|Table of Contents|

 Vallam Sundar,Sannasi Annamalaisamy Sannasiraj,Sukanya Ramesh Babu,et al.Submerged Geosynthetic Reef as Shore Protection Measure for Islands[J].Journal of Marine Science and Application,2022,(1):128-139.[doi:10.1007/s11804-022-00256-z]
Click and Copy

Submerged Geosynthetic Reef as Shore Protection Measure for Islands


Submerged Geosynthetic Reef as Shore Protection Measure for Islands
Vallam Sundar1 Sannasi Annamalaisamy Sannasiraj1 Sukanya Ramesh Babu1 Dipak Kumar Maiti2
Vallam Sundar1 Sannasi Annamalaisamy Sannasiraj1 Sukanya Ramesh Babu1 Dipak Kumar Maiti2
1 Department of Ocean Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, India;
2 West Bengal State Fisheries Development Corporation Limited, Kolkata 700091, India
Island coastal erosionSubmerged reefTide dominant currentsSediment movementGeosynthetic materials
The Sagar Island, located north of the Bay of Bengal, intercepts the flow in the Hoogly estuary that comprises a network of several estuarine distributaries and creeks, which is considered to be one of the largest estuarine systems in the world. The Hooghly River experiences a tidal range in the order of about 4 m, due to which the tide-generated currents drive the sediments which are continuously set in motion. The temple, Kapil Muni (21°38’15.35"N, 88°4’30.56"E) is located on the south-western side of Sagar Island, where an annual religious festival and rituals with about a million pilgrims is conducted. The pertinent erosion problem at a rate of about 5 m/year is prevalent at the site has considerably reduced the beach width, thereby, resulting in reduced space for religious as well as recreational activities along the coast. A novel cross-section for the proposed submerged reef using geosynthetic materials is designed considering the different sitespecific, environmental, and socio-economic conditions. The submerged reef can effectively be devised to redistribute the current circulation pattern and trap the sediment for beach restoration. The performance of such a structure depends on its geometrical and structural characteristics, the location of the reef (i. e.) the water depth at the toe, distance from the coastline, wave-structure interaction, sediment transport and local morpho dynamics. The aforesaid criteria were optimized using a numerical model which predicted the average residual velocity in the site to be in the order of about 1 m/s. Owing to logistical constraints geosynthetic materials had to be employed. The detailed design of such a system arrived through numerical modelling and field measurements are presented and discussed in this paper.


Aagaard T, Greenwood B, Nielsen J (1997) Mean currents and sediment transport in a rip channel. Marine Geology 140(1-2):25-45. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-3227(97)00025-X Abdul Khader MI, Rai SP (1980) A study of submerged breakwaters.Journal of Hydraulic Research 18(2):113-121. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221688009499555
Ackers P, White WR (1973) Sediment transport, new approach and analysis. Journal of the Hydraulic Division 99(11):2041-2060.https://doi.org/10.1061/JYCEAJ.0003791
Aminti P, Cammelli C, Cappietti C, Jackson NL, Nordstrom KF, Pranzini E (2004) Evaluation of beach response to submerged groin construction at Marina di Ronchi, Italy using field data and a numerical simulation model. Journal of Coastal Research (33):99-120. https://www.jstor.org/stable/25736248
Black K, Andrews C (2001) Sandy shoreline response to offshore obstacles:Part 1. Salient and tombolo geometry and shape.Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue 29 Natural and Artificial Reefs for Surfing and Coastal Protection, (29), 82-93.https://www.jstor.org/stable/25736207
Bowman D, Arad D, Rosen DS, Kit E, Goldbery R, Slavicz A (1988) Flow characteristics along the rip current system under lowenergy conditions. Marine Geology 82(3-4):149-167. https://doi.org/10.1016/0025-3227(88)90138-7
Brander RW, Short AD (2000) Morphodynamics of a large-scale rip current system at Muriwai Beach, New Zealand. Marine Geology 165(1-4):27-39. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-3227(00)00004-9
Cammelli C, Jackson NL, Nordstrom KF, Pranzini E (2006) Assessment of a gravel nourishment project fronting a seawall at Marina di Pisa, Italy. Journal of Coastal Research (39):770-775.https://www.jstor.org/stable/2574168
Cappietti L, Sherman DJ, Ellis JT (2013) Wave transmission and water setup behind an emergent rubble-mound breakwater.Journal of Coastal Research 29(3):694-705. https://doi.org/10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-12-00166.1
Cornett A, Mansard E, Funke E (1993) Wave transformation and load reduction using a small tandem reef breakwater-physical model tests. Ocean wave Measurement and Analysis, Proceedings of theInternationalConferenceonWaves-93,NewOrleans,1008-1023
Coghlan IR, Carley JT, Cox RJ, Blacka MJ, Mariani A, Restall S, Hornsey W, Sheldrick S (2009) Two-dimensional physical modelling of sand filled Geocontainers for coastal protection.Proceedings of Australasian Coasts and Ports Conference, Wellington, 295-301. https://search.informit.org/doi/10.3316/informit.862603013166460
Dattatri J, Sankar NJ, Raman H (1978) Performance characteristics of submerged breakwaters. Proceedings of the 16th Coastal Engineering Conference, Hamburg, Germany, 2153-2171. https://doi.org/10.1061/9780872621909.132
Dassanayake DT, Oumeraci H (2013) Hydraulic stability formulae and nomograms for coastal structures made of geotextile sand containers. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Asian and Pacific Coasts, Bali, Indonedia, 24-26.DOI:10.1142/9789914277426_0315
Fairley I, Davidson M, Kingston K (2009) The morpho-dynamics of a beach protected by detached breakwaters in a high energy tidal environment. Journal of Coastal Research, SI 56 (Proceedings of the 10th International Coastal Symposium):607-611.
Gallerano F, Cannata G, Palleschi F (2019) Hydrodynamic effects produced by submerged breakwaters in coastal area with a curvilinear shoreline. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 7(10):337. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7100337.
Gomes G, da Silva AC (2014) Coastal erosion case at Candeia Beach(NE-Brazil). Journal of Coastal Research 71(10071), 30-40. https://doi.org/10.2112/SI71-004.1
Groenewoud M, Van der Graaff J, Claessen E, Van der Beizen S (1996) Effect of submerged breakwater on profile development.
Proceedings 25th International Confernce on Coastal Engineering, Orlando, 2428-2441. https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784402429.188
Heerten G (1980) Long-term experiences with the use of synthetic filter fabrics in coastal Engineering. Proceedings of 17th International Conference on Coastal Engineering (ICCE), Sydney, Australia, 2174-2193. https://doi.org/10.1061/9780872622647.131
Heibaum M (2004) Cost effective construction methods using geosynthetic containers. Proceedings EuroGeo3-3rd European Geosynthetics Conference, München, 1-3.
Hervouet JM, Ata R (2017) User manual of open source software TELEMAC-2D. Technical Report, EDF-R&D. http://www.opentelemac.org/
Homma M, Horikawa K (1961) A study on submerged breakwaters.Coastal Engineering in Japan 4(1):85-102. http://doi.org/10.1080/05785634.1961.11924610
Hornsey WP, Carley JT, Coghlan IR, Cox RJ (2011) Geotextile sand container shoreline protection systems:Design and application. Geotextiles and Geomembranes 29(4):425-439. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geotexmem.2011.01.009
Hudson RY (1956) Laboratory investigation of rubble-mound breakwaters. Journal of the Waterways and Harbors Division 85(3):93-118. https://doi.org/10.1061/JWHEAU.0000142
Hunt Jr IA (1959) Design of seawalls and breakwaters. ASCE Journal of the Waterway and Harbours Division 85(3):123-152.https://doi.org/10.1061/JWHEAU.0000129
Jackson LA, Tomlinson R, McGrath J, Turner I (2002) Monitoring of a multi-functional submerged geotextile reef breakwater. Proceedings of 28th International Conference on Coastal Engineering, Cardiff, Wales, UK, 1923-1935. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789812791306_0162
Johnson JW, Fuchs RA, Morison JR (1951) The damping action of submerged breakwaters. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union 32(5):704-718. DOI:10.1029/TR032i005p00704
Klonaris GT, Metallinos AS, Memos CD, Galani KA (2019) Experimental and numerical investigation of bed morphology in the lee of porous submerged breakwaters. Coastal Engineering 155:103591. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2019.103591
Koerner G, Koerner R (2006) Geotextile tube assessment using a hanging bag test. Geotextiles and Geomembranes 24(2):129-137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geotexmem.2005.02.006
Kohlhase S (1997) Some aspects of the use of geotextiles in the field of coastal engineering. Proceedings of the first German-Chinese Joint Seminar-Recent Developments in Coastal Engineering, Hasenwinkel, Germany, 235-265
Lenze B, Heerten G, Saathoff F, Stelljes K (2002) Geotextile sand containers-Successful solutions against beach erosion at sandy coastsand scour problems under hydrodynamic loads. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference Littoral 2002, The Changing Coast. EUROCOAST/EUCC, Porto, Portugal, 375-381
Lokesha, Sannasiraj SA, Sundar V (2018) Experimental studies on hydrodynamic performance of an artificial reef. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference in Ocean Engineering(ICOE2018), Singapore, 23, 549-558. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-3134-3_41
MacMahan J, Thornton EB, Stanton TP, Reniers AJHM (2005) RIPEX:-rip currents on a shore-connected shoal beach. Marine Geology, 218(1):113-134. DOI:10.1016/j.margeo.2005.03.019
Mori E, D’eliso C, Aminti PL (2008) Physical modelling on geotextile sand container used for submerged breakwater. Proceedings of 2nd international Conference on the Application of Physical Modelling to Port and Coastal Protection, Coastlab08, Bari, Italy
Oumeraci H, Bleck M, Hinz M, Kübler S (2002b) Large-scale investigations into the hydraulic stability of geotextile sand containers under wave loading. Leichweiss-Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources, Report Nr. 878, Braunschweig, Germany (in German)
Oumeraci H, Bleck M, Hinz M, M?ller J (2002c) Theoretische Unter suchungenzur Anwendung geotextiler Sand containerim Küstenschutz ("Theoretical studies on the use of geotextile sand containers in coastal protection"). Leichweiss-Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources, Report Nr. 866, Braunschweig, Germany (in German)
Oumeraci H, Hinz M, Bleck M, Kortenhaus A (2003) Sand-filled geotextile containers for shore protection. Proceedings of 6th conference of Coastal and port Engineering in Developing Countries. COPEDEC VI, Colombo, Sri Lanka, 1-15
Ranasinghe R, Turner IL (2006) Shoreline response to submerged structures:A review. Coastal Engineering 53(1):65-79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2005.08.003
Ranasinghe R, Turner IL, Symonds G (2006) Shoreline response to multi-functional artificial surfing reefs:A numerical and physical modelling study. Coastal Engineering 53(7):589-611. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2005.12.004
Recio J (2007) Hydraulic stability of geotextile sand containers for coastal structures-effect of deformations and stability formulae.PhD thesis, Leichweiss-Institute for Hydraulic Engineering Water Resources, Braunschweig, Germany, 167-174. DOI:10.24355/dbbs.084-200802050100-0
Recio J, Oumeraci H, Mocke G (2010) Stability formula and numerical model for structures made with geotextile sand containers used for coastal stabilization. 2nd International Conference on Coastal Zone Engineering and Management (Arabian Coast 2010), Muscat, Oman
Shepard FP, Inman DL (1950) Nearshore circulation. Proceedings of the 1st Coastal Engineering Conference, New York, 50-59
Shin EC, Oh YI (2007). Coastal erosion prevention by geotextile tube technology. Geotextiles and Geomembranes 25(4-5):264-277. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geotexmem.2007.02.003
Short AD, Hogan CL (1994) Rip current and beach hazards:their impact on public safety and implications for coastal management.Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue 12, 197-209. https://www.jstor.org/stable/25735599
Sonu CJ (1972) Field observation of nearshore circulation and meandering currents. Journal of Geophysical Research 77(18):3232-3247. https://doi.org/10.1029/JC077i018p03232
Stauble DK, Tabar JT (2003) The use of submerged narrow-crested breakwaters for shoreline erosion control. Journal of Coastal.Research 19(3):684-722. https://www.jstor.org/stable/4299207
Thomalla F, Vincent CE (2003) Beach response to shore-parallel breakwaters at Sea Palling, Norfolk, U.K. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 56(2):203-212. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-7714(02)00157-9
Turner IL, Leyden VM, Cox RJ, Jackson LA, McGrath J (2001) Physical model study of the Gold Coast artificial reef. Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue 29:131-146. https://www.jstor.org/stable/25736211
Twu SW, Liu CC, Hsu WH (2001) Wave damping characteristics of deeply submerged breakwaters. ASCE Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering 127(2):97-105. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-950X(2001)127:2(97)
Van Rijn LC (1989) Handbook:sediment transport by currents and waves Tech. Report H 461, Delft Hydraulics Laboratory, The Netherlands U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (2006) Coastal engineering manual.
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, D.C. Wouters J (1998) Open Taludbekleidingen; Stabiliteit van Geosystems(Stability of Geosystems). Delft Hydraulics Report, No. H1930, Delft, The Netherlands


Received date: 2021-07-11;Accepted date: 2021-10-24。
Corresponding author:Vallam Sundar,E-mail:vsundar@iitm.ac.in
Last Update: 2022-04-22