|Table of Contents|

 Diego Villa,Michele Viviani,Giorgio Tani,et al.Numerical Evaluation of Rudder Performance Behind a Propeller in Bollard Pull Condition[J].Journal of Marine Science and Application,2018,(2):153-164.[doi:10.1007/s11804-018-0018-4]
Click and Copy

Numerical Evaluation of Rudder Performance Behind a Propeller in Bollard Pull Condition


Numerical Evaluation of Rudder Performance Behind a Propeller in Bollard Pull Condition
Diego Villa Michele Viviani Giorgio Tani Stefano Gaggero Dario Bruzzone Carlo Bonvino Podenzana
Diego Villa Michele Viviani Giorgio Tani Stefano Gaggero Dario Bruzzone Carlo Bonvino Podenzana
Department of Electrical, Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering and Naval Architecture-DITEN, University of Genova, 16145 Genoa, Italy
Rudder-propeller interactionRANSBody forcesActuator diskBollard pull
Correct evaluation of rudder performance is a key issue in assessing ship maneuverability. This paper presents a simplified approach based on a viscous flow solver to address propeller and rudder interactions. Viscous flow solvers have been applied to this type of problems, but the large computational requests limit (or even prevent) their application at a preliminary ship design stage. Based on this idea, a simplified approach to include the propeller effect in front of the rudder is considered to speed up the solution. Based on the concept of body forces, this approach enables sufficiently fast computation for a preliminary ship design stage, thereby maintaining its reliability. To define the limitations of the proposed procedure, an extensive analysis of the simplified method is performed and the results are compared with experimental data presented in the literature. Initially, the reported results show the capability of the body-force approach to represent the inflow field to the rudder without the full description of the propeller, also with regard to the complex bollard pull condition. Consequently, the rudder forces are satisfactorily predicted at least with regard to the lift force. However, the drag force evaluation is more problematic and causes higher discrepancies. Nevertheless, these discrepancies may be accepted due to their lower influence on the overall ship maneuverability performance.


Abkowitz MA (1980) Measurement of hydrodynamic characteristics from ship maneuvering trials by system identifications. Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers SNAME Trans. 88 (1), Jersey City, NJ United States 283-318
Badoe CE, Phillips AB, Turnock SR (2015) Influence of drift angle on the computation of hull-propeller-rudder interaction. Ocean Eng 103(2015):64-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2015.04.059
Berger S, Druckenbrod M, Greve M, Abdel-Maksoud M, Greitsch L (2011) An efficient method for the investigation of propeller hull interaction. Proc.14th Numerical Towing Tank Symposium, Poole, United Kingdom
Bertram V (2002) Practical Ship Hydrodynamics. Buttherworth Heinemann. ISBN 0 7506 4851 1
Broglia R, Dubbioso G, Durante D, Di Mascio A (2013) Simulation of turning circle by CFD:analysis of different propeller models and their effect on manoeuvring prediction. Appl Ocean Res 39:1-10.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apor.2012.09.001
Bruzzone D, Gaggero S, Podenzana Bonvino C, Villa D, Viviani M (2014) Rudder-propeller interaction:analysis of different approximation techniques. In Proceedings of the 11th international conference on hydrodynamics ICHD 2014, Singapore, October 19-24 2014, pp. 230-239, ISBN:978-981-09-2175-0
Carlton J (2012) Marine propellers and propulsion. Butterworth-Heinemann. Print Book ISBN:9780080971230
Carlton J, Radosavljevic D, Whitworth S (2009) Rudder-propeller-hull interaction:the results of some recent research, In-Service Problems and Their Solutions First International Symposium on Marine Propulsors smp’09, Trondheim, Norway
CD-Adapco (n.d.) Star-CCM v.9 User manual. http://www.cd-adapco.com
Coraddu A, Dubbioso G, Mauro S, Viviani M (2013) Analysis of twin screw ships’ asymmetric propeller behaviour by means of free running model tests. Ocean Eng 68:47-64, ISSN:0029-8018, Elsevier.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2013.04.013
Crane LC, Eda H, Landsburg A (1989) Controllability. In:Principles of naval architecture. vol. 3. Editor:Edward V. Lewis, Published by The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers Jersey City, NJ ISBN No. 0-939773-02-3
Di Mascio A, Dubbioso G, Muscari R, Felli F (2015) CFD analysis of propeller-rudder interaction. Proceedings of the Twenty-fifth International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference Kona, Big Island, Hawaii, USA, June 21-26, 2015
Dubbioso G, Viviani M (2012) Aspects of twin screw ships semiempirical maneuvering models. Ocean Eng 48:69-80, ISSN 0029-8018, Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2012.03.007
Dubbioso G, Mauro S, Ortolani F, Martelli M, Nataletti M, Villa D, Viviani M (2015) Experimental and numerical investigation of asymmetrical behaviour of rudder/propeller for twin screw Ships. In International Conference on Marine Simulation and Ship Maneuverability MARSIM’15, September 8-11, Newcastle United kingdom
Durante D, Dubbioso G, Broglia R, Di Mascio A (2012) The turningcircle maneuver of a twin-screw vessel with different stern appendages configuration. 15th Numerical Towing Tank Symposium 7-9
October 2012 Cortona, Italy Felli M, Roberto C, Guj G (2009) Experimental analysis of the flow field around a propeller-rudder configuration. Exp Fluids 46(1):147-164.https://doi.org/10.1007/s00348-008-0550-0
Fujii H, Tuda T (1961) Experimental researches on rudder performance. J Soc Naval Architects Jpn 109:105-111. https://doi.org/10.2534/jjasnaoe1952.1960.107_105
Gaggero S, Villa D (2016) Steady cavitating propeller performance by using OpenFOAM, StarCCM+ and a boundary element method.Proc IMechE Part M J Eng Mar Environ 231(2):411-440. https://doi.org/10.1177/1475090216644280
Gaggero S, Villa D, Brizzolara S (2010) RANS and PANEL method for unsteady flow propeller analysis. J Hydrodyn 22(5 SUPPL.1):547-552. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-6058(09)60253-5
Gaggero S, Villa D, Viviani M, Rizzuto E (2014a) Ship wake scaling and effect on propeller performances. Developments in maritime transportation and exploitation of sea resources-Proceedings of IMAM 2013, 15th International Congress of the International Maritime Association of the Mediterranean Volume 1, 2014, Pages 13-21 15th International Congress of the International Maritime Association of the Mediterranean, IMAM 2013; A Coruna; Spain; 14-17 October 2013 ISBN:978-113800161-9
Gaggero S, Villa D, Viviani M (2014b) An investigation on the discrepancies between RANSE and BEM approaches for the prediction of marine propeller unsteady performances in strongly nonhomogeneous wakes. Proceedings of the International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering-OMAE Volume 2, 2014 ASME 2014 33rd International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, OMAE 2014; San Francisco;United States; 8 June 2014 through 13 June 2014; Code 109000.https://doi.org/10.1115/OMAE2014-23831
Gaggero S, Villa D, Viviani M (2015) The Kriso container ship (KCS) test case:an open source overview. MARINE 2015-Computational Methods in Marine Engineering VI 2015, Pages 735-749 6th International Conference on Computational Methods in Marine Engineering, MARINE 2015; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche(CNR)Rome; Italy; 15 June 2015 through 17 June 2015; ISBN:978-849439286-3
Gaggero S, Villa D, Viviani M (2017) An extensive analysis of numerical ship self-propulsion prediction via a coupled BEM/RANS approach.Appl Ocean Res 66:55-78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apor.2017.05.005ISSN:01411187
Han K (2008) Numerical optimization of hull/propeller/rudder configurations. Doctor Thesis, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden. ISBN 978-91-7385-111-4
Hochbaum AC (1998) Computation of the turbulent flow around a ship model in steady turn and in steady oblique motion. In:TwentySecond Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, August 9-14, Preprints, Washington DC. p 198-213
Katz J, Plotkin A (2001) Low-speed aerodynamics, vol 13. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge ISBN:9780521665520
Kim WJ, Van SH, Kim DH (2001) Measurement of flows around modern commercial ship models. Exp Fluids 31(5):567-578. https://doi.org/10.1007/s003480100332
Krasilnikov VI, Berg A, Oye IJ (2003) Numerical prediction of sheet cavitation on rudder and podded propellers using potential and viscous flow solutions. In Proc. of the 5th Int. Symposium on Cavitation-CAV, pp 1-4
Lee H, Kinnas SA, Gu H, Natarajan S (2003) Numerical modeling of rudder sheet cavitation including propeller/rudder interaction and the effects of a tunnel. In Fifth international symposium on cavitation (CAV2003), Osaka, Japan, Vol. 14
Liu J, Hekkenberg R (2016) Sixty years of research on ship rudders:effects of design choices on rudder performance. Ships Offshore Struct 12, 2017(4):495-512. https://doi.org/10.1080/17445302.2016.1178205
Molland AF, Turnock SR (1990) Wind tunnel tests results for a model ship propeller based on a modified Wageninghen B4.40. Ship Science Report No. 43 University of Southampton, Southampton United Kingdom, ISSN 0140-3818
Molland AF, Turnock SR (1992) Further wind tunnel tests on the influence of propeller loading on ship rudder performance. Ship Science Report No. 52 University of Southampton, Southampton United Kingdom, ISSN 0140-3818
Molland AF, Turnock SR (1993a) Wind tunnel tests on the influence of propeller loading on ship rudder performance:four quadrant operation, low and zero speed operation. Ship Science Report No. 64 University of Southampton, Southampton United Kingdom, ISSN 0140-3818
Molland AF, Turnock SR (1993b) Wind tunnel investigation of the influence of loading on a semi-balanced skeg. Ship Science Report No.48 University of Southampton, Southampton United Kingdom, ISSN 0140-3818
Molland AF, Turnock SR (2007) Marine rudders and control surfaces. 1st Edition p. 448 Butterworth-Heinemann, ISSN:9780750669443
Norrbin NH (1971) Theory and observations on the use of a mathematical model for ship manoeuvring in deep and confined waters. Technical Report No. p. 123, SSPA-Pub-68. Swedish State Shipbuilding Experimental Tank Goteborg
Rijpkema D, Starke B, Bosschers J (2013) Numerical simulation of propeller-hull interaction and determination of the effective wake field using a hybrid RANS-BEM approach. In Third International Symposium on Marin Propulsors-SMP2013, Launceston, Tasmania, Australia, May 2013
Shen HL, Su YM (2009) Study of propeller unsteady performance prediction in ship viscous non-uniform wake. J Hydrodyn (Ser. A) 2:017 ISSN:1000-4874
Sheng H, Xiang-yuan Z, Chun-yu G, Xin C (2007) CFD simulation of propeller and rudder performance when using additional thrust fins. J Mar Sci Appln 6(4):27-31. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11804-007-7023-3
Simonsen C (2000) Propeller-rudder interaction by RANS. Ph.D. Thesis.Department of Naval Architecture and Offshore Engineering, University of Denmark, Denmark, Lyngby April 2000. ISBN:87-89502-33-7
Simonsen CD, Stern F (2003) Verification and validation of RANS maneuvering simulation of Esso Osaka:effects of drift and rudder angle on forces and moments. Comput Fluids 32(10):1325-1356. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-7930(03)00002-1
Stern F, Kim HT, Zhang DH, Toda Y, Kerwin J, Jessup S (1994)Computation of viscous flow around propeller-body configurations:series 60 CB=60 ship model. J Ship Res 38(2):137 ISSN:00224502
Stern F, Agdrup K, Kim SY, Hochbaum AC, Rhee KP, Quadvlieg F, Perdon P, Hino T, Broglia R, Gorski J (2011) Experience from SIMMAN 2008-The first workshop on verification and validation of ship maneuvering simulation methods. J Ship Res 55(2):135-147 ISSN:00224502
Villa D, Gaggero S, Brizzolara S (2011) Simulation of ship in selfpropulsion with different CFD methods:From actuator disk to potential flow/RANS coupled solvers. RINA Royal Institution of Naval Architects-Developments in Marine CFD, London, pp 1-12
Wackers J, Deng G, Guilmineau E, Leroyer A, Queutey P, Visonneau M (2015) What is happening around the KVLCC2?. Proceedings of 18th Numerical Towing Tank Symposium 28-30 September 2015, Cortona, Italy
Wang C, Huang S, Xie XS (2008) Hydrodynamic performance prediction of some propeller based on CFD. J Nav Univ Eng 4:0-25


Received date:2017-03-29;Accepted date:2017-11-01。
Corresponding author:Diego Villa,diego.villa@unige.it
Last Update: 2018-10-11