. DOI:10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2013.08.002
Ross CTF (2011) Pressure vessels:external pressure technology. 2nd edition, Woodhead Publishing Ltd., Cambridge, UK, 355-360
Shiomitsu D, Yanagihara D (2020) Elastic local shell and stiffenertripping buckling strength of ring-stiffened cylindrical shells under external pressure. Thin-Walled Structures 148:106622. DOI:10.1016/j.tws.2020.106622
Sturm Rolland G (1941) A study of the collapsing pressure of thinwalled cylinders. University of Illinois Bulletin, No. 12, 7-76
Tokugawa T (1929) Model experiments on the elastic stability of closed and cross-stiffened circular cylinders under uniform external pressure. Proceedings of World Engineering Congress, Tokyo, 29, Paper No.651, 249-79, Nihon Kogakkai (Engineering Society of Japan)
von Mises R (1929) Der Kritische Aussendruk für Allseits belastete zylindrische Rohre. Festschrift zum 70 Geburtstag von prof. A. Stodola, STOnoLA-Festschr., Zürich, 418-430
von Sander K, Gunther K (1921) Über das Festigkeitsproblem querversteifter Hohlzylinder unter allseitig gleichmäßigem Außendruck. Werft und Reederei, 1(8, 9 und 10), 1920 and 2(17), 1921
Windenburg DF, Trilling C (1934) Collapse by instability of thin cylindrical shells under external pressure. http://hdl. handle. net/1721.3/48059[Accessed on Jun 22, 2022]


Received date:2022-03-12;Accepted date:2022-06-08。
Foundation item:Supported by the Italian Ministry of Defense-Segredifesa, in collaboration with Fincantieri under Grant of the ASAMS (Aspetti specialistici e approccio metodologico per progettazione di sottomarini di ultima generazione) project (2019-2022).
Corresponding author:Cesare Mario Rizzo,E-mail:cesare.rizzo@unige.it
Last Update: 2022-10-09