|Table of Contents|

 Maria Zetterdahl,Kent Salo,Erik Fridell,et al.Impact of Aromatic Concentration in Marine Fuels on Particle Emissions[J].Journal of Marine Science and Application,2017,(3):352-361.[doi:10.1007/s11804-017-1417-7]
Click and Copy

Impact of Aromatic Concentration in Marine Fuels on Particle Emissions


Impact of Aromatic Concentration in Marine Fuels on Particle Emissions
Maria Zetterdahl1 Kent Salo1 Erik Fridell12 Jonas Sjöblom3
Maria Zetterdahl1 Kent Salo1 Erik Fridell12 Jonas Sjöblom3
1. Department of Shipping and Marine Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden;
2. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, PO Box 5302, 400 14 Gothenburg, Sweden;
3. Department of Applied Mechanics, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden
aromaticsparticle emissionship emissionmarine fuelSECA
The fuel sulfur content in marine fuels has been regulated in Sulfur Emission Control Areas (SECAs) since January 2015. However, other fuel characteristics are also believed to have an impact on particle emissions, particularly on the number of particles emitted. This study investigates the impact of the content of aromatics in fuel. To achieve fuel blends with concentrations of aromatics similar to those found in marine fuel oils, i.e. 20%-30% by volume (%vol.), normal diesel oil (4%-5% vol. aromatics) is doped with a mixture of aromatics. Emission measurements are conducted in test-bed engine facilities and particle emissions over a wide size range are analyzed. Results show a decreased number of particles emitted (or not change) with an increase in the aromatic concentration in fuel. This is because there is a reduction in the cetane number of the fuel with an increased aromatic content, which effects the combustion process and results in decreased particle formation. However, when ignition improver is used to increase the cetane number, particle emissions remain at a lower level than for normal diesel oil; thereby emphasizing the presence of other factors in the formation of particles.


Ahlvik P, Ntziachristos L, Keskinen J, Virtanen A, 1998. Real time measurements of diesel particle size distribution with an electrical low pressure impactor. SAE Technical Paper Series, 980410.
Anderson M, Salo K, Hallquist, ÅM, Fridell E, 2015.Characterization of particles from a marine engine operating at low loads. Atmospheric Environment, 101, 65-71.
DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.11.009
Barone TL, Lall AA, Storey JME, Mulholland GW, Prikhodko VY, Frankland JH, Parks JE, Zachariah MR, 2011. Size-resolved density measurements of particle emissions from an advanced combustion diesel engine: effect of aggregate morphology.Energy & Fuels, 25(5), 1978-1988.
DOI: 10.1021/ef200084k Beecken J, 2015. Remote measurements of gas and particulate matter emissions from individual ships. PhD thesis, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
Boman J, 2009. Trace element analysis of urban aerosol particles using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Spectroscopy Europe, 21(6), 11-14.
Brem BT, Durdina L, Siegerist F, Beyerle P, Bruderer K, Rindlisbacher T, Rocci-Denis S, Andac MG, Zelina J, Penanhoat O, Wang J, 2015. Effects of fuel aromatic content on nonvolatile particulate emissions of an in-production aircraft gas turbine. Environmental Science & Technology, 49(22), 13149-13157.
DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.5b04167
Corbett JJ, Winebrake J, Green EH, Kasibhatla P, Eyring V, Lauer A, 2007. Mortality from ship emissions: a global assessment.Environmental Science & Technology, 41(24), 8512-8518.
Dekati, 2010. Dekati FPS-4000, Fine Particle Sampler. Tampere, Finland Den Ouden CJJ, Clark RH, Cowley LT, Stradling RJ, Lange WW, Maillard C, 1994. Fuel quality effects on particulate matter emissions from Light- and heavy duty diesel engines. SAE Technical Paper Series, 942022.
Diesch JM, Drewnick F, Klimach T, Borrmann S, 2013.Investigation of gaseous and particulate emissions from various marine vessel types measured on the banks of the Elbe in Northern Germany. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13(7), 3603-3618.
DOI: 10.5194/acp-13-3603-2013
Fukuda M, Tree DR, Foster DE, Suhre BR, 1992. The effect of fuel aromatic structure and content on direct injection diesel engine particulates. SAE Technical Paper Series, 920110.
Grimm Aerosol Technik GmbH & Co KG, 2010. Portable laser aerosol spectrometer and dust monitor model 1.108/1.109.Ainring, Germany.
Hart H, Craine LE, Hart DJ, 1999. Organic Chemistry, a Short Course. Stratton R, Blodget N, Eds. 10th ed. Houghton Mifflin Company, USA.
IMO, 2009. Revised MARPOL Annex VI and NOx Technical Code 2008: Regulations for the prevention of air pollution from ships.
IMO, 2013. MARPOL Annex VI and NTC 2008 with guidelines for implementation 2013 edition. London, UK.
Kasper A, Aufdenblatten S, Forss A, Mohr M, Burtscher H, 2007.Particulate emissions from a low-speed marine diesel engine.Aerosol Science and Technology, 41(1), 24-32.
DOI: 10.1080/02786820601055392
Kidoguchi Y, Yang C, Kato R, Miwa K, 2000. Effects of fuel cetane number and aromatics on combustion process and emissions of a direct-injection diesel engine. JSAE Review, 21, 469-475.
Kittelson DB, 1998. Engines and nanoparticles: a review. Journal of Aerosol Science, 29(5-6), 575-588.
DOI: 10.1016/s0021-8502(97)10037-4
Kivekäs N, Massling A, Grythe H, Lange R, Rusnak V, Carreno S, Skov H, Swietlicki E, Nguyen QT, Glasius M, Kristensson A, 2014. Contribution of ship traffic to aerosol particle concentrations downwind of major shipping lane. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14, 8255-8267.
DOI: 10.5194/acp-14-8255-2014
Lack DA, Cappa CD, Langridge J, Bahreini R, Buffaloe G, Brock C, Cerully K, Coffman D, Hayden K, Holloway J, Lerner B, Massoli P, Li SM, McLaren R, Middlebrook AM, Moore R, Nenes A, Nuaaman I, Onasch TB, Peischl J, Perring A, Quinn PK, Ryerson T, Schwartz JP, Spackman R, Wofsy SC, Worsnop D, Xiang B, Williams E, 2011. Impact of fuel quality regulation and speed reductions on shipping emissions: implications for climate and air quality. Environmental Science & Technology, 45(20), 9052-9060.
DOI: 10.1021/es2013424
Lack DA, Corbett JJ, Onasch T, Lerner B, Massoli P, Quinn PK, Bates TS, Covert DS, Coffman D, Sierau B, Herndon S, Allan J, Baynard T, Lovejoy E, Ravishankara AR, Williams E, 2009.
Particulate emissions from commercial shipping: Chemical, physical, and optical properties. Journal of Geophysical Research, 114, 2156-2202.
DOI: 10.1029/2008jd011300
Ladommatos N, Rubenstein P, Bennett P, 1996. Some effects of molecular structure of single hydrocarbons on sooting tendency.Fuel, 75(2), 114-124.
Lee R, Pedley J, Hobbs C, 1998. Fuel quality impact on heavy duty diesel emissions: a literature review. SAE Technical Paper Series, 982649.
Merico E, Donateo A, Gambaro A, Cesari D, Gregoris E, Barbaro E, Dinoi A, Giovanelli G, Masieri S, Contini D, 2016. Influence of in-port ships emissions to gaseous atmospheric pollutants and to particulate matter of different sizes in a Mediterranean harbour in Italy. Atmospheric Environment, 139, 1-10.
DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.05.024
Miyamoto N, Ogawa H, Shibuya M, 1991. Distinguishing the effects of aromatic content and ignitability of fuels in diesel combustion and emissions. SAE Technical Paper Series, 912355.
Neill SW, Chippior WL, Gülder ÖL, Cooley J, Richardson KE, Mitchell K, Fairbridge C, 2000. Influence of fuel aromatics type on the particulate matter and NOx emissions of a heavy-duty diesel engine. SAE Technical Paper Series, 2000-01-1856.
Olfert JS, Symonds JPR, Collings N, 2007. The effective density and fractal dimension of particles emitted from a light-duty diesel vehicle with a diesel oxidation catalyst. Journal of Aerosol Science, 38, 69-82.
Park K, Cao F, Kittelson D, McMurry PH, 2003. Relationship between particle mass and mobility for diesel exhaust particles.Environmental Science & Technology, 37(3), 577-583.
Pettersson JBC, Kovacevik B, Wagner A, Boman J, Laursen J, 2011.Elemental composition of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Skopje, FYR of Macedonia. X-Ray Spectrometry, 40, 280-288.
Siebers DL, 1999. Scaling liquid-phase fuel penetration in diesel sprays based on mixing-limited vaporization. SAE Technical Paper Series, 1999-01-0528.
Sjöblom, J, 2015. Combined effects of late IVC and EGR on low-load diesel combustion. SAE Int. J. Engines, 8(1), 60-67.
DOI: 10.4271/2014-01-2878
Stone R, 2012. Introduction to internal combustion engines. 4th ed.Palgrave Macmillan, England.
Svensson E, 2011. The regulation of global SOx emissions from ships. IMO Proceedings 1988-2008. (Licentiate of Philosophy), Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden, 11:127.
Symonds JPR, Reavell KSJ, Olfert JS, Campell BW, Swift SJ, 2007.Diesel soot mass calculation in real-time with a differential mobility spectrometer. Journal of Aerosol Science, 38, 52-68.
Tan P-q, Zhao J-y, Hu Z-y, Lou D-m, Du A-m, Du D-m, 2013.Effects of fuel properties on exhaust emissions from diesel engines. Journal of Fuel Chemistry and Technology, 41(3), 347-355.
DOI: 10.1016/s1872-5813(13)60021-3
Tree DR, Svensson KI, 2007. Soot processes in compression ignition engines. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 33(3), 272-309.
DOI: 10.1016/j.pecs.2006.03.002
TSI, 2006. Model 3090 Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer Spectrometer, Operation and Service Manual, P/N 1980494, Revision E.Retrieved from USA.
Tsurutani K, Takei Y, Fujimoto Y, Matsudaira J, Kumamoto M, 1995. The effects of fuel properties and oxygenates on diesel exhaust emissions. SAE Technical Paper Series, 952349.
Vermeire MB, 2012. Everything you need to know about marine fuels. Retrieved from Chevron Global Marine Products, Belgium.
Virtanen A, Ristimäki J, Marjamäki M, Vaaraslathi K, Keskinen J, 2002. Effective density of diesel exhaust particles as a function of size. SAE Technical Paper Series, 2002-01-0056.
Zannis TC, Hountalas DT, Papagiannakis RG, Levendis YA, 2008.Effect of fuel chemical structure and properties on diesel engine performance and pollutant emissions: review of the results of four European research programs. SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants, 1(1), 384-419.
Zhang T, Munch K, Denbratt I, 2015. An experimental study on the use of butanol or octanol blends in a heavy duty diesel engine.SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants, 8(3), 610-621.
DOI: 10.4271/2015-24-2491.


Received date: 2016-11-27;Accepted date:2017-04-17。
Corresponding author:Kent Salo,kent.salo@chalmers.se
Last Update: 2017-08-31