|Table of Contents|

 Domenico Flagiello,Martina Esposito,Francesco Di Natale,et al.A Novel Approach to Reduce the Environmental Footprint of Maritime Shipping[J].Journal of Marine Science and Application,2021,(2):229-247.[doi:10.1007/s11804-021-00213-2]
Click and Copy

A Novel Approach to Reduce the Environmental Footprint of Maritime Shipping


A Novel Approach to Reduce the Environmental Footprint of Maritime Shipping
Domenico Flagiello1 Martina Esposito1 Francesco Di Natale1 Kent Salo2
Domenico Flagiello1 Martina Esposito1 Francesco Di Natale1 Kent Salo2
1. The Sustainable Technologies for Pollution Control Laboratory, Department of Chemical, Materials and Industrial Production Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, P. le V. Tecchio, 80, 80125 Naples, Italy;
2. Department of Mechanics and Maritime Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Lindholmen Hörselgången, 4, 412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden
Ships environmental footprintExhaust gas cleaning systemWashwater emissionsMarine distillate fuelsMarine seawater scrubberPersistent pollutants
Maritime shipping is a strategic sector with a strong international vocation and management. The need to define regulations valid for many different countries without generating disparities of treatment slowed down the formulation of environmental regulations, especially for atmospheric emissions. In particular, regulations pertaining to the reduction of sulphur compounds allowed two distinct approaches:the use of low-sulphur fuels or exhaust gas cleaning systems, the so-called Scrubbers. The actual implementation of these solutions presents specific concerns either related to the toxicity of atmospheric by-products and to the fuel cost or to the generation of polluting washwaters that may need treatment before discharge. In this paper we analyzed the potential environmental benefit deriving from the use of a distillate fuel, not compliant with current IMO Sulphur Regulations, together with a Scrubber. The pilot-scale experimental results indicated that a limited amount of water and/or scrubber volume is needed to reduce sulphur emissions below regulations on maritime shipping, especially with the addition of NaOH reaching a water-saving between 25%-33% compared to the use of pure seawater. Experiments indicated that scrubber washwater PAHs emissions are within the available water quality standards indicated by EU and USA guidelines. A bottom-up analysis on heavy metals concentration shed light on the prominent role of metal-parts corrosion on the washwater emissions. Taking into account for corrosion phenomena, the actual heavy metals concentration in the washwater deriving from scrubbing was normally below the water quality standards.


Anderson M, Salo K, Hallquist ÅM, Fridell E (2015) Characterization of particles from a marine engine operating at low loads. Atmos Environ 101:65-71
Andreasen A, Mayer S (2007) Use of seawater scrubbing for SO2 removal from marine engine exhaust. Energy Fuels 21:3274-3279. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef700359w
Carnival Corporation & PLC (2019). Compilation and Assessment of Lab Samples from EGCS Washwater Discharge on Carnival ships. DNV-GL, and Carnival Corporation. Available from http://media.corporate-ir.net/media_files/IROL/14/140690/Carnival-DNVGL_Washwater_Analysis_2018.pdf[Accessed on Feb. 2019]
Carotenuto C, Di Natale F, Lancia A (2010) Wet electrostatic scrubbers for the abatement of submicronic particulate. Chem Eng J 165:35-45
Darake S, Hatamipour MS, Rahimi A, Hamzeloui P (2016) SO2 removal by seawater in a spray tower:Experimental study and mathematical modeling. Chem Eng Res Des 109:180-189
Derwent RG, Stevenson DS, Doherty RM, Collins WJ, Sanderson MG, Johnson CE, Cofala J, Mechler R, Amann M, Dentener FJ (2005) The contribution from shipping emissions to air quality and acid deposition in Europe. Ambio 34:54-59
Di Natale F, Carotenuto C (2015) Particulate matter in marine diesel engines exhausts:Emissions and control strategies. Transp Res Part D:Transp Environ 40:166-191
Di Natale F, Carotenuto C, D’Addio L, Jaworek A, Krupa A, Szudyga M, Lancia A (2015) Capture of fine and ultrafine particles in a wet electrostatic scrubber. J Environ Chem Eng 3:349-356. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2014.11.007
Di Natale F, Carotenuto C, Manna L, Esposito M, La Motta F, D’Addio L, Lancia A (2016) Water electrified sprays for emission control in energy production processes. Int J Heat Technol 34:S597-S602
Di Natale F, La Motta F, Carotenuto C, Tammaro M, Lancia A (2018) Condensational growth assisted Venturi scrubber for soot particles emissions control. Fuel Process Technol 175:77-89
Di Natale F, Carotenuto C, Caserta S, Troiano M, Manna L, Lancia A (2019a) Experimental evidences on the chemi-electro-hydrodynamic absorption of sulphur dioxide in electrified water sprays. Chem Eng Res Des 146:249-262
Di Natale F, Carotenuto C, Parisi A, Lancia A (2019b). Enhancing the efficiency of a seawater-based FGD process using induction charging sprays. Proceedings of the 42nd ASICI, Ravenna, 38-43
Di Natale F, Carotenuto C, Sippula O, Gregory D (2020a). A bottom-up evaluation of the contribution of marine traffic on particle concentrations in a Mediterranean coastal area:Effects of fuel quality and exhaust gas cleaning systems. Atmosphere, Special Issue "Air Quality and Sustainable Development of Urban Agglomerations in the Mediterranean Area:Science, Technology and Policies, in press
Di Natale F, Carotenuto C, Parisi A, Lancia A (2020b) Absorption of sulphur dioxide by electrosprayed droplets. The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering 98:1989-1997
Dulière V, Baetens K, Lacroix G (2020) Potential impact of wash water effluents from scrubbers on water acidification in the southern North Sea. Operation Directorate Natural Environment Technical Report No. 21-04-2020. Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels Belgium
Endres S, Maes F, Hopkins F, Houghton K, Mårtensson EM, Oeffner J, Quack B, Singh P, Turner D (2018) A new perspective at the ship-air-sea-interface:The environmental impacts of exhaust gas scrubber discharge. Front Mar Sci 5:1-13
Eyring V, Köhler HW, Lauer A, Lemper B (2005) Emissions from international shipping:2. Impact of future technologies on scenarios until 2050. J Geophys Res D:Atmos 110:183-200
Federal Ministry for the Environment Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety Germany (2004). Promulgation of the New Version of the Ordinance on Requirements for the Discharge of Waste Water into Waters (Waste Water Ordinance-AbwV). Available from https://www.bmu.de/fileadmin/bmu-import/files/pdfs/allgemein/application/pdf/wastewater_ordinance.pdf[Accessed on June 17 2004]
Flagiello D, Di Natale F, Erto A, Lancia A (2017). Marine diesel engine flue gas desulphurization by seawater scrubbing in a structured packing absorption column. Proceedings of the 40th ASICI, Rome, 1-6
Flagiello D, Erto A, Lancia A, Di Natale F (2018a) Experimental and modelling analysis of seawater scrubbers for sulphur dioxide removal from flue-gas. Fuel 214:254-263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2017.10.098
Flagiello D, Di Natale F, Carotenuto C, Erto A, Lancia A (2018b) Seawater desulphurization of simulated flue gas in spray and packed columns:An experimental and modelling comparison. Chem Eng Trans 69:799-804
Flagiello D, Lancia A, Erto A, Di Natale F (2019a). Desulphurization of combustion flue-gases by Wet Oxidation Scrubbing (WOS). Proceedings of the 42th ASICI, Ravenna, 5-10
Flagiello D, Parisi A, Lancia A, Carotenuto C, Erto A, Di Natale F (2019b) Seawater desulphurization scrubbing in spray and packed columns for a 4.35 MW marine diesel engine. Chem Eng Res Des 148:56-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cherd.2019.05.057
Flagiello D (2020). Enhanced seawater scrubbing for fue-gas cleaning. PhD thesis, University of Naples, Federico II
Flagiello D, Di Natale F, Lancia A, Erto A (2020a) Characterization of mass transfer coefficients and pressure drops for packed towers with Mellapak 250.X. Chem Eng Res Des 161:340-356. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cherd.2020.06.031
Flagiello D, Di Natale F, Erto A, Lancia A (2020b) Wet oxidation scrubbing (WOS) for flue-gas desulphurization using sodium chlorite seawater solutions. Fuel 277:118055. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2020.118055
Flagiello D, Erto A, Lancia A, Di Natale F (2020c). Dataset of wet desulphurization scrubbing in a column packed with Mellapak 250.X. Data in Brief, 33:106383 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.106383
Gregory D, Confuorto N (2012). A practical guide to exhaust gas cleaning systems for the maritime industry. Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems Association (EGCSA), London, UK, Technical Report No. 01-2012
Ha TH, Nishida O, Fujita H, Wataru H (2010) Enhancement of diesel particulate matter collection in an electrostatic water-spraying scrubber. J Mar Sci Technol 15:271-279
Hufnagl M, Liebzeit G, Behrends B (2005) Effects of Seawater Scrubbing Technical Report No. 03-2020. Research Centre Terramare, Schleusenstrass, Germany
Iliuta I, Larachi F (2001) Mechanistic model for structured-packing-containing columns:Irrigated pressure drop, liquid holdup, and packing fractional wetted area. Ind Eng Chem Res 40:5140-5146
Iliuta I, Larachi F (2019) Modeling and simulations of NOx and SO2 seawater scrubbing in packed-bed columns for marine applications. Catalysts 9:489
Iliuta I, Iliuta MC (2019) Modeling of SO2 seawater scrubbing in countercurrent packed-bed columns with high performance packings. Sep Purif Technol 226:162-180. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2019.05.078
International Maritime Organization (2019). MEPC 74/INF.10:pollution prevention and response scrubber environmental impact literature review submitted by Panama
International Maritime Organization (2006). MEPC 55/4/5:prevention of air pollution from ships-washwater criteria guidelines for exhaust gas cleaning systems-SOx (EGCS-SOx) Units
International Maritime Organization (2008). RESOLUTION MEPC.176(58):amendments to the Annex of the Protocol of 1997 to amend the International Convention for the Prevention of pollution from the ship, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating Thereto (Revised MARPOL Annex VI)
International Maritime Organization (2015) Guidelines for exhaust gas cleaning systems (MEPC.259(68))
Italian Official Gazette n. 88-suppl. ord. n. 96. (2006a). D.Lgs. 152/06-Norme in materia ambientale. Available from https://www.gazzettaufficiale.it/eli/gu/2006/04/14/88/sg/pdf[Accessed on April 14 2006]
Italian Official Gazette n. 88-suppl. ord. n. 96. (2006b). D. Lgs 152/06 (Parte terza, Allegato 5, Tabella 3)-Valori limiti di emissioni in acque superficiali e in fognatura. Available from http://bresciacaffaro.it/images/documenti_da_scaricare/inquinamento/VALORI-LIMITI-DI-EMISSIONE-IN-ACQUE-SUPERFICIALI-E-IN-FOGNATURA.PDF[Accessed on April 14 2006]
Kjølholt J, Aakre S, Jürgensen C, Lauridsen J (2012) Assessment of possible impacts of scrubber water discharges on the marine environment. Danish EPA Technical Report No. 1431. Danish Ministry of the Environment, København
Kuang M, Wang J, Hu X, Yang G (2020) Seawater/Seawater cascade-scrubbing desulfurization performance for exhaust gas of a 162-kW marine diesel engine. Journal of Environmental Engineering (united States) 146:1-11
Lange B, Markus T (2015) Impacts of Scrubbers on the environmental situation in ports and coastal waters. FEA Technical Report No. (UBA-FB) 002015/E. Federal Environment Agency, Germany
Lee K, Tong LT, Millero FJ, Sabine CL, Dickson AG, Goyet C, Park GH, Wanninkhof R, Feely RA, Key RM (2006) Global relationships of total alkalinity with salinity and temperature in surface waters of the world’s oceans. Geophys Res Lett 33:1-5
Lehtoranta K, Aakko-Saksa P, Murtonen T, Vesala H, Ntziachristos L, Rönkkö T, Karjalainen P, Kuittinen N, Timonen H (2019) Particulate mass and nonvolatile particle number emissions from marine engines using low-sulfur fuels, natural gas, or scrubbers. Environ Sci Technol 53:3315-3322
Liu JJ, Wang F, Liu H, Wei YB, Li H, Yue J, Que J, Degenhardt L, Lappin J, Lu L, Bao Y, Wang J (2019) Association of ambient fine particulate matter with increased emergency ambulance dispatches for psychiatric emergencies:a time-series analysis. The Lancet 394:S7. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)32343-8
Oeder S, Kanashova T, Sippula O, Sapcariu SC, Streibel T, Arteaga-Salas JM, Passig J, Dilger M, Paur H, Schalger C, Mülhopt S, Diabaté S, Weiss C, Stengel B, Rabe R, Harndorf H, Torvela T, Jokineimi JK, Hirvonen M, Schmidt-Weber C, Tradl-Hoffmann C, BéruBé K, Wlodarczyk AJ, Prytherch Z, Michalke B, Krebs T, Prévôt A, Kelbg M, Tiggesbäumker J, Karg E, Jakobi G, Scholtes S, Kreis J, Lintelmann J, Matuschek G, Sklorz M, Klingbeil S, Orasche J, Richthammer P, Müller L, Elsasser M, Reda A, Gröger T, Weggler B, Schwemer T, Czech H, Rüger C, Abbaszade G, Radischat R, Hiller K, Buters J, Dittmar G, Zimmerman R (2015) Particulate matter from both heavy fuel oil and diesel fuel shipping emissions show strong biological effects on human lung cells at realistic and comparable in vitro exposure conditions. PLoS ONE 10:1-17
Reis H, Reis C, Sharip A, Reis W, Zhao Y, Sinclair R, Beeson L (2018) Diesel exhaust exposure, its multi-system effects, and the effect of new technology diesel exhaust. Environ Int 114:252-265
Rodríguez-Sevilla J, Álvarez M, Díaz MC, Marrero MC (2004) Absorption equilibria of dilute SO2 in seawater. J Chem Eng Data 49:1710-1716
Schmid O, Möller W, Semmler-Behnke M, Ferron GA, Karg E, Lipka J, Schulz H, Kreyling WG, Stoeger T (2009) Dosimetry and toxicology of inhaled ultrafine particles. Biomarkers 14:67-73
Schultes M, Brauer J, Chen P, Doong S (2018) Marinization of mass transfer columns for FLNG applications. Chem Eng Trans 69:301-306
Tang XJ, Li T, Yu H, Zhu YM (2014) Prediction model for desulphurization efficiency of onboard magnesium-base seawater scrubber. Ocean Eng 76:98-104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2013.11.009
Teuchies J, Cox TJS, Van Itterbeeck K, Meysman FJR, Blust R (2020) The impact of scrubber discharge on the water quality in estuaries and ports. Environ Sci Eur 32:103
Turner DR, Hassellöv IM, Ytreberg E, Rutgersson A (2017) Shipping and the environment:Smokestack emissions, scrubbers and unregulated oceanic consequences. Elementa 5:45
Turner DR, Edman M, Gallego-Urrea JA, Claremar B, Hassellöv IM, Omstedt A, Rutgersson A (2018) The potential future contribution of shipping to acidification of the Baltic Sea. Ambio 47:368-378
Wang J, Kuang M, Yang G, Hu X, Xu Y, Fan P (2019) Desulfurization performance comparison of a 162-kW marine diesel engine’s exhaust gas based on two kinds of alkaline liquid scrubbing models. Asia-Pac J Chem Eng 14:1-13
Wichmann HE (2007) Diesel exhaust particles. Inhalation Toxicol 19:241-244
Winnes H, Fridell E, Moldanová J (2020) Effects of marine exhaust gas scrubbers on gas and particle emissions. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 8:299
Ytreberg E, Hassellöv IM, Nylund AT, Hedblom M, Al-Handal AY, Wulff A (2019) Effects of scrubber washwater discharge on microplankton in the Baltic Sea. Mar Pollut Bull 145:316-324. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.05.023
Zetterdahl M, Moldanová J, Pei X, Pathak RK, Demirdjian B (2016) Impact of the 0.1% fuel sulfur content limit in SECA on particle and gaseous emissions from marine vessels. Atmos Environ 145:338-345


Received date:2020-10-30;Accepted date:2021-03-24。
Foundation item:Open access funding provided by Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II within the CRUI-CARE Agreement.
Corresponding author:Francesco Di Natale, francesco.dinatale@unina.it
Last Update: 2021-09-06